Amish


Amish
Amish
Lancaster County Amish 03.jpg
Total population
249,000
(Old Order Amish)[1]
Founder
Jakob Ammann
Regions with significant populations

United States (notably Ohio, Pennsylvania, Indiana and New York)

Canada (notably Ontario)
Religions
Anabaptist
Scriptures
The Bible
Languages
Pennsylvania German, Swiss German, English

The Amish (play /ˈɑːmɪʃ/ ah-mish; Pennsylvania Dutch: Amisch, German: Amische), sometimes referred to as Amish Mennonites, are a group of Christian church fellowships that form a subgroup of the Mennonite churches. The Amish are known for simple living, plain dress, and reluctance to adopt many conveniences of modern technology.

The history of the Amish church began with a schism in Switzerland within a group of Swiss and Alsatian Anabaptists in 1693 led by Jakob Ammann.[2] Those who followed Ammann became known as Amish.[3] These followers were originally from three main places: the German-speaking parts of Switzerland, Alsace (now part of France), and the Palatinate of Germany. In the early 18th century, many Amish and Mennonites immigrated to Pennsylvania for a variety of reasons. Today, the most traditional descendants of the Amish continue to speak Pennsylvania German, also known as Pennsylvania Dutch. However, a dialect of Swiss German predominates in some Old Order Amish communities, especially in the American state of Indiana.[4] As of 2000, over 165,000 Old Order Amish live in the United States and approximately 1500 live in Canada.[5] A 2008 study suggested their numbers have increased to 227,000,[6] and in 2010 a new study suggested their population had grown by 10% in the past two years to 249,000, with increasing movement to the West.[1]

Amish church membership begins with baptism, usually between the ages of 16 and 25. It is a requirement for marriage, and once a person has affiliated with the church, he or she may only marry within the faith. Church districts average between 20 and 40 families, and worship services are held every other Sunday in a member's home. The district is led by a bishop and several ministers and deacons.[7]

The rules of the church, the Ordnung, must be observed by every member. These rules cover most aspects of day-to-day living, and include prohibitions or limitations on the use of power-line electricity, telephones, and automobiles, as well as regulations on clothing. Many Amish church members may not buy insurance or accept government assistance such as Social Security. As Anabaptists, Amish church members practice nonresistance and will not perform any type of military service. Members who do not conform to these expectations and who cannot be convinced to repent are excommunicated. In addition to excommunication, members may be shunned, a practice that limits social contacts to shame the wayward member into returning to the church. During adolescence rumspringa ("running around") in some communities, nonconforming behavior that would result in the shunning of an adult who had made the permanent commitment of baptism, may meet with a degree of forbearance.[8]

Amish church groups seek to maintain a degree of separation from the non-Amish world. There is generally a heavy emphasis on church and family relationships. They typically operate their own one-room schools and discontinue formal education at grade eight. They value rural life, manual labor and humility. Because of a smaller gene pool, some groups have increased incidences of certain inheritable conditions.[9]

Contents

History

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The Amish Mennonite movement descends from the 16th century and great fellowship known as the Swiss Brethren.[10] The Swiss Brethren were Anabaptists, and are often viewed as having been a part of a Radical Reformation. "Anabaptist" means "one who baptizes again"; a reference to those who had been baptized as infants, but later adopted a belief in "believer's baptism", and then let themselves again be baptized as adults. These Swiss Brethren trace their origination to Felix Manz (ca. 1498–1527) and Conrad Grebel (ca. 1498–1526), who broke from reformer Huldrych Zwingli.[11]

The Amish movement takes its name from Jakob Ammann (ca. 1656–1730), a Swiss Mennonite leader. Ammann believed Mennonites, the peaceful Anabaptists of the Low Countries and Germany, were drifting away from the teachings of Menno Simons and the 1632 Mennonite Dordrecht Confession of Faith. Ammann favored stronger church discipline, including a more rigid application of shunning, the social exclusion of excommunicated members. Swiss Anabaptists, who were scattered by persecution throughout the Alsace and the Palatinate, never practiced strict shunning as had some lowland Anabaptists.[citation needed] Ammann insisted upon this practice, even to the point of expecting spouses to refuse to eat with each other, until the banned spouse repented.[12] This type of strict literalism, on this issue, as well as others, brought about a division among the Mennonites of Southern Germany, the Alsace and Switzerland in 1693, and led to withdrawal of those who sided with Ammann.

