Episcopal Church in the United States of America
Infobox Anglican Church
show_name =The Episcopal Church
caption =The Cathedral Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in
Washington, D.C., is referred to as the
Washington National Cathedral.
Katharine Jefferts Schori
orientation = Mainline
polity = Episcopal
headquarters= 815 Second Avenue, New York
United Statesand dioceses in Taiwan, Central and South America, the Caribbean, and Europe
population= 2,205,376 [cite web |last = Dart |first = John |title = Episcopal membership loss 'precipitous' |url = http://www.christiancentury.org/article.lasso?id=2566 |publisher = "The Christian Century" |date =
2006-11-14|accessdate = 2008-05-25 ] (estimate)
The Episcopal Church is the official name of the Province of the
Anglican Communionin the United States.cite book
last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = F. L. Cross (Editor), E. A. Livingstone (Editor) | title =The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd edition | publisher =Oxford University Press | date =13 March 1997 | location =USA | pages =554 | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = 0–19–211655–X] cite web
last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | title =Episcopal Church
work =The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition | publisher =Columbia University Press | date =2001-05 | url =http://www.bartleby.com/65/ep/Episcopal.html | format = | doi = | accessdate = 2007-09-09] cite web
last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | title =Episcopal Church USA | work =Encyclopedia Britannica | publisher =Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc.
date = | url =http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9061604/Episcopal-Church-USA | format = | doi = | accessdate = 2007-09-09 ]
The Church was organized shortly after the
American Revolutionwhen it was forced to break with the Church of Englandon penalty of treason as Church of England clergy were required to swear allegiance to the British monarch,cite book |last=Hein |first=David |authorlink= |coauthors=Gardiner H. Shattuck, Jr. |editor= |others= |title=The Episcopalians |origdate= |origyear= |origmonth= |url= |format= |accessdate= |accessyear= |accessmonth= |edition= |series= |date= |year=2004 |month= |publisher=Church Publishing |location= New York|language= |isbn=0898694973 |oclc= |doi= |id= |pages= |chapter= |chapterurl= |quote= ] and became, in the words of the 1990 report of the Archbishop of Canterbury's Group on the Episcopate, "the first Anglican Province outside the British Isles".cite book |last= |first= |authorlink= |coauthors=The Archbishops' Group on the Episcopate|editor= |others= |title=Episcopal Ministry: The Report of the Archbishops' Group...|origdate= |origyear= |origmonth= |url= |format= |accessdate= |accessyear= |accessmonth= |edition= |series= |date= |year=1990 |month= |publisher=Church House Publishing |location= |language= |isbn=0715137360 |oclc= |doi= |id= |pages=123 |chapter= |chapterurl= |quote= ] Today it is divided into nine provinces and has dioceses outside the U.S. in Taiwan, Central and South America, the Caribbeanand Europe. The Episcopal Diocese of the Virgin Islandsencompasses both American and British territory.
In keeping with Anglican tradition and theology, the Episcopal Church considers itself a "
via media", or middle way, between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. [ [http://www.episcopalchurch.org/visitors_8950_ENG_HTM.htm What makes us Anglican?Hallmarks of the Episcopal Church] ]
The Episcopal Church was active in the
Social Gospelmovement of the late nineteenth century and since the 1960s and 1970s has played a leading role in the progressive and liberal movements on church and stateissues. For example, in its resolutions on state issues the Episcopal Church has opposed the death penalty, and supported the civil rights movementand affirmative action. Some of its leaders and priests marched with demonstrators. Most dioceses ordain openly homosexual men and women; in some, same-sex unions are celebrated. However, on other issues such as abortion, the church has taken both sides of the debate. [cite web |title=Frequently Asked Questions |url=http://www.integrityusa.org/FAQs/index.htm |publisher=Integrity |accessdate=2007-06-19]
In most dioceses, women are ordained to the priesthood and episcopate, as well as the diaconate. The current Presiding Bishop of the Episcopal Church is
Katharine Jefferts Schori, the first female primate in the Anglican Communion (although the title "Primate" is not used by the Episcopal Church for their presiding bishop).
There are two official names of the Episcopal Church specified in its Constitution: "The Episcopal Church" (commonly abbreviated "TEC"), and "The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America (commonly abbreviated "PECUSA"). "The Episcopal Church" is the most commonly used name.cite book | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = F. L. Cross (Editor), E. A. Livingstone (Editor) | title =The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, 3rd edition | publisher =Oxford University Press | date =13 March 1997 | location =USA | pages =554 | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = 0–19–211655–X] cite web | last =
first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | title =Episcopal Church | work =The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. | publisher =Columbia University Press | date =2001-05 | url =http://www.bartleby.com/65/ep/Episcopal.html
format = | doi = | accessdate = 2007-09-09] cite web | last = | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | title =Episcopal Church USA | work =Encyclopedia Britannica | publisher =Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. | date = | url =http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9061604/Episcopal-Church-USA | format = | doi = | accessdate = 2007-09-09 ]
In the early days of the church, the name was "The Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America." In the middle of the 19th century, some began trying to drop "Protestant" from the church's title, on the grounds that the original break of the
Church of Englandfrom the Roman Catholic Churchhad nothing directly to do with the Protestant Reformation. Also, it had come to mean anti-Catholic rather than anti-papal. In a 1964 General Convention compromise, priests and lay delegates suggested adding a preamble to the church's constitution, recognizing "The Episcopal Church" as a lawful alternate designation while still retaining the earlier name.
