Park


Park

A park is a protected area of land and water, usually in its natural or semi-natural (landscaped) state and set aside for some purpose, often to do with human recreation. The natural state consists of various interdependent elements, compounds, minerals, rocks, soil types, microbes, oxygen producing plants, water bodies, and animal species.

Wilderness parks are intact and undeveloped areas used mainly by wild species. Many parks are legally protected by law, with enforcement agencies to ensure the laws are followed.

Large protected wilderness zones are required for some wild species to survive. Some protected parks focus mainly on the survival of a few threatened species, such as gorillas or chimpanzees. Before many areas are over developed by human activity, new parks are made to protect some of the last remaining wilderness areas on Earth. Many new parks are currently being planned and legally passed through Parliaments and Legislatures.

History

The first parks were deer parks, land set aside for hunting by the aristocracy in medieval times. They would have walls or thick hedges around them to keep game in and other people out.

These game preserves evolved into the landscaped parks set around aristocratic houses from the sixteenth century onwards. These may have served as hunting grounds but they also proclaimed the owner's wealth and status. An aesthetic of landscape design began in these parks where the natural landscape was enhanced by landscape architects such as Capability Brown. As cities became crowded, the private hunting grounds became places for the public.

With the Industrial revolution parks took on a new meaning as areas set aside to preserve a sense of nature in the large industrial cities. Sporting activity came to be a major use for these urban parks. Areas of outstanding natural beauty were also set aside as national parks to prevent their being spoilt by uncontrolled development.

In the twentieth century a number of meanings arose which associated the "designed" landscape of a park with other uses such as business parks, theme parks and parkways.

Government-owned or operated parks

National parks

A national park is a reserve of land, usually, but not always declared and owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. National parks are a protected area of IUCN category II. The largest national park in the world is the Northeast Greenland National Park, which was established in 1974.

In the United States the concept of preserving unique landscapes for the pleasure of the people of the entire nation was established on June 30, 1864, when President Abraham Lincoln signed the bill creating the Yosemite Grant. A policy of preservation, rather than co-usage as in the National Forests, where grazing, farming and logging are licensed, was implemented four decades later during the presidential administration of Teddy Roosevelt, and Yosemite became a national park. Tourism and, later, recreation were the intended purposes of the lands Roosevelt set aside in the system. John Muir was instrumental in this effort. These parks were ultimately termed national parks and today constitute the U.S. National Park Service. Similarly, U.S. state governments have also set aside and continue to set aside lands of various sizes to preserve them for the enjoyment of the public. National and regional parks are found in many other countries, and vary greatly in the sort of management and administration which they enjoy. There are also national parks in many other countries; the usage of the term varies greatly from one country .

ub-national parks

In Federal systems, many parks are managed by the local levels of government, rather than by the central government. In the United States these are called state parks and in Canada provincial or terriorial parks, except in Quebec where they are known as National Parks (see Quebec nationalism).

Urban parks

A park is an area of open space provided for recreational use, usually owned and maintained by a local government. Parks commonly resemble savannas or open woodlands, the types of landscape that human beings find most relaxing. Grass is typically kept short to discourage insect pests and to allow for the enjoyment of picnics and sporting activities. Trees are chosen for their beauty and to provide shade.

The world's first public park is claimed to be Peel Park, Salford, England opened on 22nd August 1846. [ [http://www.salford.gov.uk/leisure/parks/publicparks/parks-bb.htm Salford City Council: Parks in Broughton and Blackfriars] Retrieved on 2008-09-03] [ [http://www.manchester2002-uk.com/daytrips/parks-gardens.html Papillon Graphics' Virtual Encyclopaedia of Greater Manchester: The Campaign for City Parks in Manchester and Salford] Retrieved on 2008-09-06] [ [http://www.buhu.salford.ac.uk/virtualtours/index.php University of Salford: Peel Park] Retrieved on 2008-09-07]

Park uses are often divided into two categories: active and passive recreation. Active recreation is that which require intensive development and often involves cooperative or team activity, including playgrounds, ball fields and skateparks. Passive recreation is that which emphasizes the open-space aspect of a park and which involves a low level of development, including picnic areas and trails. Organized football matches take place in parks

Many smaller neighborhood parks are receiving increased attention and valuation as significant community assets and places of refuge in heavily populated urban areas. Neighborhood groups around the world are joining together to support local parks that have suffered from urban decay and government neglect.

A linear park is a park that has a much greater length than width. A typical example of a linear park is a section of a former railway that has been converted into a park (i.e. the tracks removed, vegetation allowed to grow back). Parks are sometimes made out of oddly shaped areas of land, much like the vacant lots that often become city neighborhood parks.

Private parks

Private parks are owned by individuals or businesses and are used at the discretion of the owner. There are a few types of private parks, and some which once were privately maintained and used have now been made open to the public. The concept of the commons is somewhat related to the origin of modern park systems.

