Aozora Bunko


Aozora Bunko

Aozora Bunko ( _ja. 青空文庫, the "Open Air Library") is a Japanese digital library of several thousands of works of Japanese-language fiction and non-fiction that are either out-of-copyright or that the authors wish to make freely available. Since 1997, "Aozora Bunko" has been both the compiler and publisher of a evolving on-line catalog.Intute: [http://www.intute.ac.uk/artsandhumanities/cgi-bin/fullrecord.pl?handle=humbul17977 Intute web site, "Aozora Bunko" project description] ] In 2006, "Aozora Bunko" organized to take on an added role as a public policy advocate in order to protect its current and anticipated catalog of freely accessible e-books. [http://www.aozora.gr.jp/shomei/ Aozora Bunko (in Japanese] ]

Origins

"Aozora Bunko" was created on the Internet in 1997 to make available for free literary works whose copyrights have expired. The driving force which made the project possible was Michio Tomita, who was motivated by the simple belief that people with a common interest should cooperate with each other. [ [http://www.ndl.go.jp/en/publication/ndl_newsletter/130/302.html "Electronic Library National Liaison Conference FY2003,"] "National Diet Library Newsletter." No. 30, April 2003.]

In Japan, "Aozora Bunko" has been considered similar to Project Gutenberg.Tamura, Aya. [http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20060930f2.html "Novelists, others want copyright protection extended,"] "Japan Times Online." September 30, 2006.] The on-line resources are searchable by category, author, or title; and there is a considerable amount of support in how to use the database in the form of detailed explanations. The files can be downloaded in PDF format or simply viewed in HTML format. [see above] ]

Most of the texts provided are Japanese literature and translations from English literature. This digital library ultimately plans to include 6,000+ works on the site. [see above] ]

"Aozora Bunko" has joined with others in organizing to oppose changes in Japanese copyright law, and that opposition has led to encouraging Japanese citizens to submit letters and petitions to the Japanese Cultural Affairs Agency and to members of the Diet. [http://www.aozora.gr.jp/shomei/ Aozora Bunko (in Japanese] ] Japan and other countries have accepted the terms of the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, an 1886 international agreement about common copyright policies. Japan and other countries with laws which do not go beyond the minimum copyright terms of the Berne Convention have copyrights which run for the lifetime of the author plus 50 years. "Aozora Bunko" advocates in favor of construing this "status quo" as preferable to changes proposed by a number of powerful forces. [see above] ]

The evolution of "Aozora Bunko" from a digital library to a public-policy advocacy organization is an unintended consequence which developed only after the perceived threat to the Aozora Bunko catalog became otherwise unavoidable. [see above] ]

Notes

References

* Bovens, Andreas. (2005). [http://www.japanmediareview.com/japan/stories/050210bovens/ "Closed Architectures for Content Distribution,"] "Japan Media Review" (University of Southern California, Annenberg School for Communication); [http://www.yale.edu/macmillan/ceas/reproduction/bovens.html Yale University Conference (2004), "Reproduction in Modern Japan" -- paper abstract]
* Donovan, Maureen H. (2006). [http://www.springerlink.com/content/c16641g7588n1595/ "Accessing Japanese Digital Libraries: Three Case Studies."] Berlin: Springer. 13-ISBN 978-3-540-49375-4
* Lessig, Lawrence. (2004). [http://books.google.com/books?id=cxZp0sV3V80C&dq=Free+Culture:+How+Big+Media+Uses+Technology+and+the+Law+to+Lock+Down+Culture&client=firefox-a&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0 "Free Culture: How Big Media Uses Technology and the Law to Lock Down Culture and Control Creativity."] New York: Penguin Press. 10-ISBN 1-594-20006-8; 13-ISBN 978-1-594-20006-9 (cloth)
* Tamura, Aya. [http://search.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/nn20060930f2.html "Novelists, others want copyright protection extended,"] "Japan Times Online." September 30, 2006.
* Tomita, Michio. [http://sciencelinks.jp/j-east/article/200004/000020000499A0985291.php "Enable Library, "Aozora Bunko" as an 'Enable Library',"] "Gendai no Toshokan." Vol. 37, No. 3, pp. 176-181 (1999).
* __________. [http://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/110001013192/en/ "Dream of perpetual Aozora Bunko, a private electronic library,"] "Art research" (Ritsumeikan University). Vol.2, pp. 49-56 (2001).
* Yamamoto, Shuichiro. [http://sciencelinks.jp/content/view/586/33/ "What Is Knowledge That Generates Value?" Science Links Japan web site] (2008).

ee also

* Wikisource
* List of digital library projects
* Open Content Alliance
** UK:Gowers Review of Intellectual Property
** US:Copyright Term Extension Act
* Project Runeberg
* Open Rights Group
* Philosophy of copyright
** Permission culture

External links

* [http://www.aozora.gr.jp/ 青空文庫] zip and html files of Japanese literature in Aozora Bunko.
* [http://www.let.osaka-u.ac.jp/~okajima/uwazura.html うわづら文庫] Uwazura Bunko of the Aozora Bunko are bigger size pdf files of Japanese literature, not the same as those zip and html files in Aozora Bunko.

* National Diet Library: [http://porta.ndl.go.jp/wiki/attach/%E3%81%93%E3%81%AE%E3%82%B5%E3%82%A4%E3%83%88%E3%81%AB%E3%81%A4%E3%81%84%E3%81%A6/pamphlet_en_spread.pdf NDL Library Digital Archive Portal (PORTA);] [http://fas.harvard.edu/~ncc/openmeeting2006/NDL.pdf NDL PORTA analysis]
* [http://www.cric.or.jp/cric_e/index.html Copyright Research and Information Center]




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