The fight continued until the 66th
General Conventionvoted in 1979 to use the name "Episcopal Church" (dropping the adjective 'Protestant') in the "Oath of Conformity" of the "Declaration for Ordination". [ [http://www.episcopalarchives.org/cgi-bin/acts/acts_resolution-complete.pl?resolution=1979-A125 1979 General Convention resolution to change the Oath of Conformity] .] The 68th General Convention in 1985 rejected a resolution that would have changed the Constitution to delete the designation of "Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America" as an official name. [ [http://www.episcopalarchives.org/cgi-bin/acts/acts_resolution-complete.pl?resolution=1985-B005 1985 General Convention resolution to rename the church] .]
The preamble to the Constitution of the Episcopal Church now reads:
The evolution of the name can be seen in The Episcopal Church's "
Book of Common Prayer" (BCP). In the 1928 BCP, the title page said, "According to the use of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America." In contrast, the change in self-identity can be seen in the title page of the 1979 "Book of Common Prayer", which states, "'According to the use of The Episcopal Church."cite book |last=Zahl |first= Paul F.|authorlink= |coauthors= |editor= |others= |title= The Protestant Face of Anglicanism|origdate= |origyear= |origmonth= |url= |format= |accessdate= |accessyear= |accessmonth= |edition= |series= |date= |year=1998 |month= |publisher=William B. Eerdmans Publish Company |location=Grand Rapids, Michigan |language= |isbn=0802845975 |oclc= |doi= |id= |pages= |chapter= |chapterurl= |quote= . The author is the former dean of Cathedral Church of the Advent, Birmingham, Alabamaand the Trinity Episcopal School for Ministry-page 56'Protestant consciousness within ECUSA, which used to be called PECUSA (i.e., the Protestant Episcopal Church in the U.S.A) is moribund.' and page 69 'With the approval and lightening ascent of the 1979 Prayer Book came to the end, for all practical purposes, of Protestant churchmanship in what is now known aggressively as ECUSA.']
The Episcopal Church communicates in English, Spanish and French because it has dioceses in Asia, Central and South America, and Europe. [ [http://www.episcopalchurch.org/documents/3_SCECAC_reportbody_-_V2.pdf An example of an official Episcopal Church document in English, Spanish and French] Retrieved 29 August 2007.] [ [http://www.churchpublishing.org/general_convention/pdf_spanish_2003/1_Constitucion.pdf] 2003 Constitution in Spanish] Retrieved 1 September 2007] In Spanish the church is called "La Iglesia Episcopal Protestante de los Estados Unidos de América" or "La Iglesia Episcopal" and in French "L’Église protestante épiscopale dans les États unis d’Amérique" or "L'Église épiscopale". [ [http://www.episcopalchurch.org/index_esn.htm Episcopal Church webpage in Spanish] ] [ [http://www.episcopalchurch.org/index_fra.htm Episcopal Church webpage in French] ]
The alternate name "Episcopal Church in the United States of America" (abbreviated "ECUSA") is commonly seen, but has never been the official name of the Episcopal Church. Because it contains integral jurisdictions in many other countries, it has thought that it needs a name that is not directly tied to the United States. But since several other churches in the Anglican Communion also use the name "Episcopal", this article uses the name "Episcopal Church in the United States of America", as do some other sources (
Anglicans Online, for example). [ [http://morgue.anglicansonline.org/061029/ Anglicans Online | The online centre of the Anglican / Episcopal world ] ]
The full legal name of the national church corporate body is the "Domestic and Foreign Missionary Society of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States of America", and was incorporated by the Legislature of the State of New York and established in 1821. The membership of the corporation "shall be considered as comprehending all persons who are members of the Church". [ [http://www.epischicago.org/EpiscopalChurch.cfm The Episcopal Church] Retrieved 7 July 2007 ]
Church of England in British North America (1497–1775)
The Episcopal Church traces its history from its origins in the
Church of England. It stresses its continuity with the early universal Western church and maintains apostolic succession.cite book | last =Sydnor | first =William | authorlink = | coauthors = | title =Looking at the Episcopal Church | publisher =Morehouse Publishing | date =1980 | location =USA
pages =64 | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = ]
John Cabotfounded the first English colony in North America on 24 June 1497, he must have had some sort of religious service — it was St. John the Baptist's Day and the day was likely not a coincidence — and yet there is no extant record. In any case, Cabot sailed under the authority of King Henry VII and the English Church was still firmly Roman Catholic.
The first Church of England service recorded on North American soil was a celebration of Holy Communion at
Frobisher Bayin the last days of August or early September 1578. The Anglican Church of Canada's Prayer Book fixes the day of commemoration as 3 September. The chaplain on Martin Frobisher's voyage was " 'Maister Wolfall (probably Robert Wolfall), minister and preacher', who had been charged by Queen Elizabeth 'to serve God twice a day'."