Swiss Anabaptism developed, from this point, in two parallel streams. Those following Ammann became known as Amish or Amish Mennonite. The others eventually formed the basis of the Swiss Mennonite Conference. Because of this common heritage, Amish and Mennonites retain many similarities. Those who leave the Amish fold tend to join conservative Mennonite congregations.[13][14]

An old Amish cemetery in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, 1941.

Amish Mennonites began migrating to Pennsylvania in the 18th century as part of a larger migration from the Palatinate and neighboring areas. This migration was a reaction to religious wars, poverty, and religious persecution on the Continent.[citation needed] The first Amish immigrants went to Berks County, Pennsylvania, but later moved, motivated by land issues and by security concerns tied to the French and Indian War[citation needed]. Many eventually settled in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Other groups later settled in, or spread to Alabama, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New York, Ohio, Maryland, Tennessee, Wisconsin, Maine, and Ontario, Canada.

The Amish congregations remaining in Europe slowly merged with the Mennonites. The last Amish congregation to merge with the Mennonites was the Ixheim Amish congregation, which merged with the neighboring Mennonite Church in 1937. Some Mennonite congregations, including most in the Alsace, are descended directly from former Amish congregations.[15]

Most Amish communities that were established in North America did not ultimately retain their Amish identity. The original major split that resulted in the loss of identity occurred in the 1860s. During that decade Dienerversammlungen (ministerial conferences) were held in Wayne County, Ohio, concerning how the Amish should deal with the pressures of modern society. The meetings themselves were a progressive idea; for bishops to assemble to discuss uniformity was an unprecedented notion in the Amish church.[citation needed] By the first several meetings, the more traditionally minded bishops agreed to boycott the conferences. The more progressive members, comprising approximately two thirds of the group, retained the name Amish Mennonite. Many of these eventually united with the Mennonite Church, and other Mennonite denominations, especially in the early 20th century. The more traditionally minded groups became known as the Old Order Amish.[16]

Religious practices

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Two key concepts for understanding Amish practices are their rejection of Hochmut (pride, arrogance, haughtiness) and the high value they place on Demut (humility) and Gelassenheit (calmness, composure, placidity), often translated as "submission" or "letting-be". Gelassenheit is perhaps better understood as a reluctance to be forward, to be self-promoting, or to assert oneself. The Amish's willingness to submit to the "Will of Jesus", expressed through group norms, is at odds with the individualism so central to the wider American culture. The Amish anti-individualist orientation is the motive for rejecting labor-saving technologies that might make one less dependent on community. Modern innovations like electricity might spark a competition for status goods, or photographs might cultivate personal vanity.

Way of life

DSCN4624 holmescountyamishbuggy e.jpg

Amish lifestyle is dictated by the Ordnung (German, meaning: order), which differs slightly from community to community, and, within a community, from district to district. What is acceptable in one community may not be acceptable in another. No summary of Amish lifestyle and culture can be totally adequate, because there are few generalities that are true for all Amish. Groups may separate over matters such as the width of a hat-brim, the color of buggies, or various other issues.

Having children, raising them, and socialization with neighbors and relatives are the greatest functions of the Amish family. All Amish believe large families are a blessing from God.

Population and distribution

Historical populations
Year Pop. ±%
1920 5,000
1928 7,000 +40.0%
1936 9,000 +28.6%
1944 13,000 +44.4%
1952 19,000 +46.2%
1960 28,000 +47.4%
1968 39,000 +39.3%
1976 57,000 +46.2%
1984 84,000 +47.4%
1992 125,000 +48.8%
2000 166,000 +32.8%
2008 221,000 +33.1%
2010 249,000 +12.7%
US Populations
sources: 221,000 in 2008;[6] 249,000 in 2010.[1]
Amish family near Niagara Falls, Ontario

Because members usually get baptized no earlier than 18 and children are not counted in local congregation numbers, it is difficult to put an exact figure on the number of Amish. Rough estimates from various studies have placed their numbers at 125,000 in 1992, 166,000 in 2000, and 221,000 in 2008, for a growth rate of nearly 4% per year.[17] From 1992 to 2008, population growth among the Amish in North America was 84%. During that time they established 184 new settlements and moved into six new states.[18] In 2000, approximately 165,620 Old Order Amish resided in the United States, of which 73,609 were church members.[19] The Amish are among the fastest-growing populations in the world, with an average of 6.8 children per family.[20]

