John Gielgud

Infobox actor
name = Sir John Gielgud

imagesize = 250px
caption = photo by Carl Van Vechten, 1936
birthname = Arthur John Gielgud
birthdate = birth date|1904|4|14|df=y
location = South Kensington, London, England
deathdate = death date and age|2000|5|21|1904|4|14|df=y
deathplace = Wotton Underwood, Buckinghamshire, England
partner = nowrap|Martin Hensler (ca. 1963–1999)
yearsactive = 1924–2000
academyawards = Best Supporting Actor
1981 "Arthur"
emmyawards = Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or Movie
1991 "Summer's Lease"
grammyawards = Best Spoken Word, Documentary or Drama Recording
1979 "Ages of Man - Recordings from Shakespeare"
tonyawards = Outstanding Foreign Company
1948 "The Importance of Being Earnest"
Special Award
1959 "Ages of Man"
Best Director - Drama
1961 "Big Fish, Little Fish"
baftaawards = Best Actor
1953 "Julius Caesar"
Best Supporting Actor
1974 "Murder on the Orient Express"
1992 Academy Fellowship
goldenglobeawards = Best Supporting Actor - Motion Picture
1982 "Arthur"

1989 "War and Remembrance"
laurenceolivierawards= Special Award
1986 Lifetime Achievement
awards = NYFCC Award for Best Supporting Actor
1981 "Arthur"
NYFCC Award Best Actor
1977 "Providence"

Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH (14 April, 190421 May 2000), known as Sir John Gielgud, was an English theatre and film actor particularly known for his warm expressive voice, which his colleague Sir Alec Guinness likened to "a silver trumpet muffled in silk." [Robertson, Nan. [ "A Reticent Alec Guinness Awaits a Movie Tribute;"] The "New York Times", 27 April 1987. Retrieved 22 May 2008.] [Clarke, Gerald. [,9171,960898,00.html "Alec Guinness Takes Off His Masks;"] "Time", 17 March 1986. Retrieved 22 May 2008.] Gielgud is a member of the short list of entertainers with the distinction of having won an Emmy, a Grammy, an Oscar and a Tony award.


Arthur John Gielgud was born in South Kensington in London to a Protestant mother, Kate Terry, and a Catholic father, Frank Gielgud, and was raised a Protestant. Gielgud had a head start in the theatrical profession, being a great nephew of Dame Ellen Terry. His elder brother was Val Gielgud who was a pioneering influence in BBC Radio. His niece is Maina Gielgud, dancer and one time artistic director of The Australian Ballet and the Royal Danish Ballet.

Early stages

After Westminster School, where he gained a King's Scholarship, Gielgud trained at RADA and had his initial success as a stage actor in classical roles, first winning stardom during a successful two seasons at the Old Vic Theatre from 1929 to 1931 where his performances as Richard II and Hamlet were particularly acclaimed, the latter being the first Old Vic production to be transferred to the West End for a run. He returned to the role of Hamlet in a famous production under his own direction in 1934 at the New Theatre in the West End. He was hailed as a Broadway star in Guthrie McClintic's production in which Lillian Gish played Ophelia in 1936 (and which was assisted by a rival staging starring Leslie Howard that opened shortly afterwards and failed badly by comparison), a 1939 production that Gielgud again directed that was the last play performed at Henry Irving's Orpheum Theatre and was later taken to Elsinore Castle in Denmark (the actual setting of the play), a 1944 production directed by George Rylands, and finally a 1945 production that toured the Far East under Gielgud's own direction. In his later years, Gielgud would play the Ghost of Hamlet's Father in productions of the play, first to Richard Burton's Melancholy Dane on the Broadway stage which Gielgud directed in 1964, then on television with Richard Chamberlain, and finally in a radio production starring Gielgud's protégé Kenneth Branagh.

Gielgud had triumphs in many other plays, notably his greatest popular success "Richard of Bordeaux" (1933) (a romantic version of the story of Richard II), "The Importance of Being Earnest" which he first performed at the Lyric Hammersmith in 1930 and which would remain in his repertory until 1947, and a legendary production of "Romeo and Juliet" (1935) which Gielgud directed and alternated the roles of Romeo and Mercutio with a young Laurence Olivier in his first professional Shakespearean leading role. Olivier's performance won him an engagement as the leading man of the Old Vic Theatre the following season, starting his career as a classical actor, but he was said to have resented Gielgud's direction and developed a wary relationship with Gielgud which resulted in Olivier turning down Gielgud's request to play the Chorus in Olivier's film of "Henry V" and later doing his best to block Gielgud from appearing at the Royal National Theatre when Olivier was its director. [Jonathan Croall, [ "Gielgud: A Theatrical Life 1904-2000"] , Continuum, 2001] .
160px|thumb|right|photo_of_Gielgud_as_Carl Van Vechten (1936).]