The first service read from the
Book of Common Prayeron American soil occurred on 19 June 1579in a harbor far north of San Francisco, when the crew of Sir Francis Drake's ship, the " Golden Hind", landed. Drake named the new land Nova Albionor New Albionand claimed it for Queen Elizabeth I. The landing site may have been near Astoria, Oregonor, speculatively, much further north in British Columbia. The exact location has never been certain but is variously reported as between 48 degrees and 42 degrees north latitude, a range which includes most of Washington, all of Oregon, and a sliver of California. The harbor was reportedly at either, 48, 44, 38 1/2, or 38 degrees. Drake and his crew stayed in this now lost harbor for over five weeks, repairing the "Golden Hind". [ [http://www.mcn.org/2/oseeler/drake.htm Sir Francis Drake] ]
The Lost Colony of 1587 at Roanoke—the
Roanoke Colonyon Roanoke Islandoff of North Carolina—and the previous colony of 1585 in the same location may have had recorded Church of England baptisms. Records do not suggest any clergy with the colonists and references are vague. For example, one secondary text says that on August 13 1587, an aboriginal man called Manteo who lived with the colonists and surrounding people "was christened and declared Lord of Roanoke and Dasamonquepeuc as a reward for his many services." [cite web |url=http://statelibrary.dcr.state.nc.us/nc/ncsites/English1.htm |title=First English Settlement in the New World |accessdate=2007-10-08 |accessmonthday= |accessdaymonth= |accessyear= |author= |last= |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |date= |year= |month= |format= |work= |publisher=State Library of North Carolina |pages= |language= |doi= |archiveurl= |archivedate= |quote= ]
The propagation of the Church of England occurred in three ways. One way was by officers of ships and lay military and civil officials reading services from the
Book of Common Prayerregularly when no clergy were present. For example, in the charter issued by Charles I for Newfoundland in 1633 was this directive: "On Sundays Divine Service to be said by some of the Masters of ships, such prayers as are in the Book of Common Prayer."
A second way was the direct appointing and employing of clergy by the English government on ships and in settlements.
A third way was the employment of clergy by private "merchant adventurer" companies, such as the Merchant Adventurers of London. They held monopolies on trading some products, but also sponsored exploration and settlement. They helped fund the Pilgrims going to Massachusetts, for instance. The first Church of England
parishwas founded in Jamestown, Virginia in 1607 under the charter of the Virginia Company of London.cite book | last =Sydnor | first =William | authorlink = | coauthors = | title =Looking at the Episcopal Church | publisher =Morehouse Publishing | date =1980 | location =USA | pages =72 | url = | doi = | id = | isbn = ]
Hudson's Bay Companysent out its first chaplain in 1683. Where there was no chaplain, the officers of the company were directed to read prayers from the BCP on Sundays. In 1836, a Church of England chaplain arrived at the Hudson's Bay Company's Fort Vancouver, now Vancouver, Washington. This was the second-to-last Church of England clergyman on what would become American soil after the Oregon Treatyof 1846. The last Church of England clergyman vacated Fort Yukonwhen the United States government purchased the Russian territory in 1867. The U.S. government took possession of Fort Yukon in 1869 although the Hudson's Bay post really should not have been in the Russian territory at all. The chaplain had evangelized well to the First Nations and they carried on in their new faith autonomously for twenty-five years. When the Episcopal Church in the USA sent a bishop, he found the First Nations were still praying for Queen Victoria and would not stop insisting that "...we shall continue to pray for Queen Victoria." Thus, England and the English colonists brought the church to all the American colonies. The Church of England was designated the established church in Virginiain 1609, in the lower part of New Yorkin 1693, in Marylandin 1702, in South Carolinain 1706, in North Carolinain 1730, and in Georgia in 1758. All people had to contribute to local taxes for the church. The vestryused the funds to build and operate churches and schools. Virginia attempted to make requirements about attendance, but with a severe shortage of clergy, they were not enforced. From 1635, the vestries and the clergy were loosely under diocesan authority of the Bishop of London. In 1660, the clergy of Virginia petitioned for a bishop to be appointed to the colony; the proposal was vigorously opposed by powerful vestrymen, wealthy planters, who foresaw their interests being curtailed. Subsequent proposals from successive Bishops of London for the appointment of a resident suffragan bishop, or another form of office with delegated authority to perform episcopal functions, met with equally robust local opposition.
Although the Church of England was theoretically established in the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1630, in actuality the colony under
John Winthrop, who had brought its charter with him, was virtually self-governing civilly and religiously. By the time King's Chapel, the first Anglican Church in Massachusetts was founded in 1686, the Congregational Church had in fact become the established church of the colony. In 1691, religious toleration was extended to members of all Protestant churches. The Congregational Church was not disestablished until 1833. [ [http://www.churchstatelaw.com/historicalmaterials/8_1_2_11.asp Religious Liberty Archive: Rothgerber Johnson & Lyons LLP, Colorado Springs, CO ] ] [ [http://www.learner.org/biographyofamerica/prog02/transcript/page04.html A Bio. of America: English Settlement - Transcript ] ]
English Civil War, the episcopate was under attack in England. The Archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud, was beheaded in 1645. Thus, the formation of a North American diocesan structure was hampered and hindered.
