Infobox Prime Minister
office=Prime Minister of Israel
6 July 1999
7 March 2001
birth_date =birth date and age|1942|2|12
Mishmar HaSharon, Mandate Palestine
Ehud Barak ( _he. אֵהוּד בָּרָק, born Ehud Brog on
12 February 1942) is an Israelipolitician, former Prime Minister, and current Minister of Defense, deputy prime minister and leader of Israel's Labor Party.
Barak served as the 10th
Prime Minister of Israelfrom 1999 to 2001. After losing the 2001 election, Barak embarked on a business career. On 12 June 2007 he completed a political comeback by winning the Labor Party leadership election. He was appointed as Minister of Defense, replacing outgoing party leader Amir Peretz.
Prior to his political career he served as an officer in the
Israel Defense Forces. Following a highly decorated career he was appointed the 14th Ramatkal(Head of General Staff) of the IDF.
Barak was born on
12 February 1942in kibbutz Mishmar HaSharonin Mandate Palestine. He is the eldest of four sons of Esther (née Godin) and Israel Brog. Ehud hebraized his family name from "Brog" to "Barak" in 1959, when he began his military service.
It was during his military service that he met his future wife, Naava. They had three daughters together. Ehud and Naava divorced in August 2003. On 30 July 2007 Ehud married Nili Priel in a small ceremony at his private residence.
Barak earned his
bachelor's degreein physicsand mathematicsfrom the Hebrew Universityin Jerusalemin 1968, and his master's degreein engineering-economic systems in 1978 from Stanford Universityin Palo Alto, California.
Ehud Brog joined the
Israel Defense Forces(IDF) in 1959. At that time he decided to change his name to "Barak", which means "lightning" or "shine" in Hebrew. He served in the IDF for 35 years, rising to the position of Chief of the General Staff and the rank of Rav Aluf, the highest in the Israeli military. During the Yom Kippur War, Barak commanded an improvised regiment of tanks which among other things, helped rescue paratrooper battalion 890 commanded by Yitzhak Mordechaiwho were suffering heavy losses in the Battle of the Chinese Farm.
During his service as a commando in the elite
Sayeret Matkal, Barak led several highly acclaimed operations, such as: " Operation Isotope", the rescue mission to free the hostages onboard Sabena Flight 572at Lod Airportin 1972; the 1973 covert mission Operation Spring of Youthin Beirut, in which he was disguised as a woman in order to assassinate members of the Palestine Liberation Organization; Barak was also a key architect of the June 1976 Operation Entebbe, another rescue mission to free the hostages of the Air Franceaircraft hijacked by terrorists and forced to land at the Entebbe Airport in Uganda. These highly acclaimed operations, along with Operation Bayonetled to the dismantling of Palestinian terrorist cell Black September and a decline in international terrorism for over 20 years Fact|date=October 2007. It has been alluded that Barak also masterminded the Tunis Raid on April 16, 1988, in which PLO leader Abu Jihadwas assassinated.
Later he served as head of Aman, the Military Intelligence Directorate (1983-1985), head of Central Command (1986 - 1987) and Deputy Chief of the General Staff (1987-1991). He served Chief of the General Staff between
April 1 1991and January 1 1995. During this period he implemented the first Oslo Accordsand participated in the negotiations towards the Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace.
Barak was awarded the
Medal of Distinguished Serviceand four Chief of Staff citations (Tzalash HaRamatcal) for courage and operational excellence. These five decorations make him the most decorated soldier in Israeli history (jointly with Nechemya Cohen). In addition he was awarded in 1993 the Legion of Merit(Commander) by the United States[ [http://www.dodmedia.osd.mil/DVIC_View/Still_Details.cfm?SDAN=DDSC0725582&JPGPath=/Assets/Still/2007/DoD/DD-SC-07-25582.jpgAn image of Barak receiving the award] on January 14 1993in The Pentagon. Note that according to IDF regulations foreign medals are not worn on the uniform.]
Barak is also an expert in
krav maga, the official martial artof the Israeli Defense Forces.
As a politician, Barak served as Minister of the Interior (1995) and then as Minister of Foreign Affairs (1995-1996). He was elected to the Knesset in 1996, where he served as a member of the
KnessetForeign Affairs and Defense Committee. In 1996 Barak became the leader of the Labor Party.
Ehud Barak was elected Prime Minister of Israel on
17 May 1999. When forming his coalition, Barak sparked controversy by deciding to form a coalition with the "haredi" party Shaswho had received an unprecedented 17 seats in the 120-seat Knesset. Shasgrudgingly agreed to Barak's terms that they eject their leader Aryeh Deri, a convicted felon, and enact reform to "clean up" in-party corruption. Consequentially, the left wing Meretzparty quit the coalition after they failed to agree on the powers to be given to a Shas deputy-minister in the Ministry of Education.
In 1999 Barak gave a campaign promise to end Israel's 22-year long occupation of
Southern Lebanonwithin a year. On May 24th, 2000 Israel withdrew from Southern Lebanon. On October the 7th, 2000, three Israeli soldiers were captured by Hezbollahand then subsequently killed. The bodies of these soldiers were eventually exchanged for Lebanese captives in 2004. Barak inaugurated peace negotiations with the PLO, which ultimately proved fruitless. Barak also took part in the Camp David 2000 Summitwhich was meant to finally resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflictbut failed. Barak, Prince Bandarof Saudi Arabia, and US president Bill Clintonplaced the blame on Yasser Arafat. Barak claimed he exposed "Arafat's true intentions"Fact|date=October 2007. Following the failure at Camp David, the Palestinian al-Aqsa Intifada(also known as the Second Intifada) erupted. Barak also allowed Foreign Minister Shlomo Ben-Amito attend the Taba Summitwith the leadership of the Palestinian Authority, after his government had fallen.