Queen's Theatre season

Gielgud had hoped to stay in America after his Broadway performance as Hamlet in 1936 to play Richard II in New York, but director Guthrie McClintic was so certain that the production would fail in the U.S. that Gielgud gave up the idea (and was dismayed when Maurice Evans had a legendary success in the play on Broadway after Gielgud gave him his blessing to mount it when he decided not to). Instead, Gielgud returned to London in 1937 and had an enormous influence on the development of English Theatre when he produced a season of plays at the Queen's Theatre in 1937/38, presenting the aforementioned "Richard II, The School for Scandal, The Three Sisters," and "The Merchant of Venice" with a permanent company (that included Peggy Ashcroft, Michael Redgrave and Alec Guinness) that would shape the development of such theatrical institutions as the Royal Shakespeare Company and the Royal National Theatre. Gielgud acted in all four productions and directed the two Shakespeare plays, while Tyrone Guthrie directed "The School for Scandal" and Michael Saint-Denis staged "The Three Sisters." Laurence Olivier said that Gielgud's performance in "The School for Scandal" was "the best light comedy performance I have ever seen - or ever shall!" and considered his Shylock to be among his greatest impersonations, but the greatest success of the season was the production of "The Three Sisters," with Gielgud's performance as Vershinin, coupled with his successes in "The Seagull" (1929 and 1936), "The Cherry Orchard" (1954), and "Ivanov" (1965) establishing Chekhov's acceptance on the English-speaking stage.

hakespearean legacy

It would always be, however, for his Shakespearean work that Gielgud would be best known. In addition to Hamlet which he played over 500 times in six productions, he gave what some consider definitive performances in "The Tempest" (as Prospero) in four productions (and in the 1991 film "Prospero's Books)", as well as in other roles - Richard II in three productions, Benedick in "Much Ado About Nothing" which he first played in 1930 and revived throughout the 1950s, Macbeth and Oberon in "A Midsummer Night's Dream" twice, Romeo three times, and King Lear four times (as well as taking on the part for a final time in a radio broadcast at the age of 90). He also had triumphs as Malvolio in "Twelfth Night" (1931), Shylock in "The Merchant of Venice" (1937), Angelo in "Measure for Measure" (1950), Cassius in "Julius Caesar" (1950) (which he immortalized in the 1953 film), Leontes in "The Winter's Tale" (1951), and Cardinal Wolsey in "Henry VIII" (1959) (although his 1960 performance as Othello was not a success). It became rumored that Gielgud also provided the voice for the uncredited role of the Ghost of Hamlet's Father in Laurence Olivier's 1948 film version, but the voice was actually that of Olivier, electronically distorted. Gielgud did play the Ghost in his own film of the play in 1964 and in the 1970 Hallmark Hall of Fame presentation starring Richard Chamberlain.

Gielgud's crowning achievement, many believe, was "Ages of Man," his one-man recital of Shakespearean excerpts which he performed throughout the 1950s and 1960s, winning a Tony Award for the Broadway production, a Grammy Award for his recording of the piece, and an Emmy Award for producer David Susskind for the 1966 telecast on CBS. Gielgud made his final Shakespearean appearance on stage in 1977 in the title role of John Schlesinger's production of "Julius Caesar" at the Royal National Theatre. He also made a recording of many of Shakespeare's sonnets in 1963. Among his non-Shakespearean Renaissance roles, his Ferdinand in John Webster's "The Duchess of Malfi" was well-known.