In 1649, the same year when King Charles I was beheaded, the Commonwealth Parliament in England gave a charter to found a missionary organization called the
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in New Englandor the New England Society, for short.
The overseas development of the
Church of Englandin British North Americachallenged the insular view of the Church at home. The editors of the 1662 Book of Common Prayer found that they had to address the spiritual concerns of the contemporary adventurer. In the 1662 Preface, the editors note:
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts.] After 1702 the " Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts" (SPG) began missionary activity throughout the colonies. The ministers were few, the glebes small, the salaries inadequate, and the people quite uninterested in religion, as the vestry became in effect a kind of local government. One historian has explained the workings of the parish: quote|The parish was a local unit concerned with such matters as the conduct and support of the parish church, the supervision of morals, and the care of the poor. Its officers, who made up the vestry, were ordinarily influential and wealthy property holders chosen by a majority of the parishioners. They appointed the parish ministers, made local assessments, and investigated cases of moral offense for referral to the county court, the next higher judicatory. They also selected the church wardens, who audited the parish accounts and prosecuted morals cases. For several decades the system worked in a democratic fashion, but by the 1660s, the vestries had generally become self-perpetuating units made up of well-to-do landowners. This condition was sharply resented by the small farmers and servants.|Clifton Olmstead|History of Religion in the United States [cite book |last= Olmstead|first= Clifton E |authorlink=
coauthors= |title=History of Religion in the United States |year= 1960
pages=45|publisher= Prentice-Hall|location= Englewood Cliffs, N.J.|isbn= ]
The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel and the Bishop of London, continued to support the petitions of local clergy in seeking a bishop for the colonies; and strong opposition continued to these proposals, especially in the South, where a bishop would threaten the privileges of the lay vestry. Opponents conjured up visions of "episcopal palaces, or pontifical revenues, of spiritual courts, and all the pomp, grandeur, luxury and regalia of an American Lambeth" ("New York Gazette" or "Weekly Post Boy",
March 14, 1768). John Adams later explained, "the apprehension of Episcopacy" contributed to the American Revolution, capturing the attention "not only of the inquiring mind, but of the common people... . The objection was not merely to the office of a bishop, though even that was dreaded, but to the authority of parliament, on which it must be founded". [Bonomi 1998, 200]
On the eve of Revolution, a large fraction of prominent merchants and royal appointees were Anglicans and Loyalists. About 27 percent of Anglican priests nationwide supported independence, especially in Virginia. Almost 40 percent (approaching 90 percent in New York and New England) were Loyalists. Out of 55 Anglican clergy in New York and New England, only three were Patriots, two of those being from Massachusetts. In Maryland, of the 54 clergy in 1775, only 16 remained to take oaths of allegiance to the new government (McConnell 2003). William Smith made the connection explicit in a 1762 report to the Bishop of London. "The Church is the firmest Basis of Monarchy and the English Constitution", he declared. But if dissenters of "more Republican ... Principles [with] little affinity to the established Religion and manners" of England ever gained the upper hand, the colonists might begin to think of "Independency and separate Government". Thus "in a Political as well as religious view", Smith stated emphatically, the church should be strengthened by an American bishop and the appointment of "prudent Governors who are friends of our Establishment" [Bonomi 1998, 201]
By 1775 about 400 independent congregations were reported throughout the colonies. The church was disestablished in all the states during the
American Revolution. The Episcopal Church was formally separated from the Church of England in 1789 so that clergy would not be required to accept the supremacy of the British monarch.
Embracing the symbols of the British presence in the American colonies such as the monarchy, the episcopate, and even the language of the Book of Common Prayer, the Church of England almost drove itself to extinction during the upheaval of the American Revolution. More than any other denomination, the War of Independence internally divided both clergy and laity of the Church of England in America and opinions covered a wide spectrum of political views: patriots, conciliators, and loyalists. On one hand, Patriots saw the Church of England as synonymous with ‘Tory’ and ‘redcoat’. On the other hand, about three-quarters of the signers of the Declaration of Independence were nominally Anglican laymen, including Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, Patrick Henry, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay. Eight of the ten signers of the Declaration of Independence from North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia were Anglicans.
Amongst the clergy, more or less, the northern clergy were loyalist and the southern clergy were patriot. Partly, their pocketbook can explain clergy sympathies, as the New England colonies did not establish the Church of England and clergy depended on their SPG stipend rather than their parishioners’ gifts. When war broke out, these clergy looked to England for both their paycheck and their direction. Where the Church of England was established, mainly the southern colonies, financial support was local and loyalties were local.
Of the approximately three hundred clergy in the Church of England in America between 1776 and 1783, over eighty per cent in New England, New York, and New Jersey were loyalists. This is in contrast to the less than twenty-three percent loyalist clergy in the four southern colonies. In two colonies, only one priest was a patriot;
Samuel Provoost, who would become bishop, in New York and Robert Blackwell, who would serve as a chaplain in the Continental Army, in New Jersey. Many Church of England clergyman remained loyalists as they took their two ordination oaths very seriously. The first oath arises from the Church of England canons of 1604 where Anglican clergy must affirm that the king,
Thus, each Anglican clergyman was obliged to swear publicly allegiance to the king. The second oath arose out of the Act of Uniformity of 1662 where clergy were bound to use the official liturgy as found in the Book of Common Prayer and to read it verbatim. This included prayers for the king and the royal family and for the British Parliament.
