Andrés Bonifacio


Andrés Bonifacio

Infobox Person
name = Andrés Bonifacio y de Castro


caption =
birth_date = 30 November 1863
birth_place = Tondo, Manila, Philippines
death_date = 10 May 1897 (aged 33)
death_place = Maragondon, Cavite, Philippines
death_cause = Execution
nationality = Filipino
other_names = Maypagasa
known_for = Philippine Revolution
education =
party = La Liga Filipina
Katipunan
religion =
spouse = Gregoria de Jesus
children =

Andrés Bonifacio y de Castro (November 30, 1863 – May 10, 1897), son of Santiago Bonifacio and Catalina de Castro, was a Filipino revolutionary leader and one of the main rebel leaders of the Philippine Revolution against Spanish colonial rule in the late 19th century. He is regarded as the "Father of the Philippine Revolution" and one of the most influential national heroes of his country. A freemason, Bonifacio was the founder of the Katipunan organization which aimed to start an independence movement against Spain.

Early life

Bonifacio was born to a Tagalog father by the name of Santiagos Bonifacio, and a Spanish mestiza mother, Catalina de Castro of Zambales, [Citation
url=http://web.archive.org/web/20070703155058/www.visitzambales.com/newlayout/index.php?action=people&part=intfacts
title=Interesting facts about Zambales
publisher=visitzambales.com
accessdate=2008-03-21
(archived from [http://www.visitzambales.com/newlayout/index.php?action=people&part=intfacts the original] on 2007-07-01)
] failed verification|date=July 2008 in Tondo, Manila. His father was a "cabeza de barangay" (a leading barangay official). His mother died of tuberculosis in 1881 and his father followed suit a year after. According to popular anecdote, he peddled canes and fans to support his family.

He worked as a clerk and sales agent for Fleming and Company, a British trading firm, then transferred to Fressell and Company, a German firm, both in Manila. He married twice - his first wife was a woman named Monica, who died of leprosy, and Gregoria de Jesus, daughter of a wealthy family in Binondo. They were married in Binondo Church, despite her parents' objections.

Bonifacio, though projected by detractors as being illiterate, was in fact highly literate. He was taught Spanish since childhood owing to his mother's ancestry. He was also a fervent reader - his favorites were books on the French Revolution, The Lives of the Presidents of the United States of America, Victor Hugo's 'Les Miserables' (which he translated into Tagalog), and Jose Rizal's 'Noli me Tangere' and 'El Filibusterismo'. Furthermore, the title 'bodeguero' would have the modern equivalent of a warehouse/inventory keeper, a job that would require adequate to above-average intelligence. He also wrote various revolutionary articles, manifestos, and poems, the most famous being 'Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa'.

He was a Freemason. He also joined Rizal's "La Liga Filipina" (Spanish "The Philippine League"), a society that called for reforms in Spanish rule. However, the "Liga" was disbanded shortly after Rizal was arrested and deported to the town of Dapitan in Mindanao a day after the group's only meeting.

After the La Liga was disbanded, Bonifacio realized the futility of peaceful struggle even for mere reforms. He then founded the underground organization that in the coming years would grow and send shock to the Spanish colonial rule and would drastically change the course of Philippine history and would give pride to every Filipino - the Katipunan. With his wife Gregoria de Jesus and his uncle one day in a humble hut in Manila, Bonifacio resolved to change history with just a single pistol in hand for a start.

Controversy

Some historians, like Renato Constantino, see him as a champion of the masses who was slighted by ambitious members of the upper class. Others like Gregorio Zaide, favor Aguinaldo and company over him. Glenn Anthony May goes as far as saying that his role as a national hero was largely invented. Also, until now, there is debate whether he should be considered the first Philippine President instead of Aguinaldo and the national hero instead of Rizal.

Some analytical historians like Alejo Villanueva claim that what happened at Tejeros, Cavite was actually a coup de etat to wrest power from Bonifacio by the bourgeois or upper class represented by Aguinaldo. (Aguinaldo and members of his class enjoyed more privilege status even before the revolution. They would not allow a victorious president Bonifacio ordering land and wealth distribution as his first decree.) Hence, the Tejeros Convention was a farce intended to lure Bonifacio to the Caviteño territory. The presidential election wasn't a national election at all. Participation in the election primarily came from Caviteños. The other provinces in revolt, such as Bulacan, Pampanga, Tarlac, Laguna, and Batangas, were not participants. Bonifacio, who was too fueled with idealism, was too naive to understand maneuvering politicians. Had Bonifacio been able to get back to Manila he could have charged Aguinaldo and other Caviteño officers with treason and Philippine history would have taken a very different track. Bonifacio was not allowed to get out of Cavite. He was summarily tried then executed promptly at a mountain in Maragondon, Cavite for treason.

Today

Bonifacio's birthday on November 30 is celebrated as Bonifacio Day (Filipino: "Araw ni Bonifacio") and is a public holiday in the Philippines.

There are many monuments to Bonifacio across the nation, the most famous being two sculptures, one by Napoleon Abueva and the other by Guillermo Tolentino, both National Artists.

In current Philippine currency, he is depicted in the 10-peso bill (currently out of production) and 10-peso coin, along with fellow patriot Apolinario Mabini.