Later stage work

As he aged, Gielgud began to adapt more to changing fashions in the theatre, appearing in plays by Edward Albee ("Tiny Alice"), Alan Bennett ("Forty Years On"), Charles Wood ("Veterans"), Edward Bond ("Bingo", in which Gielgud played William Shakespeare), David Storey ("Home"), and Harold Pinter ("No Man's Land"), the latter two in partnership with his old friend Ralph Richardson, but he drew the line at being offered the role of Hamm in Beckett's "Endgame," saying that the play offered "nothing but loneliness and despair." [Sheridan Morley, "John Gielgud: The Authorized Biography", Simon and Shuster (2002) p. 311] It looked as though Gielgud would retire from the stage after appearing in "Half Life" at the Duke of York's Theatre in 1978, but he made a successful comeback in 1988 in Hugh Whitemore's play "The Best of Friends" as museum curator Sydney Cockerell.

Directing career

Gielgud was almost as highly regarded for his work as a theatre director as for his acting, having staged his first production as a guest director of the Oxford University Dramatic Society production of "Romeo and Juliet" in 1932. The custom of OUDS at the time was to cast student undergraduates in the male roles and professional actresses in the female roles. Gielgud engaged Peggy Ashcroft as Juliet and Edith Evans as the nurse, who would play the same roles three years later in his legendary production of the play at the New Theatre.

Gielgud quickly rose to the status of being one of the top directors for the H.M. Tennent, Ltd. production company in London's West End Theatre and later on Broadway, his productions including "Lady Windermere's Fan" (1945), "The Glass Menagerie" (1948), "The Heiress" (1949), his own adaptation of "The Cherry Orchard" (1954), "The Potting Shed" (1958), "Five Finger Exercise" (1959), Peter Ustinov's comedy "Half Way Up a Tree" (1967), and "Private Lives" (1972). Gielgud won a Tony Award for his direction of "Big Fish, Little Fish" in 1961, the only time he won the award in a competitive category (having won honorary awards for "Best Foreign Company" for his 1947 production of "The Importance of Being Earnest" and for his one-man show "Ages of Man"). He also directed the operas "The Trojans" in 1957 and "A Midsummer Night's Dream " in 1960.

Gielgud directed other actors in many of the Shakespearean roles that he was famous for playing, notably Richard Burton as Hamlet (1964), Anthony Quayle as Benedick in "Much Ado About Nothing" (1950), and Paul Scofield as the title role in Richard II (1952). But Gielgud didn't always have the magic touch, staging a disappointing revival of "Twelfth Night" with Laurence Olivier and Vivian Leigh in 1955 and a disastrous production of "Macbeth" with Ralph Richardson in 1952.

But Gielgud was best known for directing productions in which he also starred, including his greatest commercial success "Richard of Bordeaux" (1933), his definitive production of "The Importance of Being Earnest" (1939, 1942, 1947), "Medea" with Judith Anderson's Tony Award-winning performance of the title role with Gielgud supporting her as Jason (1947), "The Lady's Not for Burning" (1949) that won Richard Burton his first notoriety as an actor, and "Ivanov" (1965). But many believed that his greatest successes were in Shakespearean productions in which he both directed and starred, especially "Romeo and Juliet" (1935), "Richard II" (1937, 1953), "King Lear" (1950, 1955), "Much Ado About Nothing" (1952, 1955, 1959) and his signature role of "Hamlet" (1934, 1939, 1945).

Radio Work

Gielgud's brother Val Gielgud became the head of BBC Radio Production in 1928 [Jonathan Croall, Gielgud: A Theatrical Life 1904-2000, Continuum, 2001 pg 179] , and John made his radio debut there the following year in a version of Pirandello's "The Man With the Flower in His Mouth", which he was then performing at the Old Vic Theatre. In the ensuing years, John played many of his greatest stage roles on BBC Radio including "Richard of Bordeaux, The Importance of Being Earnest, The Tempest," and "Hamlet", one production of which featured Emlyn Williams as Claudius, Celia Johnson as Ophelia, and Martita Hunt as Gertrude (the part she played in Gielgud's debut in the role at the Old Vic in 1930). He also played some Shakespearean roles which he would never essay on stage, such as Iago in a 1932 broadcast of "Othello" opposite Henry Ainley as the Moor, [Jonathan Croall, Gielgud: A Theatrical Life 1904-2000, Continuum, 2001 pg 180] Buckingham (1954) and Cranmer (1977) in "Henry VIII", and Friar Laurence in "Romeo & Juliet" for the first time when he was eighty-nine.