These two oaths and problems worried the consciences of clergymen. Some clergy were clever in their avoidance of these problems. Samuel Tingley, a priest in Delaware and Maryland, rather than praying “O Lord, save the King” opted for evasion and said “O Lord, save those whom thou hast made it our especial Duty to pray for.”
In general, loyalist clergy stayed by their Oaths and prayed for the king or else suspended services. By the end of 1776, Anglican churches were closing. An SPG missionary would report that of the colonies of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Connecticut which he had intelligence of, only the Anglican churches in Philadelphia, a couple in rural Pennsylvania, those in British-controlled New York, and two parishes in Connecticut were open. Anglican priests held services in private homes or lay readers who were not bound by the oaths held Morning and Evening Prayer.
Nevertheless, some Loyalists clergymen were defiant, in Connecticut John Beach conducted worship throughout the war, and swore that he would continue praying for the king. In Maryland, Jonathan Boucher took two pistols into the pulpit and even pointed a pistol at the head of a group of patriots while he preached on loyalism.
Charles Inglis, rector of Trinity Church in New York persisted in reading the royal prayers even when George Washington was seated in his congregation and a patriot militia company stood by observing the service.cite book |last=Carrington |first=Philip |authorlink= |coauthors= |editor= |others= |title=The Anglican Church in Canada|origdate= |origyear= |origmonth= |url= |format= |accessdate= |accessyear= |accessmonth= |edition= |series= |date= |year=1963 |month= |publisher=Collins|location=Toronto |language= |isbn= |oclc= |doi= |id= |pages= |chapter= |chapterurl= |quote= ]
The consequences of such bravado were very serious. During 1775 and 1776, the Continental Congress had issued decrees ordering churches to fast and pray on behalf of the patriots. Starting
July 4, 1776, Congress and several states passed laws making prayers for the king and British Parliament acts of treason.
The patriot clergy in the south were quick to find reasons to transfer their oaths to the American cause and prayed for the success of the Revolution. One precedent was the transfer of oaths during the Glorious Revolution in England. Most of the patriot clergy in the south were able to keep their churches open and services continued.
When peace returned in 1783, approximately 80,000 loyalists had left the 13 American colonies, many – about 50,000 - heading for Canada including Charles Inglis who would become the first colonial bishop. By 1790, in a nation of four million, Anglicans were reduced to about ten thousand. In Virginia, less than 42 parishes of the 107 that existed in 1784 were able to support a priest between 1802 and 1811. In Georgia, Christ Church, Savannah was the only active parish in 1790. In Maryland, half of the parishes remained vacant by 1800. For a period after 1816, North Carolina had no clergy when its last clergyman died. Samuel Provoost, one of the first three Episcopal bishops – Bishop of New York - was so disheartened, he resigned his position in 1801 and retired to the country to study botany having given up on the Episcopal Church, which he was convinced, would die out with the old colonial families.
First four Episcopal bishops (1784–1790)
When the clergy of
Connecticutelected Samuel Seaburyas their bishopin 1783, he sought consecration in England. The Oath of Supremacyprevented Seabury's consecration in England, so he went to Scotland; the non-juring Scottish bishops there consecrated him in Aberdeenon November 14, 1784, making him, in the words of scholar Arthur Carl Piepkorn, "the first Anglican bishop appointed to minister outside the British Isles." [cite book
last =Piepkorn | first =Arthur Carl | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = Profiles in Belief: The Religious Bodies of the United States and Canada | publisher =Harper & Row | date =1977 | location = | pages =199 | url = | doi = | id = | isbn =0060665807 ]
for the American bishops:
#Through the non-juring bishops of Scotland that consecrated Samuel Seabury.
#Through the English church that consecrated William White and Samuel Provoost.
All bishops in the American Church are ordained by at least three bishops. One can trace the succession of each back to Seabury, White and Provoost. ("See Succession of Bishops of the Episcopal Church.") In 1789, representative clergy from nine dioceses met in Philadelphia to ratify the church's initial constitution.
The fourth bishop of the Episcopal Church was James Madison, the first bishop of Virginia. Madison was consecrated in 1790 under the archbisop of Canterbury and two other Church of England bishops. This third American bishop consecrated within the English line of succession occurred because of continuing unease within the Church of England over Seabury's nonjuring Scottish orders.
ECUSA in the American Republic (1790–present)
As the United States grew, new dioceses were established, as well as the
Convocation of American Churches in Europe. After the initial Book of Common Prayerwritten for the new church in 1789, new revisions appeared in 1892, 1928, and 1979.