There are Old Order communities in 27 U.S. states and the Canadian province of Ontario; Ohio has the largest population (55,000), followed by Pennsylvania (51,000) and Indiana (38,000).[21] The largest Amish settlements are in Holmes County in central Ohio, Lancaster County in south-central Pennsylvania, and Elkhart and LaGrange counties in northeast Indiana.[22] The largest concentration of Amish west of the Mississippi River is in Missouri, with other settlements in eastern Iowa and Southeast Minnesota.[23] In addition, there is a population of approximately 10,000 Old Order Amish in West Central Wisconsin. [24] Because of rapid population growth in Amish communities, new settlements are formed to obtain sufficient farmland. Other reasons for new settlements include locating in isolated areas that support their lifestyle, moving to areas with cultures conducive to their way of life, maintaining proximity to family or other Amish groups, and sometimes to resolve church or leadership conflicts.[18]

A small Beachy Amish congregation associated with Weavertown Amish Mennonite Church exists in Ireland.[25]

Ethnicity

The Amish largely share a German or Swiss-German ancestry. They generally use the term "Amish" only for members of their faith community, and not as an ethnic designation. Those who choose to affiliate with the church, or young children raised in Amish homes, but too young to yet be church members, are considered to be Amish. Certain Mennonite churches have a high number of people who were formerly from Amish congregations. Although more Amish immigrated to America in the 19th century than during the 18th century, most of today's Amish descend from 18th century immigrants. The latter tended to emphasize tradition to a greater extent, and were perhaps more likely to maintain a separate Amish identity.[26] There are a number of Amish Mennonite church groups that had never in their history been associated with the Old Order Amish.[citation needed] The former Western Ontario Mennonite Conference (WOMC) was made up almost entirely of former Amish Mennonites who reunited with the Mennonite Church in Canada.[27] Orland Gingerich's book, The Amish of Canada, devotes the vast majority of its pages not to the Beachy or Old Order Amish, but to congregations in the former WOMC.

Health

Amish populations have higher incidences of particular genetic disorders, including dwarfism (Ellis-van Creveld syndrome),[28] various metabolic disorders,[29] and unusual distribution of blood types.[30] Amish represent a collection of different demes or genetically closed communities.[31] Since almost all Amish descend from about 200 18th century founders, genetic disorders from inbreeding exist in more isolated districts (an example of the founder effect). Some of these disorders are quite rare, or unique, and are serious enough to increase the mortality rate among Amish children. The majority of Amish accept these as "Gottes Wille" (God's will); they reject use of preventive genetic tests prior to marriage and genetic testing of unborn children to discover genetic disorders. However, Amish are willing to participate in studies of genetic diseases. Their extensive family histories are useful to researchers investigating diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and macular degeneration.

While the Amish are at an increased risk for a number of genetic disorders, researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center—Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute (OSUCCC-James) have found their tendencies for clean living can lead to a healthier life. Overall cancer rates in the Amish population are 60 percent of the age-adjusted rate for Ohio and 56 percent of the national rate. The incidence of tobacco-related cancers in the Amish adults is 37 percent of the rate for Ohio adults, and the incidence of non-tobacco-related cancer is 72 percent. The Amish have protection against many types of cancer both through their lifestyle—there is very little tobacco or alcohol use and limited sexual partners—and through genes that may reduce their susceptibility to cancer. Dr. Judith Westman, director of human genetics at OSUCCC-James, conducted the study. The findings were reported in a recent issue of the journal Cancer Causes & Control. Even skin cancer rates are lower for Amish, despite the fact many Amish make their living working outdoors where they are exposed to sunlight and UV rays. They are typically covered and dressed to work in the sun by wearing wide-brimmed hats and long sleeves to protect their skin.[32]

The Amish are conscious of the advantages of exogamy. A common bloodline in one community will often be absent in another, and genetic disorders can be avoided by choosing spouses from unrelated communities. For example, the founding families of the Lancaster County Amish are unrelated to the founders of the Perth County, Ontario Amish community.