John Gielgud played Sherlock Holmes for BBC radio in the 1950s, with Ralph Richardson as Watson. Gielgud's brother, Val Gielgud, appeared in one of the episodes, perhaps inevitably, as the great detective's brother Mycroft. This series was co-produced by the American Broadcasting Company. Orson Welles appeared as Professor Moriarty in "The Final Problem."

Gielgud gave one of his final radio performances in the title role of an All Star production of "King Lear" in 1994 that was mounted to celebrate his 90th birthday. The cast included Judi Dench, Kenneth Branagh, Derek Jacobi, and Simon Russell Beale.

Film work

Although he began to appear in British films as early as 1924, making his debut in the silent movie "Who Is the Man?", he would not make an impact in the medium until the last decades of his life. His early film roles were sporadic and included the lead in Alfred Hitchcock's "Secret Agent" (1936), Benjamin Disraeli in "The Prime Minister" (1940), Cassius in "Julius Caesar" (1953) (BAFTA Award for Best British Actor), George, Duke of Clarence to Olivier's "Richard III" (1955), and Henry IV to Orson Welles' Falstaff in "Chimes at Midnight" (1966). But he lost his aversion to filming in the late 1960s, and by the 1980s and 1990s he had thrown himself into the medium with a vengeance, so much so that it was jokingly said that he was prepared to do almost anything for his art. He won an Academy Award for his supporting role as a sardonic butler in the 1981 comedy "Arthur", starring Dudley Moore and Liza Minnelli, a New York Film Critics Circle Award for "Providence" (1977), and a BAFTA Award for "Murder on the Orient Express" (1974), and his performances in "The Charge of the Light Brigade" (1968), "The Elephant Man" (1981), and "Shine" (1996) were critically acclaimed. In 1991, Gielgud was able to satisfy his life's ambition by immortalizing his Prospero on screen in the film "Prospero's Books." ["Sir John Gielgud: A Life in Letters", Arcade Publishing (2004).]

Television also developed as one of the focal points of his career, with Gielgud giving a particularly notable performance in "Brideshead Revisited" (1981). He won an Emmy Award for "Summer's Lease" (1989) and televised his stage performances of "A Day by the Sea" (1957), "Home" (1970), "No Man's Land" (1976) and his final theatre role in "The Best of Friends" as Sydney Cockerell in the 1991 Masterpiece Theatre Production, along with Patrick McGoohan and Dame Wendy Hiller. In 1983, he made his second onscreen appearance with fellow theatrical knights Laurence Olivier and Ralph Richardson (following Olivier's own Richard III) in a television miniseries about composer Richard Wagner. In 1996 he played a wizard in the TV adaptation of "Gulliver's Travels". Gielgud and Ralph Richardson were the first guest stars on "Second City Television". Playing themselves, they were in Toronto during their tour of Harold Pinter's "No Man's Land". According to Dave Thomas, in his book, "", their sketch stank and the actors gave a bad performance. Gielgud's final television performance was on film in "Merlin" in 1998, his final television studio appearance having been in "A Summer Day's Dream" recorded in 1994 for the BBC 2 "Performance" series. [ [ "A Summer Day's Dream"] . BBC Programme Catalogue.]

Gielgud was one of the few people who has won an Emmy, a Grammy, an Oscar and a Tony Award.

Gielgud's final onscreen appearance in a major release motion picture was as Pope Paul IV in "Elizabeth" which was released in 1998. His final acting performance was in a film adaptation of Samuel Beckett's short play "Catastrophe", opposite longtime collaborator Harold Pinter and directed by American playwright David Mamet; Gielgud died mere weeks after production was completed at the age of 96 of natural causes.

Origins and personal life

Lithuanian origin

Gielgud's Catholic father, Franciszek Giełgud, born 1880, was a descendant of a Lithuanian noble family residing at Gelgaudiškis manor dating back to Grand Duchy of Lithuania (now a town in Marijampolė County, Lithuania). The Lithuanian form of the name Giełgud is Gelgaudas. Sir John's grandfather was Adam Giełgud (1834-1920), married to Leontyna Aniela Aszperger. Adam Giełgud's father's (Jan Giełgud's) mother was Countness Eleonora Tyszkiewicz-Łohojski, Clan Leliwa (by heraldic adoption). As a descendant of Tyszkiewicz (Tiškevičius) counts he was related to many well-known Polish and Lithuanian personalities, including actress Beata Tyszkiewicz and other .