In 1856 (before the
American Civil War) the first society for African-Americans in the Episcopal Church was founded by the Rev James Theodore Holly. Named "The Protestant Episcopal Society for Promoting The Extension of The Church Among Colored People", they argued that blacks should be allowed to participate in seminaries and Diocesan Conventions. The group lost its focus when The Rev. Holly emigrated to Haiti, but other groups followed after the Civil War. The current Union of Black Episcopalianstraces its history to the Society. [ [http://www.ube.org/history.html UBE History] ] During the American Civil War, an "Episcopal Church in the Confederate States of America" was temporarily formed from the dioceses within the seceded states, but this was viewed as a "separation and not a division", concerning no questions of dogma or practice (other than the prayers for Congress and the President). [ [http://anglicanhistory.org/usa/jbcheshire/confederate1912/ The Church in the Confederate States, by Joseph Blount Cheshire (1912) ] ]
James Theodore Holly went on to found the Anglican church in Haiti and became the first African-American bishop on
November 8, 1874. As Bishop of Haiti, Bishop Holly was the first African-American to attend the Lambeth Conference. [ [http://www.episcopalchurch.org/5888_58502_ENG_HTM.htm UBE History] ] However, he was consecrated by the American Church Missionary Society, an Evangelical Episcopal branch of the Church. Samuel David Fergusonwas the first black bishop consecrated by The Episcopal Church, the first to practice in the US, and the first black person to sit in the House of Bishops. Bishop Ferguson was consecrated on June 24, 1885, with the then- Presiding Bishopof the Episcopal Church acting as a consecrator.
of the Episcopal Church includes both the cross of St. George and a St. Andrew's cross.] The Episcopal Shield, adopted in
1940, is based on the St George's Cross, a symbol of England(mother of world Anglicanism), with a saltirereminiscent of the Cross of St Andrewin the canton in reference to the historical origins of the American episcopate in the Scottish Episcopal Church. [ [http://www.kingofpeace.org/shield.htm Episcopal Shield] ] More than a quarter of all presidents of the United States have been Episcopalians ("see List of United States Presidential religious affiliations").
In 1976, the General Convention requested that ECUSA's Clergy Deployment Board determine if there were "racial inequities" in clergy placement. It also passed a resolution calling for an end to
apartheidin South Africa. The General Convention asked ECUSA "dioceses, institutions, and agencies" to create equal opportunity employmentand affirmative actionpolicies in 1985. In 1991, the General Convention declared "the practice of racism is sin". [ [http://www.council-dwtx.org/GenConv/Parish%20conversation%20curriculum/2_2006_GC_session2_support.pdf From "Synopsis of Social Teaching/Contentious Resolutions of the Episcopal Church" (PDF)] , from the "Parish Conversation Curriculum" for the 2006 General Convention of the Episcopal Church, page 5. Retrieved November 5, 2006. ] On June 16, 2006, the Episcopalian House of Bishops endorsed a resolution apologizing for its complicity in the institution of slavery and its silence over “Jim Crow” laws, segregation, and racial discrimination. By a unanimous vote, the House endorsed Resolution A123. [ [http://www.livingchurch.org/publishertlc/viewarticle.asp?ID=2189 Bishops Endorse Apology for Slavery Complicity] ]
Several issues have recently created tensions in the Episcopal Church, including the reliability of scripture and historic church teachings as reliable sources for Church doctrine and the exclusive claims of Jesus regarding salvation [ [http://www.episcopalarchives.org/cgi-bin/acts/acts_resolution-complete.pl?resolution=2003-B001 The Acts of General Convention 2003 of the Episcopal Church] ] and the definition of Christian marriage. [ [http://www.anglicancommunion.org/acns/articles/42/50/acns4259.cfm The Archbishop of Canterbury's Presidential Address, paragraph 5.] ] The two most debated issues have been the ordination of women and the role of homosexuals in the church.
While speaking at a conference at the
Vancouver School of Theologyin May 2007, Presiding Bishop Jefferts Schori gave an overview of the Episcopal Church's troubles for a Canadian audience:
cquote|The bishop acknowledged the conservatives in her church - those people jarred by 35 years of constant change from the ordination of women through the inclusion of children to revisions in the prayer book - are fuelling the outrage of some outspoken African bishops over the open acceptance of gays and lesbians.
However, Jefferts Schori, who calculates the disgruntled at one half of one per cent of her 2.4 million-member church, calculates the international disgruntlement at a similar level. [http://www.vancouver.anglican.ca/News/tabid/27/ctl/ViewArticle/ArticleId/503/mid/486/Default.aspx US Primate taks a 'long, calm view" 19 May 2007] ]
cquote|Asked if her position as the first female primate adds fuel to the fire, Jefferts Schori acknowledged female leadership runs out of step with the culture in some places in the Anglican Communion.
But, she added, with a strong glint of humour, “they treated my predecessor (Bishop
Frank Griswold) the same way they treated me.”
And, since 14 primates refused to take part in a Eucharist with Bishop Griswold at a previous primates’ meeting, while only seven refused to participate with her in Dar-Es-Salaam, she figures progress is being made.