The Old Order Amish do not typically carry private commercial health insurance. About two-thirds of the Amish in Lancaster County participate in Church Aid, an informal self-insurance plan for helping members with catastrophic medical expenses.[33] A handful of American hospitals, starting in the mid-1990s, created special outreach programs to assist the Amish. The first of these programs was instituted at the Susquehanna Health System in central Pennsylvania by James Huebert. This program has earned national media attention in the United States, and has spread to several surrounding hospitals.[34][35] Treating genetic problems is the mission of Clinic for Special Children in Strasburg, Pennsylvania, which has developed effective treatments for such problems as maple syrup urine disease, a previously fatal disease. The clinic is embraced by most Amish, ending the need for parents to leave the community to receive proper care for their children, an action that might result in shunning.

DDC Clinic for Special Needs Children, located in Middlefield, Ohio, has been treating special-needs children with inherited or metabolic disorders since May 2002.[36] The DDC Clinic provides treatment, research, and educational services to Amish and non-Amish children and their families.

Although not forbidden or thought of as immoral, most Amish do not practice any form of birth control, hence their large families. They are against abortion and also find "artificial insemination, genetics, eugenics, and stem cell research" to be "inconsistent with Amish values and beliefs".[37]

People's Helpers is an Amish-organized network of mental health caregivers who help families dealing with mental illness and recommend professional counselors.[38] Suicide rates for the Amish of Lancaster County were 5.5 per 100,000 in 1980, about half that of the general population and a third the rate of the non-religious population.[39]

Amish life in the modern world

Traditional Amish buggy

As time has passed, the Amish have felt pressures from the modern world.[specify] Issues such as taxation, education, law and its enforcement, and occasional discrimination and hostility, are areas of difficulty.

The Amish way of life in general has increasingly diverged from that of modern society. On occasion, this has resulted in sporadic discrimination and hostility from their neighbors, such as throwing of stones or other objects at Amish horse-drawn carriages on the roads.[40][41][42]

The Amish do not usually educate their children past the eighth grade, believing that the basic knowledge offered up to that point is sufficient to prepare one for the Amish lifestyle. Almost no Amish go to high school, much less to college. In many communities, the Amish operate their own schools, which are typically one-room schoolhouses with teachers (young unmarried women) from the Amish community. On May 19, 1972, Jonas Yoder and Wallace Miller of the Old Order Amish, and Adin Yutzy of the Conservative Amish Mennonite Church, were each fined $5 for refusing to send their children, aged 14 and 15, to high school. In Wisconsin v. Yoder, the Wisconsin Supreme Court overturned the conviction, and the U.S. Supreme Court affirmed this, finding the benefits of universal education do not justify a violation of the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment.

Although, like other citizens, Amish pay most taxes, the United States Internal Revenue Service agreed in 1961 that they did not need to pay Social Security related taxes. This was because, under their beliefs and traditions, they do not accept social security benefits and have a religious objection to insurance. In 1965, this was codified into law. At times it has been believed – mistakenly – that Amish pay no taxes at all.[citation needed]

Subgroups of Amish

Over the years, the Amish churches have divided many times over doctrinal disputes. The "Old Order" Amish, a conservative faction that withdrew from fellowship with the wider body of Amish in the 1860s, are those that have most emphasized traditional practices and beliefs. There are as many as eight different subgroups of Amish with most belonging, in ascending order of conservatism, to the Beachy Amish, New Order, Old Order, or Swartzentruber Amish sects.

Similar groups

Old Order Mennonites, Hutterites, and Old German Baptist Brethren are distinct from the Amish. They all emigrated from Europe, but they arrived with different dialects, separate cultures, and diverse religious traditions.[43] Particularly, the Hutterites live communally[44] and are generally accepting of modern technology.[45]

Plain Quakers are similar in manner and lifestyle, but unrelated to the Amish.[46] Early Quakers were influenced, to some degree, by the Anabaptists. Most modern Quakers have since abandoned their traditional dress.[47]

Portrayal in popular entertainment

Film

Topical

Peter Weir's 1985 drama Witness is set and filmed in the Amish community of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Harvest of Fire is a 1996 Hallmark Hall of Fame made-for-TV movie about an FBI agent's investigation of cases of suspected arson in an Amish farming community. The 2002 documentary Devil's Playground follows a group of Amish teenagers during rumspringa, and it portrays their personal dilemma with both the "English" world and the decision on whether or not to be baptized as adult members of the church.