In film

Bonifacio was portrayed by Julio Diaz in "Bayani" (Hero), a feature film loosely based on his life directed by experimental "auteur" Raymond Red, and an educational television series also named "Bayani".

Gardo Verzosa portrays Bonifacio in the 1998 film "José Rizal".

Dennis Trillo will play the leading role in 2009 biopic film Andres Bonifacio

Notes

References

*cite book | author=Zaide, Gregorio F. | title=Philippine History and Government|publisher=National Bookstore Printing Press |year=1984
* Ocampo, Ambeth. Bones of Contention: The Bonifacio Lectures
* Agoncillo, Teodoro. The Revolt of the Masses: The Story of Bonifacio and the Katipunan
* Constantino, Renato. The Philippines: a Past Revisited
* Citation
last=Guerrero
first= Milagros
title=Andres Bonifacio and the 1896 Revolution
url=http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about_cultarts/articles.php?artcl_Id=5
publisher=National Commission for Culture and the Arts
accessdate=2008-03-21

Further reading

*cite journal
first =Isagani A.
last =Cruz
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =2005
month =November 27
title =The Tragedy Of Andres Bonifacio
journal =Philippine Daily Inquirer
volume =
issue =
pages =14
id =
url =http://bailey83221.livejournal.com/84994.html

*cite book
last =Clair
first =Francis St.
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =1902
title = [http://books.google.com/books?vid=LCCN03016030&id=hNFEgCAB9rAC&dq=%22Andr%C3%A9s+Bonifacio%22+%22Katipunan%22 The Katipunan: Or, The Rise and Fall of the Filipino Commune]
publisher =Francis St. Clair
location =
id =
Full book on Google
*cite journal
first =Manuel L.
last = Quezon III
authorlink =
coauthors =
year = 2005
month =November 21
title =The Supremo Lives
journal =Philippine Daily Inquirer
volume =
issue =
pages =
id =
url =http://bailey83221.livejournal.com/84994.html#cutid2

*cite journal
first =Roberto
last =Lazaro
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =2005
month =November 29
title =Thinking Aloud Dead Ends Need Not Be Dead
journal =Manila Times
volume =
issue =
pages =
id =
url =http://bailey83221.livejournal.com/84994.html#cutid3

*cite journal
first =Marlon
last =Ramos
authorlink =
coauthors =
year = 2004
month =December 9
title =Bonifacio: The Neglected Hero
journal =Philippine Daily Inquirer
volume =
issue =
pages =
id =
url =http://bailey83221.livejournal.com/84994.html#cutid4

*cite journal
first =Ambeth R.
last =Ocampo
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =2004
month =December 1
title =Where Are the Bones of Bonifacio?
journal =Philippine Daily Inquirer
volume =
issue =
pages =
id =
url =http://bailey83221.livejournal.com/84994.html#cutid5

*cite journal
first =Fr. Bel R.
last =San Luis
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =2004
month =November 29
title =Bonifacio & our changing notion of 'hero'
journal =Opinion & Editorial Manila Bulletin
volume =
issue =
pages =
id =
url =http://bailey83221.livejournal.com/84994.html#cutid6

*cite journal
first =
last =
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =2004
month =November
title =Cavite to Unviel Bonifacio Mural Inquirer
journal =Philippine Daily
volume =
issue =
pages =
id =
url =http://bailey83221.livejournal.com/84994.html#cutid7

*cite journal
first =Ellalyn B.
last =De Vera
authorlink =
coauthors =
year =2004
month =November 27
title =Andres Bonifacio: The Katipunan Supremo
journal =Manila Bulletin
volume =
issue =
pages =
id =
url =http://bailey83221.livejournal.com/84994.html#cutid8

External links

* [http://www.quazen.com/Reference/Biography/Andres-Bonifacio-The-Betrayal-of-a-Hero.111603 Andres Bonifacio: the Betrayal of a Hero] by Alixander Haban Escote
* [http://www.filipiniana.net/read_content.jsp?filename=PRR004000009 The Records of the Court Martial of Andres and Procopio Bonifacio] Full text and online collection of court documents in Spanish and old Tagalog with regards to the Andres and Procopio Bonifacio trial.
* [http://www.filipiniana.net/read_content.jsp?filename=BKW000000005&page=1&epage=3 The Courtmartial of Andres Bonifacio] English translation of the historical court documents and testimonies in the trial and execution of Andres and Procopio Bonifacio processed by [http://www.filipiniana.net Filipiniana.net]
* [http://www.filipiniana.net/read_content.jsp?filename=BKW000000004&page=1&epage=1 Ang Dapat Mabatid ng mga Tagalog] Summary and full text of an article written by Andres Bonifacio in the Katipunan newspaper Kalayaan posted in [http://www.filipiniana.net Filipiniana.net]
* [http://www.bibingka.com/phg/books/bonifacio.htm Book Review Inventing a Hero by Glenn May]
* [http://www.filipiniana.net/readbook_content.jsp?filename=BKW000000015 Kartilyang Makabayan] Short biography of Andres Bonifacio written by Hermenegildo Cruz.
* [http://bonifaciopapers.blogspot.com A site on the "Supremo" and the Katipunan]
* [http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about_cultarts/articles.php?artcl_Id=5 Andres Bonifacio and the 1896 Revolution]


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