Barak was in power during the appointment of the
Tal committeewhich dealt with the controversial issue of "haredi" Jews' exemption from military service. Riots in October 2000 led to the killing of 12 Israeli-Arabs and 1 Palestinian by Israel Policeand one Israeli-Jewish civilian by Israeli Arabs.In 1999–2000, Israel experienced high growth rates (GDP) relative to the economy’s past performance and by international standards.
Post-Prime ministerial career
After losing the 2001 elections to
Ariel Sharon's Likudparty by a landslide, Barak left Israel to work as a senior advisor with U.S.-based Electronic Data Systems. He also partnered with a private equity company focused on "security-related" work.
In 2005, following his failed attempt to maintain leadership of the Labor party, Barak became a partner of the investment company SCP Private Equity Partners,
Pennsylvania. He established a company "Ehud Barak Limited" which is thought to have made over NIS 30 million. [ [http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/862924.html Ehud Barak Ltd] Haaretz]
Barak went on a public speaking tour of American colleges, expressing his view on the Middle East. During this tour in 2006, he said that “ [Iraq] gradually deteriorates to civil war [and] the US presence is more and more a part of the problem and not the solution." [ [http://campusj.com/2006/10/31/ehud-barak-speaks-on-the-war-on-terror-at-indiana-university/ Ehud Barak’s Speech at IU] from
Return to politics
In 2005, Barak announced his return to Israeli politics, and ran for leadership of the Labor Party in November. However, in light of his weak poll showings, Barak dropped out of the race early and declared his support for veteran statesman
After Peres lost the race to
Amir Peretzand left the Labor party, Barak announced he would stay at the party, despite his shaky relationship with its newly elected leader. He declared, however, that he would not run for a spot on the Labor party's Knessetlist for the March 2006 elections.
In January 2007 Barak launched a bid to recapture the leadership of the Labor party in a letter acknowledging "mistakes" and "inexperience" during his tenure as Prime Minister. [ [http://uk.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUKL0776362420070107 Former Israeli PM Barak in New Leadership Bid] Reuters, 7 January 2007] In early March of 2007, a poll of Labor Party primary voters put Barak ahead of all other opponents, including current leader
Amir Peretz. [ [http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/833154.html "Poll: Barak, Ayalon lead Peretz in the Labor leadership primaries"] Haaretz, 3 March 2007)] In the first round of voting, on 28 May 2007, he gained 39% of the votes, more than his two closest rivals, but not enough to win the election. [citeweb | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/default.stm | title=Peretz loses Israeli party vote | accessdate=2007-05-30 | publisher=BBC News]
As a result, Barak faced a runoff against the second-place finisher,
Ami Ayalon, on June 12 2007, which he won by a narrow margin. [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/06/12/africa/ME-GEN-Israel-Politics.php "Barak wins Labor Party primary election: party officials"] International Herald Tribune, 12 June 2007]
Back in Government
After winning back the leadership of the Labor party, Barak was sworn in as Minister of Defense on
June 18, 2007, as part of Prime Minister Olmert's cabinet reshuffle. However on 1 July 2007, Barak led a successful effort in the Labor central committee to stipulate that Labor would leave the government coalition if Olmert did not resign by September or October 2007. At that time the Winograd Commissionwill publish its final report on the performance of the Israel Defense Forcesand its civilian leadership. The preliminary Winograd report released earlier this year laid most of the blame on Olmert for poorly planning, executing, and reviewing war strategies in the 2006 conflict against Hezbollah.Fact|date=July 2007
References in popular culture
*The film "Munich" includes a scene depicting
Operation Spring of Youthwhere Ehud Barak is mentioned by name and is seen dressed as a brunette, reflecting his real-life experience as leader of a Sayeret Matkalunit during that event. [cite news|publisher = The New York Times|last = Dargis|first = Manohla|authorlink = Manohla Dargis|title = An Action Film About the Need to Talk|date = 2005-12-23|accessdate = 2007-04-30]
*Barak also appears as a military advisor to a fictitious
Israeli Prime Ministerin the Frederick Forsythnovel " The Devil's Alternative".
*List of Israel's Chiefs of the General Staff
*Bregman, Ahron "Elusive Peace: How the Holy Land Defeated America".
*Clinton, Bill (2005). "My Life". Vintage. ISBN 1-4000-3003-X.
*Dromi, Uri (Nov. 5, 2005). "Still craving peace 10 years after Rabin". "
New Straits Times", p. 20.
* [http://www.ehudbarak.org.il/ Ehud Barak - official site] (in Hebrew)
*http://www.nybooks.com/articles/15501 Volume 49, Number 10 · June 13, 2002 Email to a friend Exchange Camp David and After: An Exchange (1. An Interview with Ehud Barak)
* [http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3020596,00.html Ehud Barak, Labor] Ynetnews
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Brog, Ehud
Prime Minister of Israel
DATE OF BIRTH=
February 12, 1942
PLACE OF BIRTH=
Mishmar HaSharon, British Mandate of Palestine
DATE OF DEATH=
PLACE OF DEATH=
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