Orchard


Orchard
A lemon orchard in the Upper Galilee in Israel.
A community apple orchard originally planted for productive use during the 1920s, in Westcliff on Sea (Essex, England)
Streuobstwiese, a rural community orchard, traditionally for productive use. Today endorsed for its quality of habitat and biodiversity

An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs that is maintained for food production. Orchards comprise fruit or nut-producing trees which are grown for commercial production. Orchards are also sometimes a feature of large gardens, where they serve an aesthetic as well as a productive purpose.[1] A fruit garden is generally synonymous with an orchard, although it is set on a smaller non-commercial scale and may emphasize berry shrubs in preference to fruit trees.

Most temperate-zone orchards are laid out in a regular grid, with a grazed or mown grass or bare soil base that makes maintenance and fruit gathering easy.

Orchards are often concentrated near bodies of water, where climatic extremes are moderated and blossom time is retarded until frost danger is past.

The forest garden is a food production system that is closely related to the orchard. A move towards more ecologically-friendly coffee production has led to forest-garden production of coffee. Brazil nuts and rubber are produced in such a method in some areas.

Often, mixed orchards are planted. In Europe, quince is sometimes planted along with apples.

Contents

Meadow orchard (Streuobstwiese)

Streuobstwiese (pl. Streuobstwiesen) is a German word that means a meadow with scattered fruit trees or fruit trees that are planted in a field.[2] Streuobstwiese, or a meadow orchard,[3] is a traditional landscape in the temperate, maritime climate of continental Western Europe. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Streuobstwiesen were a kind of a rural community orchard that were intended for productive cultivation of stone fruit. In recent years, ecologists have successfully lobbied for state subsidies to valuable habitats, biodiversity and natural landscapes, which are also used to preserve old meadow orchards. Both conventional and meadow orchards provide a suitable habitat for many animal species that live in a cultured landscape. A notable example is the hoopoe that nests in tree hollows of old fruit trees and, in the absence of alternative nesting sites, is threatened in many parts of Europe, because of the destruction of old orchards.[4]

Crops

Tropical areas
Subtropical areas
Temperate areas

Layout

An orchard's layout is the technique of planting the crops in a proper system. There are different methods of planting and thus different layouts. Some of these layout types include:

  1. Square method
  2. Rectangular method
  3. Quincunx method
  4. Triangular method
  5. Hexagonal (or Equilateral triangle) method
  6. Contour (or Terracing) method

For different varieties, these systems may vary by some extent.

Orchards by region

Apple orchards in Azwell, Washington surrounding a community of pickers' cabins
Sour cherry orchard on Lake Erie shoreline (Leamington, Ontario)

The most extensive orchards in the United States are apple and orange orchards, although citrus orchards are more commonly called groves. The most extensive apple orchard area is in eastern Washington state, with a lesser but significant apple orchard area in most of Upstate New York. Extensive orange orchards are found in Florida and southern California. In eastern North America, many orchards are along the shores of Lake Michigan (such as the Fruit Ridge Region), Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario.

In Canada, apple and other fruit orchards are widespread on the Niagara Peninsula, south of Lake Ontario. This region is known as Canada Fruitland and, in addition to large-scale commercial fruit marketing, it is a favorite playground for "pick-your-own" activities in the summer.

Murcia is a major orchard area (or la huerta) in Europe, with citrus crops. New Zealand, China, Argentina and Chile also have extensive apple orchards.

Towns associated with orchards

Tenbury Wells in Worcestershire has been called The Town in the Orchard, since the 19th century, because it was surrounded by extensive orchards. Today, this heritage is celebrated through an annual Applefest.[5]

Airports associated with orchards

  • ORD
  • Orchard Field

Historical orchards

Old growth apple orchard in Ottawa, Canada

Orchard conservation and promotion organisations and schemes within England

  • The 'Orchard Link' organisation provides advice on how to manage and restore the county of Devon's orchards, as well as enabling the local community to use the local orchard produce.[7] An organisation called 'Orchards Live' carries out similar work in North Devon.[8]
  • The 'People's Trust for Endangered Species' aims to locate, assess and map every traditional orchard within England.[9]
  • The UK Biodiversity Partnership lists traditional orchards and a priority UK Biodiversity Action Plan habitat.[10]
  • The Wiltshire Traditional Orchards Project maps, conserves and restores traditional orchards within Wiltshire, England.

See also

References

  1. ^ Luther Burbank. Practical Orchard Plans and Methods: How to Begin and Carry on the Work. The Minerva Group. ISBN 1414701411. 
  2. ^ Dictionary definition of Streuobstwiese
  3. ^ Streuobstwiese = Meadow orchard in German-English Collins Dictionary
  4. ^ Berhens M. Why hoopoes won't trade. A Pro Natura Publication on the Global Economy and Nature. Pro Natura, Switzerland, pp. 8-9.
  5. ^ Tenbury Applefest
  6. ^ Entry Level Stewardship Handbook. Natural England. 2008. p. 29. ISBN 978-1-84754-080-5. 
  7. ^ http://www.orchardslive.org.uk/
  8. ^ http://ptes.org/
  9. ^ http://www.ukbap.org.uk/

External links

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Orchard — bezeichnet: Orchard CMS, ein Web Content Management System Orte in den Vereinigten Staaten: Orchard (Alabama) Orchard (Colorado) Orchard (Idaho) Orchard (Iowa) Orchard (Louisiana) Orchard (Nebraska) Orchard (Texas) Orchard Point (Michigan)… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Orchard — Orchard, NE U.S. village in Nebraska Population (2000): 391 Housing Units (2000): 208 Land area (2000): 0.417248 sq. miles (1.080668 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.417248 sq. miles (1.080668… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Orchard — Or chard, n. [AS. ortgeard, wyrtgeard, lit., wortyard, i. e., a yard for herbs; wyrt herb + geard yard. See {Wort}, {Yard} inclosure.] 1. A garden. [Obs.] [1913 Webster] 2. An inclosure containing fruit trees; also, the fruit trees, collectively; …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Orchard, IA — U.S. city in Iowa Population (2000): 88 Housing Units (2000): 35 Land area (2000): 0.088468 sq. miles (0.229132 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.088468 sq. miles (0.229132 sq. km) FIPS code:… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Orchard, NE — U.S. village in Nebraska Population (2000): 391 Housing Units (2000): 208 Land area (2000): 0.417248 sq. miles (1.080668 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.417248 sq. miles (1.080668 sq. km) FIPS… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Orchard, TX — U.S. city in Texas Population (2000): 408 Housing Units (2000): 156 Land area (2000): 0.378147 sq. miles (0.979395 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.378147 sq. miles (0.979395 sq. km) FIPS code:… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • orchard — (n.) O.E. orceard fruit garden, probably from wortgeard, from WORT (Cf. wort) vegetable, plant root + geard garden, yard (the word also meant vegetable garden until 15c.); see YARD (Cf. yard) (n.1). First element influenced by L. hortus …   Etymology dictionary

  • orchard — [n] fruit farm fruit garden, garden, grove, plantation, vineyard; concepts 449,509,517 …   New thesaurus

  • orchard — ► NOUN ▪ a piece of enclosed land planted with fruit trees. ORIGIN Old English, from Latin hortus garden + the base of YARD(Cf. ↑yard) …   English terms dictionary

  • orchard — [ôr′chərd] n. [ME < OE ortgeard < VL * orto, for L hortus, a garden (see HORTICULTURE) + OE geard,YARD2] 1. an area of land devoted to the cultivation of fruit trees or nut trees 2. such a stand of trees …   English World dictionary


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