In Kingpin, a former bowling champion coaches a young Amish man in winning a bowling tournament to win enough money to save his family's farm.

In For Richer or Poorer a couple runs from the police and hides in an Amish community.

Rumspringas are the subject of numerous media projects, including the documentary film Devil's Playground. See Rumspringa: media coverage.

Michael Landon Jr's 2007 film Saving Sarah Cain shows the removal of young Amish children to the big city and realizing the life they can have with both the Amish and English world. Producer Larry Thompson's 2010 Lifetime Original Movie "Amish Grace" portrayed the events surrounding an Amish school shooting in Nickel Mines, PA.

Episodical

In the comedy Sex Drive, the three main characters hitchhike with an Amish man, played by Seth Green who takes them to his home. There they find a party during Rumspringa, where the character Lance meets his future love interest in the film. In the George Romero film Diary of the Dead, a deaf Amish man appears and helps the main survivors before killing himself after being infected. For Richer or Poorer is a 1997 comedy film starring Tim Allen and Kirstie Alley who find themselves hiding in a small Amish community in Pennsylvania.

Literature

Modern novels

Paul Levinson's 1999 Locus Award-winning novel, The Silk Code portrays Amish farmers involved in a science-fiction mystery about biotechnology and mysterious deaths. Jodi Picoult's 2000 novel (and 2004 TV movie) Plain Truth, deals with a crime concerning the death of a newborn infant on an Amish farm. Other novels dealing with the Amish are Lurlene McDaniel's 2002 The Angels Trilogy, Beverly Lewis's extensive series of Amish romantic fiction, Paul Gaus's Ohio Amish Mystery series, set among the Amish community in Holmes County, Ohio, and Richard Montanari's Philadelphia crime series features a homicide detective named Joshua Bontrager who grew up Amish.

Older novels

Helen Reimensnyder Martin's 1905 novel Sabina, a Story of the Amish, similar to her 1904 novel Tillie, a Mennonite Maid, so harshly depicted its subjects as to provoke cries of misrepresentation. Anna Balmer Myers' 1920 novel Patchwork: a Story of "the Plain People," like her 1921 novel Amanda: A Daughter of the Mennonites, are generally regarded as gentle correctives to the work of Martin. Ruth Lininger Dobson's 1937 novel Straw in the Wind, written while a student at the University of Michigan and receiving the school's Hopwood Award, so negatively depicted the Amish of Indiana that Joseph Yoder was motivated to correct the severe stereotypes with a more accurate book about the Amish way of life. In 1940, he wrote the gentler Rosanna of the Amish, a story of his mother's life (and his own). He later wrote a sequel, Rosanna's Boys (1948), as well as other books presenting and recording what he regarded as a truer picture of Amish culture.

Children's literature

Marguerite de Angeli's 1936 children's story Henner's Lydia portrays a tender Amish family. The author sketched many of the illustrations at the site of the little red schoolhouse still standing at the intersection of PA route 23 and Red Schoolhouse Road, just west of Morgantown, Pennsylvania. Today the building is the Amish Mennonite Information Center. The Lancaster County landscape, portrayed in the end papers of the book, can be recognized throughout the area. De Angeli's illustrations of a nearby bank barn were sketched just hours before the barn was destroyed by fire. She incorporated the incident in her 1944 Caldecott Honor book Yonie Wondernose, a story about a curious Amish boy, younger brother to the Lydia of Henner's Lydia. Another popular children's book, Plain Girl by Virginia Sorensen, was published in 1956, and is still in print.

Theatre

The 1955 Broadway musical show, Plain and Fancy, is an early stage-play portrayal of the Amish people. Set in Lancaster County, it tells of a couple from New York who encounter the quaint Amish lifestyle when they arrive to sell off some property. This show depicted "shunning" and "barn-raising" to the American audience for the first time. Another play featuring the Amish is Quiet in the Land, a Canadian play concerning Amish struggles during World War I (1917–1918).

