Hatred


Hatred

Hatred or hate is a word that describes intense feelings of dislike. It can be used in a wide variety of contexts, from hatred of inanimate objects to hatred of other people.

Philosophers have offered many influential definitions of hatred. Rene Descartes viewed hate as an awareness that something is bad, combined with an urge to withdraw from it. Baruch Spinoza defined hate as a type of pain that is due to an external cause. Aristotle viewed hate as a desire for the annihilation of an object that is incurable by time. Finally, David Hume believed that hate is an irreducible feeling that is not definable at all. [Royzman, E. B., McCauley, C. & Rozin, P. (2005). From Plato to Putnam: Four ways to think about hate. In "The Psychology of Hate" by Sternberg, R. (Ed.).]

In psychology, Sigmund Freud defined hate as an ego state that wishes to destroy the source of its unhappiness [Freud, S. (1915). The instincts and their vicissitudes.] . In a more contemporary definition, the "Penguin Dictionary of Psychology" defines hate as a "deep, enduring, intense emotion expressing animosity, anger, and hostility towards a person, group, or object." [Reber, A.S., & Reber, E. (2002). "The Penguin dictionary of psychology". New York: Penguin Books.] Because hatred is believed to be long-lasting, many psychologists consider it to be more of an attitude or disposition than a (temporary) emotional state (see rage).

References


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  • HATRED — (Heb. שִׂנְאָה), overt or covert ill will. The Torah explicitly prohibits hatred of one s fellow in the verse Thou shall not hate thy brother in thine heart (Lev. 19:17). Hatred is understood by the rabbis as essentially a matter of mental… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Hatred — • In general, a vehement aversion entertained by one person for another, or for something more or less identified with that other Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Hatred     Hatred …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Hatred — Ha tred (h[=a] tr[e^]d), n. [OE. hatred, hatreden. See {Hate}, and cf. {Kindred}.] Strong aversion; intense dislike; hate; an affection of the mind awakened by something regarded as evil. Syn: Odium; ill will; enmity; hate; animosity;… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Hatred — Bandfoto 2008 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • hatred — I noun abhorrence, abomination, animosity, animus, antagonism, antipathy, aversion, defamation, detestation, dislike, enmity, hostility, ill feeling, ill will, intolerance, loathing, malevolence, odium, prejudice, revulsion II index conflict,… …   Law dictionary

  • hatred — early 13c., from HATE (Cf. hate) + rare suffix red, from O.E. ræden state, condition, related to verb rædan to advise, discuss, rule, read, guess. See READ (Cf. read) and Cf. second element of KINDRED (Cf. kindred) and proper names Æþelræd and …   Etymology dictionary

  • hatred — 1 *hate Analogous words: animosity, *enmity, hostility, rancor: aversion, *antipathy: malevolence, malignity, malignancy, ill will, despite, *malice: envy, jealousy (see corresponding adjectives at ENVIOUS) Contrasted words: love, affection, * …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • hatred — [n] severe dislike abhorrence, abomination, acrimony, alienation, allergy to*, animosity, animus, antagonism, antipathy, aversion, bitterness, coldness, contempt, detestation, disapproval, disfavor, disgust, displeasure, distaste, enmity, envy,… …   New thesaurus

  • hatred — ► NOUN ▪ intense hate …   English terms dictionary

  • hatred — [hā′trid] n. [ME < hate, hate + red, reden < OE ræden, state, condition] strong dislike or ill will; hate …   English World dictionary


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