In 1976, the General Convention amended Canon law to give women the right to be ordained to the priesthood. The first women were officially ordained to the priesthood that year. (Previously, the "Philadelphia Eleven" were "illegally" ordained on
July 29, 1974in Philadelphia. [The Philadelphia Eleven, and the consecrating bishops, are listed in the [http://www.ecusa.anglican.org/41685_3311_ENG_HTM.htm The Philadelphia 11 article on The Episcopal Church website] (retrieved November 5, 2006).] Other "irregular" ordinations also occurred in 1974, notably in Palo Alto. These "irregular" ordinations were also reconciled at the 1976 GC.) [ [http://www.council-dwtx.org/GenConv/Parish%20conversation%20curriculum/2_2006_GC_session2_support.pdf From "Synopsis of Social Teaching/Contentious Resolutions of the Episcopal Church" (PDF)] , from the "Parish Conversation Curriculum" for the 2006 General Convention of the Episcopal Church, page 14. Retrieved November 5, 2006.]
The first woman bishop, Barbara Harris, was consecrated on
February 11, 1989. [ Bishop Harris is also the first African-American woman bishop. [http://www.episcopalchurch.org/5888_3916_ENG_HTM.htm ECUSA site] ] The General Convention reaffirmed in 1994 that both men and women may enter into the ordination process, but also recognized that there is value to the theological position of those who oppose women's ordination. It was not until 1997 that the GC declared that "the ordination, licensing and deployment of women are mandatory" and that dioceses that have not ordained women by 1997 "shall give status reports on their implementation". [ [http://www.council-dwtx.org/GenConv/Parish%20conversation%20curriculum/2_2006_GC_session2_support.pdf From "Synopsis of Social Teaching/Contentious Resolutions of the Episcopal Church" (PDF)] , from the "Parish Conversation Curriculum" for the 2006 General Convention of the Episcopal Church, page 15. Retrieved November 5, 2006. ] This has not ended the controversy over women's ordination.
The 2006 election of Jefferts Schori as presiding bishop was controversial in the wider Anglican Communion because she is a woman. While most dioceses of the Episcopal Church ordain women as priests and bishops, the full Anglican Communion does not universally accept the
ordination of women. She is the first and only national leader of a church in the Anglican Communion who is a woman. Previously Bishop of Nevada, Jefferts Schori is the 26th Presiding Bishop. She was elected at the 75th General Convention on June 18, 2006and invested at the Washington National Cathedralon November 4, 2006.
Jefferts Schori also generated controversy when she voted to confirm Gene Robinson as a bishop and she allowed blessing of same-sex unions in her diocese of Nevada. Certain statements by Jefferts Schori have been the focus of controversy, especially regarding the central Christian teachings on salvation through Jesus alone. [ [http://www.anglican.tk/?page_id=793 Transcript of Bishop Jefferts Schori's interview with NPR] ]
At the present time, three U.S. dioceses do not ordain women at all. Many other churches in the
Anglican Communion, including the Church of England, ordain women as deacons or priests, but only a few have women serving as bishops. The election of Presiding Bishop Jefferts Schori has drawn attention to this fact; ten other primates of the Anglican communion have stated that they do not recognize Presiding Bishop Jefferts Schori as a primate. [ [http://www.anglicansunited.com/2006/10/the_presiding_bishop_elect_mee.html Anglicans United] ] In addition, eight American dioceses have rejected her authority and have asked the Archbishop of Canterbury Rowan Williams to assign them another national leader. [ [http://www.episcopalchurch.org/3577_77919_ENG_HTM.htm Episcopal Diocese of Quincy seeks alternative oversight] ]
The Episcopal Church affirmed at the 1976 General Convention that
homosexualsare "children of God" who deserve acceptance and pastoral care from the church. It also called for homosexual persons to have equal protection under secular law. This was reaffirmed in 1982. In 1994, the GC determined that church membership would not be determined on "marital status, sex, or sexual orientation". The GC also discourages the use of conversion therapyto "change" homosexualsinto heterosexuals. [ [http://www.council-dwtx.org/GenConv/Parish%20conversation%20curriculum/2_2006_GC_session2_support.pdf From "Synopsis of Social Teaching/Contentious Resolutions of the Episcopal Church" (PDF)] , from the "Parish Conversation Curriculum" for the 2006 General Convention of the Episcopal Church, page 26-29. Retrieved November 5, 2006.]
Despite these affirmations of gay rights, the GC affirmed in 1991 that "physical sexual expression" is only appropriate within the
monogamous, lifelong "union of husband and wife." [ [http://www.council-dwtx.org/GenConv/Parish%20conversation%20curriculum/2_2006_GC_session2_support.pdf From "Synopsis of Social Teaching/Contentious Resolutions of the Episcopal Church" (PDF)] , from the "Parish Conversation Curriculum" for the 2006 General Convention of the Episcopal Church, page 23. Retrieved November 5, 2006.] Although some dioceses within ECUSA bless same-sex unions, the church as a whole does not.