Hunting parks originally referred to an area maintained as open space where residences, industry and farming were not allowed, often originally so that nobility might have a place to hunt — see medieval deer park. These were known for instance, as "deer parks" (deer being originally a term meaning any wild animal). Many country houses in Great Britain and Ireland still have parks of this sort, which since the 18th century have often been carefully landscaped for aesthetic effect. They are usually a mixture of open grassland with scattered trees and sections of woodland, and are often enclosed by a high wall. The area immediately around the house is the garden. In some cases this will also feature sweeping lawns and scattered trees; the basic difference between a country house's park and its garden is that the park is grazed by animals, but they are excluded from the garden.

In some countries, especially the United Kingdom, the concept of the country park was popular in the 1970s, and many such parks were established with government support during that time. Country parks are often located near to urban populations, and provide recreational facilities typical of the countryside rather than the town.

Other uses

The term park is also used in reference to industrial areas, often termed industrial parks. Some technology research areas are also called research parks. Small environmental areas, often part of urban renewal plans, are called pocket parks. The word park may also be used in community names, such as Oak Park or College Park. Sometimes the active recreational aspect may be expressed in the extreme of naming an amusement park, usually privately owned. A car park is an area of land or a building in which cars are parked. The majority of these uses refer to private parks. An amusement park, or theme park is a generic term for a collection of rides and other entertainment attractions assembled for the purpose of entertaining a fairly large group of people.

References

ee also

*Greenway (landscape)
*List of municipal parks in the United States
*List of national parks
*Provincial park (Canada)
*Public Open Space
*Urban park

External links

* [http://www.royalparks.gov.uk/ The Royal Parks (London, UK)]
* [http://www.pc.gc.ca/ Parks Canada Agency (Canada)]
* [http://www.gardenvisit.com/landscape/architecture/15.1-public-park-planning.htm Essay on public parks]
* [http://www.tpl.org/tier2_rp2.cfm?folder_id=215 The Trust for Public Land Center for City Park Excellence]
* [http://www.pc.gc.ca/docs/v-g/pm-mp/guidem-mguide/index_e.asp Parks Canada - Official National Parks and Mountain Guide]
* [http://www.cleanersafergreener.gov.uk/ UK Government Policy on parks]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • park´er — park «pahrk», noun, verb. –n. 1. land set apart for the pleasure of the public: »Many cities have beautiful parks. Hyde Park is in London. A park may be only a tiny bit of green in a large city, with a few flowers, trees, and benches, or it may… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Park — (p[aum]rk), n. [AS. pearroc, or perh. rather fr. F. parc; both being of the same origin; cf. LL. parcus, parricus, Ir. & Gael. pairc, W. park, parwg. Cf. {Paddock} an inclosure, {Parrock}.] 1. (Eng. Law) A piece of ground inclosed, and stored… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • PARK (R. E.) — PARK ROBERT EZRA (1864 1944) Si William I. Thomas doit être considéré comme le fondateur de l’école sociologique de Chicago, c’est Robert Park qui en devient la figure la plus marquante au cours des années 1920. Ce dernier n’entre pourtant à… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Park — Park, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Parked}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Parking}.] 1. To inclose in a park, or as in a park. [1913 Webster] How are we parked, and bounded in a pale. Shak. [1913 Webster] 2. (Mil.) To bring together in a park, or compact body; as, to …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • park — pȁrk m <N mn pàrkovi> DEFINICIJA 1. omeđeno, pošumljeno zemljište u gradu ili izvan grada s planski zasađenim drvoredima, cvijetnjacima itd., namijenjeno za odmor i rekreaciju 2. ukupni inventar vozila ili strojeva kojim raspolaže kakvo… …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • park — [pärk] n. [ME parc < OFr < ML parricus < Iberian * parra > Sp parra, trellis, grape vine] 1. Eng. Law Historical an enclosed area of land, held by royal grant or prescription, stocked and preserved for hunting 2. an area of land… …   English World dictionary

  • Park — Park, Chung Hee Park, Robert E. * * * (as used in expressions) Central Park Park, Mungo Park, Robert E(zra) Phoenix Park, asesinatos de …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Park — Sm std. (18. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt aus frz. parc unter zusätzlichem Einfluß von dem (ebenfalls aus diesem entlehnten) ne. park ( Grünanlage und Fahrzeugpark ). In der Bedeutung Gehege war das Wort schon früher entlehnt worden. Das… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • Park — Park: Mlat. parricus »eingeschlossener Raum, Gehege«, das früh ins Westgerm. entlehnt wurde (vgl. das Lehnwort ↑ Pferch), erscheint im Frz. als parc »eingeschlossener Raum; Tiergehege«. Aus frz. parc stammen sowohl gleichbed. it. parco, span.… …   Das Herkunftswörterbuch

  • park — {{/stl 13}}{{stl 8}}rz. mnż IIa, D. u {{/stl 8}}{{stl 20}} {{/stl 20}}{{stl 12}}1. {{/stl 12}}{{stl 7}} duży ogród założony sztucznie lub z wykorzystaniem naturalnych warunków przyrodniczych, z alejkami i ścieżkami spacerowymi oraz z innymi… …   Langenscheidt Polski wyjaśnień

  • Park — (Ираклион,Греция) Категория отеля: 2 звездочный отель Адрес: Evrou 19, Ираклион, 71303, Греция Оп …   Каталог отелей


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.