Television

NBC aired, in 1988, a family drama called Aaron's Way about an Amish family who moved to California and had to adjust to a non-Amish lifestyle. Numerous other TV shows have presented episodes with Amish characters or storylines. Some of them include Tales of the Gold Monkey, Arthur, The Simpsons, Futurama, Dexter's Laboratory, Picket Fences, Murder She Wrote, MacGyver, Guiding Light, Grey's Anatomy, Bones, My Name Is Earl, Glenn Martin, DDS and Cold Case.[48] In the summer of 2004, a controversial reality-television program called Amish in the City aired on UPN. Amish teenagers were exposed to non-Amish culture by living together with "English" teens and, at the time of the show, had yet to decide if they wanted to be baptized into the Amish church. On Wednesday 18 February 2009, BBC2 aired "Trouble in Amish Paradise", a one-hour documentary on Ephraim and Jesse Stoltzfus and their desire to adhere to Biblical Christianity whilst remaining Amish in culture. In July 2010 Channel 4 aired a documentary titled Amish: World's Squarest Teenagers following five Amish teenagers from America being introduced to life in the UK.

Music

"Weird Al" Yankovic's 1996 parody "Amish Paradise" and the accompanying music video was an affectionate send-up of Coolio's earlier soul song "Gangsta's Paradise", with Yankovic and former The Brady Bunch actress Florence Henderson in Amish garb, and lyrics reflecting Amish themes.