In Gielgud's memoirs he makes no mention whatsoever of any 'Lithuanian' background, stating clearly and repeatedly that his father was Polish Catholic.

Personal life

Gielgud was convicted of "persistently importuning for immoral purposes" (cottaging) in a Chelsea mews in 1953. Instead of being rejected by the public, he received a standing ovation at his next stage appearance. Biographer Sheridan Morley writes that while Gielgud never denied being homosexual, he always tried to be discreet about it and felt humiliated by the ordeal. Some speculate that it helped to bring to public attention a crusade to decriminalise homosexuality in England and Wales. Longtime partner Martin Hensler, 30 years his junior, died just a few months before Gielgud's own death in 2000. He only publicly acknowledged Hensler as his partner in 1988, in the programme notes for "The Best of Friends" which was his final stage performance. [cite news | last=Rich | first=Frank | title=Stage: John Gielgud Stars in London Play | publisher=The New York Times | date=12 Feb 1988 | url= | accessdate=2006-12-25 ] [cite journal | title=Gielgud, 83, comes out | journal=Gay Times | issue=114 | publisher=Millivres | date=March 1988 | id=ISSN 0950-6101 | accessdate=2006-12-25] , Gielgud would avoid Hollywood for over a decade for fear of being denied entry because of the arrest.

The 'Gielgud case' was dramatised by critic turned playwright Nicholas de Jongh in the play "Plague Over England" and performed at the Finborough, a small London theatre, in 2008 with Jasper Britton as Gielgud.

In "Curtain" (1991), Michael Korda's novel based on the marriage of Laurence Olivier and Vivien Leigh, Gielgud becomes Philip Chagrin.

Another fictionalised Gielgud - this time given the family name John Terry - appeared around the same time as de Jongh's play in Nicola Upson's detective novel "An Expert in Murder", a crime story woven around the original production of "Richard of Bordeaux".

John Gielgud was cremated at Oxford Crematorium.Fact|date=September 2008

Awards and honours

*He was knighted in the 1953 coronation honours, became a Companion of Honour in 1977, and was admitted to the Order of Merit in 1996.

*In 1982 he received an Evening Standard Special Award

*The Globe Theatre in London was renamed the Gielgud Theatre in 1994 in his honour.

Laurence Olivier Awards

* 1985: Special Award

Academy Awards

* 1964: Nominated for Best Supporting Actor, for "Becket"
* 1981: Winner for Best Supporting Actor, for "Arthur"

Emmy Awards

* 1982: Nominated for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Limited Series or Special, for "Brideshead Revisited"
* 1984: Nominated for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Limited Series or Special, for "The Master of Ballantrae"
* 1985: Nominated for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Limited Series or Special, for "Romance on the Orient Express"
* 1989: Nominated for Outstanding Lead Actor in a miniseries or Special, for "War and Remembrance"
* 1991: Winner for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or Movie, for "Summer's Lease"

Tony Awards

* 1948: Winner for Outstanding Foreign Company, "The Importance of Being Earnest"
* 1959: Winner, Special Award, for contribution to theatre for his extraordinary insight into the writings of Shakespeare as demonstrated in his one-man show, "Ages of Man"
* 1961: Winner for Best Director (Dramatic), for "Big Fish, Little Fish"
* 1963: Nominated for Best Director (Dramatic), for "The School for Scandal"
* 1965: Nominated for Best Actor (Dramatic), for "Tiny Alice"
* 1971: Nominated for Best Actor (Dramatic), for "Home"

Grammy Awards

* 1959: Nominated for Best Documentary or Spoken Word Recording, for "Ages of Man"
* 1960: Nominated for Best Documentary or Spoken Word Recording, for "Hamlet" with Richard Burton, Hume Cronyn, Alfred Drake, George Voskovec, Eileen Herlie, William Redfield and George Rose
* 1964: Nominated for Best Documentary or Spoken Word Recording, for "Ages of Man, Volume 2 (One Man in His Time) Part Two - Shakespeare"
* 1979: Winner for Best Spoken Word, Documentary or Drama Recording, for "Ages of Man - Recordings from Shakespeare"
* 1982: Nominated for Best Spoken Word, Documentary or Drama Recording, for "No Man's Land" with Ralph Richardson
* 1983: Nominated for Best Spoken Word or Non-Musical Recording, for "Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats" with Irene Worth
* 1986: Nominated for Best Spoken Word or Non-Musical Recording, for "Gulliver"
* 1988: Nominated for Best Spoken Word or Non-Musical Recording, for "A Christmas Carol"
* 1989: Nominated for Best Spoken Word or Non-Musical Recording, for "Sir John Gielgud Reads Alice in Wonderland"
* 1991: Nominated for Best Album for Children, for "The Emperor's New Clothes" with Mark Isham

New York Film Critics Circle Awards

* 1977: Best Actor, for "Providence"
* 1981: Best Supporting Actor, for "Arthur"

Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards

* 1981: Best Supporting Actor, for "Arthur"
* 1985: Best Supporting Actor, for "Plenty"

There is also the Sir John Gielgud Award for "Excellence in the Dramatic Arts" presented by the US-based Shakespeare Guild. Past winners include Ian McKellen, Kenneth Branagh, Glen Joseph, Kevin Kline and Judi Dench

Other interests

Sir John Gielgud believed that animals should not be exploited. He was particularly fond of birds and joined PETA's campaign against the foie gras industry in the early 1990s, narrating PETA's video exposé of the force-feeding of geese and ducks. Many chefs and restaurateurs who saw that video dropped foie gras from their menus. Sir John received PETA’s Humanitarian of the Year Award twice, in 1994 and 1999. [ [,11913,982400,00.html "Peta foie gras"] . The Observer Magazine. 22 June 2003.]

He also authored several books, including his memoirs in "An Actor and His Time", "Early Stages" and "Distinguished Company". He also co-wrote, with John Miller, "Acting Shakespeare".

elected filmography

*"The Good Companions" (1933)
*"Secret Agent" (1936)
*"Julius Caesar" (1953)
*"Richard III" (1955)
*"Around the World in Eighty Days" (1956)
*"Saint Joan" (1957)
*"The Barretts of Wimpole Street" (1957)
*"Becket" (1964)
*"Hamlet" (1964)
*"Chimes at Midnight" (1965)
*"The Loved One" (1965)
*"Sebastian" (1968)
*"The Charge of the Light Brigade" (1968)
*"Oh! What a Lovely War" (1969)
*"Julius Caesar" (1970)
*"Lost Horizon" (1973)
*"" (1973)
*"11 Harrowhouse" (1974)
*"Murder on the Orient Express" (1974)
*"Providence" (1977)
*"Caligula" (1979)
*"The Elephant Man" (1980)
*"The Formula" (1980)
*"Lion of the Desert" (1981)
*"Arthur" (1981)
*"Chariots of Fire" (1981)
*"Gandhi" (1982)
*"Wagner" (1983)
*"The Wicked Lady" (1983)
*"The Master of Ballantrae" (1984)
*"The Far Pavilions" (1984)
*"Plenty" (1985)
*"Time After Time" (1986)
*"The Whistle Blower" (1986)
*"Appointment with Death" (1988)
*"" (1988)
*"Getting it Right" (1989)
*"Prospero's Books" (1991)
*"Shining Through" (1992)
*"The Power of One" (1992)
*"Scarlett" (1994)
*"First Knight" (1995)
*"Hamlet" (1996)
*"Shine" (1996)
*"Merlin" (1998)
*"Elizabeth" (1998)
*"Catastrophe" (2000)

John Gielgud in popular culture

Gielgud is referenced in Bruce Robinson's 1986 cult film Withnail and I. In an early scene in which Withnail is complaining about his lack of work as an actor, Marwood attempts to console him by suggesting that September is a "bad patch" for actors. Withnail responds by saying "Rubbish! Haven't seen Gielgud down the labour exchange. Why doesn't he retire?"

ee also

* List of people who have won Emmy, Grammy, Oscar, and Tony Awards


Further reading

* "Notes From The Gods" (1994), John Gielgud, Ed.Richard Mangan, Nick Hearn Books
* "Gielgud's Letters" (2004), Ed. Richard Mangan, Weidenfeld and Nicolson
*Young, Jordan R. (1989). "Acting Solo: The Art of One-Person Shows". Beverly Hills: Past Times Publishing Co.

External links

*ibdb name|9565
*imdb name|0000024
*tcmdb name|70965
* [ Gielgud Archive] in the British Library Manuscripts Collections
* [ Theatre Profiles - Sir John Gielgud]

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