See also

Dirk.willems.rescue.ncs.jpg Anabaptism portal

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Mark Scolforo (28 July 2010). "Amish Population Growth: Numbers Increasing, Heading West". The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/07/29/amish-population-growth-n_n_663323.html. Retrieved 29 July 2010. 
  2. ^ Kraybill (2001) pp. 7–8
  3. ^ Kraybill (2001), p. 8
  4. ^ Zook, Noah and Samuel L Yoder (1998). "Berne, Indiana, Old Order Amish Settlement". http://www.gameo.org/encyclopedia/contents/B4762.html. Retrieved 2009-04-03. 
  5. ^ http://www.religioustolerance.org/amish.htm
  6. ^ a b Mark Scolforo (2008-08-20). "Amish population nearly doubles in 16 years". USA Today. Associated Press. http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2008-08-20-3770622862_x.htm. Retrieved 3 February 2011. 
  7. ^ Kraybill, Donald; Olshan, Marc A. The Amish Struggle with Modernity, UPNE, 1994.
  8. ^ "Amisch Teenagers Experience the World". National Geographic. http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/series/inside/3660/amish-rumspringa. 
  9. ^ Kate Ruder (July 23, 2004). "Genomics in Amish Country". Genome News Network. http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/articles/2004/07/23/sids.php. 
  10. ^ Hostetler 1993, p. 25.
  11. ^ Hostetler 1993, p. 27.
  12. ^ Smith, pp. 68–69, 84–85.
  13. ^ Smith, pp. 212–214
  14. ^ Kraybill (2000). The Anabaptist Escalator. pp. 63–64. 
  15. ^ Nolt, S. M. A History of the Amish, Intercourse: Good Books, 1992
  16. ^ Kraybill (2000), p. 67.
  17. ^ "Amish Population Change 1992–2008". Young Center for Anabaptist and Pietist Studies, Elizabethtown College. http://www2.etown.edu/amishstudies/PDF/Statistics/Population_Change_Summary_1992_2008.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  18. ^ Kraybill, Donald B. (2000). Anabaptist World USA. Herald Press. ISBN 0-8361-9163-3. 
  19. ^ Julia A. Ericksen; Eugene P. Ericksen, John A. Hostetler, Gertrude E. Huntington (July 1979). "Fertility Patterns and Trends among the Old Order Amish". Population Studies (33): 255–76. ISSN 00324728. OCLC 39648293. 
  20. ^ "Amish Population by State (2008)". oung Center for Anabaptist and Pietist Studies, Elizabethtown College. http://www2.etown.edu/amishstudies/Population_by_State_2008.asp. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  21. ^ "The Twelve Largest Amish Settlements (2008)". Young Center for Anabaptist and Pietist Studies, Elizabethtown College. http://www2.etown.edu/amishstudies/Largest_Settlements_2008.asp. Retrieved 2009-07-08. 
  22. ^ "Amish Population by State (2009)". http://www2.etown.edu/amishstudies/Population_by_State_2009.asp. 
  23. ^ Barrionuevo, Alexei (2005-10-18). "New York Times: Amish May Be Good Neighbors, but Not Their Horses". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/18/national/18manure.html. 
  24. ^ Michael Clifford (August 6, 2000). "At ease with the alternative Amish way". Sunday Tribune. https://www.tribune.ie/archive/article/2000/aug/06/at-ease-with-the-alternative-amish-way/. 
  25. ^ Nolt, S. M. A History of the Amish, Intercourse:Good Books, 1992, p. 104
  26. ^ Gingerich, Orland (1990). "Western Ontario Mennonite Conference". Global Anabaptist Mennonite Encyclopedia Online. http://www.gameo.org/encyclopedia/contents/W4781ME.html. Retrieved 2008-07-05. 
  27. ^ Ellis-van Creveld syndrome and the Amish. 24. Nature Genetics. 2000. doi:10.1038/73389. http://www.nature.com/ng/journal/v24/n3/full/ng0300_203.html. Retrieved 2008-07-02. 
  28. ^ Morton, D. Holmes; Morton, Caroline S.; Strauss, Kevin A.; Robinson, Donna L.; Puffenberger, Erik G.; Hendrickson, Christine; Kelley, Richard I. (2003-06-27). "Pediatric medicine and the genetic disorders of the Amish and Mennonite people of Pennsylvania". American Journal of Medical Genetics (American Journal of Medical Genetics) 121C (1): 5. doi:10.1002/ajmg.c.20002. PMID 12888982. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/104542765/abstract. Retrieved 2008-07-02. "Regional hospitals and midwives routinely send whole-blood filter paper neonatal screens for tandem mass spectrometry and other modern analytical methods to detect 14 of the metabolic disorders found in these populations…" 
  29. ^ Hostetler, p. 330.
  30. ^ Hostetler, p. 328.
  31. ^ "Amish Have Lower Rates Of Cancer, Ohio State Study Shows". Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Medical Center. 1 January 2010. http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/viewer/Pages/index.aspx?NewsId=5307. Retrieved 6 January 2010. 
  32. ^ Rubinkam, Michael (October 5, 2006). "Amish Reluctantly Accept Donations". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/10/05/AR2006100501360.html. Retrieved 2008-03-25. 
  33. ^ The Daily Item — Doctors make house calls in barn
  34. ^ [1] The Irish Medical Times. A culture vastly different from the rest of America
  35. ^ DDC Clinic for Special Needs Children
  36. ^ Margaret M. Andrews and Joyceen S. Boyle (2002). Transcultural concepts in nursing care. Lippincott. ISBN 978-0-7817-3680-0. http://books.google.com/?id=Tq-rL8VcQBQC&pg=PA455&lpg=PA455&dq=abortion+amish. Retrieved 2008-01-19. 
  37. ^ Kraybill (2001), p. 105.
  38. ^ The overall suicide rate in 1980 in the USA was 12.5 per 100,000. Kraybill et al. "Suicide Patterns in a Religious Subculture: The Old Order Amish," International Journal of Moral and Social Studies 1 (Autumn 1986).
  39. ^ Iseman, David (18 May 1988). "Trumbull probes attack on woman, Amish buggy". The Vindicator. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=1uBRAAAAIBAJ&sjid=GoUMAAAAIBAJ&pg=5866,396113&hl=en. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  40. ^ "Stone Amish". Painesville Telegraph. 12 September 1949. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=-15ZAAAAIBAJ&sjid=gUgNAAAAIBAJ&pg=6383,209217&dq=amish+stoning+-fulham+-muslim&hl=en. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  41. ^ "State Police Arrest 25 Boys in Rural Areas". The Vindicator. 25 October 1958. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=q8Q_AAAAIBAJ&sjid=z1cMAAAAIBAJ&dq=amish%20stoning%20-fulham%20-muslim&pg=2772%2C3130040. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  42. ^ http://www.etown.edu/YoungCenter.aspx?topic=About+Anabaptists+and+Pietists
  43. ^ "Hutterites". Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/277694/Hutterites. Retrieved 2008-11-09. 
  44. ^ Laverdure, Paul (2006). "Hutterites". Encyclopedia of Saskatchewan. Canadian Plains Research Center. http://esask.uregina.ca/entry/hutterites.html. Retrieved 2008-11-09. 
  45. ^ Hamm 2003, p. 101.
  46. ^ Hamm 2003, pp. 103-105.
  47. ^ Brad Igou, "The Amish in the Media," Amish County News, 2001/2005

References

Further reading

  • Die Botschaft (Lancaster, PA 17608-0807; 717-392-1321). Magazine for Old Order Amish published by non-Amish; only Amish may place advertisements.
  • The Budget (P.O. Box 249, Sugarcreek, OH 44681; 330-852-4634). Weekly newspaper by and for Amish. Online information: http://www.thebudgetnewspaper.com/
  • The Diary (P.O. Box 98, Gordonville, PA 17529). Monthly newsmagazine by and for Old Order Amish.
  • DeWalt, Mark W. Amish Education in the United States and Canada. Rowman and Littlefield Education, 2006. 224 pp.
  • Garret, Ottie A and Ruth Irene Garret. True Stories of the X-Amish: Banned, Excommunicated and Shunned, Horse Cave, KY: Neu Leben, 1998.
  • Garret, Ruth Irene. Crossing Over: One Woman's Escape from Amish Life, Thomas More, 1998.
  • Good, Merle and Phyllis. 20 Most Asked Questions about the Amish and Mennonites. Intercourse, PA: Good Books, 1979.
  • Hostetler, John A. ed. Amish Roots: A Treasury of History, Wisdom, and Lore. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989. 319 pp.
  • Igou, Brad. The Amish in Their Own Words: Amish Writings from 25 Years of Family Life, Scottdale, PA: Herald Press, 1999. 400 pp.
  • Johnson-Weiner, Karen M. Train Up a Child: Old Order Amish and Mennonite Schools. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006. 304 pp.
  • Keim, Albert. Compulsory Education and the Amish: The Right Not to be Modern. Beacon Press, 1976. 211 pp.
  • Kraybill, Donald B. The Amish of Lancaster County. Mechanicsburg, PA: Stackpole Books, 2008.
  • Kraybill, Donald B. ed. The Amish and the State. Foreword by Martin E. Marty. 2nd ed.: Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003. 351 pp.
  • Kraybill, Donald B. and Marc A. Olshan, ed. The Amish Struggle with Modernity. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1994. 304 pp.
  • Kraybill, Donald B. and Carl D. Bowman. On the Backroad to Heaven: Old Order Hutterites, Mennonites, Amish, and Brethren. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002. 330pp.
  • Kraybill, Donald B. and Steven M. Nolt. Amish Enterprise: From Plows to Profits. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004. 286 pp.
  • Kraybill, Donald B., Steven M. Nolt and David L. Weaver-Zercher. Amish Grace: How Forgiveness Transcended Tragedy. New York: Jossey-Bass, 2006. 256 pp.
  • Luthy, David. Amish Settlements That Failed, 1840–1960. LaGrange, IN: Pathway Publishers, 1991. 555pp.
  • Nolt, Steven M. A history of the Amish. Rev. and updated ed.: Intercourse, Pa.: Good Books, 2003. 379 pp.
  • Nolt, Steven M. and Thomas J. Myers. Plain Diversity: Amish Cultures and Identities. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007. 256 pp.
  • Schachtman, Tom. Rumspringa: To be or not to be Amish. New York: North Point Press, 2006. 286 pp.
  • Schlabach, Theron F. Peace, Faith, Nation: Mennonites and Amish in Nineteenth-Century America. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press, 1988. 415 pp.
  • Schmidt, Kimberly D., Diane Zimmerman Umble, and Steven D. Reschly, eds. Strangers at Home: Amish and Mennonite Women in History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002. 416 pp.
  • Scott, Stephen. The Amish Wedding and Other Special Occasions of the Old Order Communities. Intercourse, PA: Good Books, 1988. 128pp.
  • Stevick, Richard A. Growing Up Amish: the Teenage Years. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2007. 320 pp.
  • Umble, Diane Zimmerman. Holding the Line: the Telephone in Old Order Mennonite and Amish Life. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000. 192 pp.
  • Umble, Diane Zimmerman and David L. Weaver-Zercher, eds. The Amish and the Media. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008. 288 pp.
  • Weaver-Zercher, David L. The Amish in the American Imagination. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001. 280 pp.
  • Yoder, Harvey. The Happening: Nickel Mines School Tragedy. Berlin, OH: TGS International, 2007. 173 pp.

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