The first openly gay priest, Robert Williams, was ordained by Bishop
John Shelby Spongin 1989. [ [http://www.beliefnet.com/story/130/story_13022_3.html "A Bishop Speaks: Homosexual History" by John Shelby Spong, retrieved November 4, 2006.] ] The ordination provoked a furor. The next year Barry Stopfel was ordained a deacon by Bishop Spong's assistant, Walter Righter. Because Stopfel was not celibate, this resulted in a trial under canon law. The church court dismissed the charges on May 15, 1996, stating that "no clear doctrine" [ [http://www.religioustolerance.org/hom_epis2.htm The Episcopal Church And Homosexuality: Activities during 1996.] ] prohibits ordaining a gay or lesbian person in a committed relationship. [ [http://anglicansonline.org/archive/news/articles/1997/righter.html Anglicans Online: The Trial of Bishop Walter Righter] .]
The first openly homosexual bishop, Gene Robinson, was elected on
June 7 2003at St. Paul's Church in Concord, New Hampshire. Thirty-nine clergy votes and 83 lay votes was the threshold necessary to elect a bishop in the Diocese of New Hampshire at that time. The clergy voted 58 votes for Robinson and the laity voted 96 for Robinson on the second ballot. Consent to the election of Robinson was given at the 2003 General Convention. The House of Bishops voted in the affirmative, with 62 in favor, 43 opposed, and 2 abstaining. The House of Deputies, which consists of laypersons and priests, also voted in the affirmative: the laity voted 63 in favor, 32 opposed, and 13 divided; the clergy voted 65 in favor, 31 opposed, and 12 divided. Robinson was consecrated on November 2, 2003in the presence of Presiding Bishop Frank Griswold and 47 bishops. [cite book |last=Adams |first=Elizabeth |authorlink= |coauthors= |editor= |others= |title=Going to Heaven: The Life and Election of Bishop Gene Robinson |origdate= |origyear= |origmonth= |url= |format= |accessdate= |accessyear= |accessmonth= |edition= |series= |date= |year=2006 |month= |publisher=Soft Skull Press |location=Brooklyn, NY |language= |isbn=1933368225 |oclc= |doi= |id= |pages= |chapter= |chapterurl= |quote= ] Since the ratification of Robinson as bishop, some clergy and lay members have left the Episcopal Church (see Anglican realignment). In October 2003, an emergency meeting of the Anglican primates (the heads of the Anglican Communion's 38 member churches) was convened. The meeting's final communique included the warning that if Robinson's consecration proceeded, it would "tear the fabric of the communion at its deepest level." [ [http://www.anglicancommunion.org/acns/articles/36/25/acns3633.html Anglican Communion News Service] ]
According to the
Windsor Reportof the Anglican Communion, the 2003 consecration of Robinson, divorced father of two and an openly gay man living in a committed relationship, was a landmark event for those on both sides of the issue.
On one side of the debate, the 1998 Lambeth Conference 1.10 is quoted, which states:
In answer, at the request of the Anglican Communion's Lambeth Commission, the Episcopal Church released "To Set Our Hope on Christ" on
June 21, 2005, which explains "how a person living in a same gender union may be considered eligible to lead the flock of Christ." [ [http://www.episcopalchurch.org/3577_63039_ENG_HTM.htm Theologians offer response to Windsor Report request: Paper cites 40-year consideration of same-gender relationships] from Episcopal News Service.]
Just as the Reformed Episcopal Church seceded from PECUSA in the nineteenth century to preserve what it considered an essential Protestant and evangelical form of Anglicanism, other groups have withdrawn from the Episcopal Church as well. Some left the Episcopal Church with the adoption of a new Book of Common Prayer in 1979. Many other conservative groups have continued to break away out of frustration of what appears to them an unrepairable situation.On
December 2, 2006, the Convention of the Episcopal Diocese of San Joaquin, one of the most conservative dioceses in the church, passed a series of resolutions which, when confirmed at the convention in 2007, set into motion withdrawal from the Episcopal Church and affiliation with another Anglican Church, "“The diocese shall be a constituent member of the Anglican Communion and in full communion with the See of Canterbury.” This was combined with a resolution which removed the present boundaries of the diocese, theoretically allowing it to absorb other dissenting congregations in the United States. The diocese has 48 parishes and 18,000 members but includes an active caucus which opposes secession. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/03/us/03episcopal.html?ex=1322802000&en=2b7ab526f61329c4&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss "Episcopal Diocese Votes to Secede From Church" an article in the "New York Times" by Laurie Goodstein and Carolyn Marshall, December 3, 2006] ] The Diocese of Quincy joined seven other dioceses in requesting alternative pastoral oversight. On December 8, 2007, the Diocese of San Joaquin voted to secede from the Episcopal Church and join the Anglican Province of the Southern Cone. [ [http://www.cnn.com/2007/US/12/08/episcopalians.secession.ap/index.html Role of gays prompts split in Episcopal Church] , AP/CNN, December 8, 2007]
October 4, 2008, the Episcopal Diocese of Pittsburghconfirmed a previous resolution to leave the Episcopal Church and to align to the Anglican Province of the Southern Cone. The process is expected to take several years.
Members of some individual parishes are also attempting to leave the Episcopal Church and take church property with them. In the Diocese of Virginia, members of eight parishes voted to leave The Episcopal Church and formed the
Anglican District of Virginia, which is part of the Convocation of Anglicans in North America(CANA). The Episcopal Church and the Diocese of Virginia hold that property in the Episcopal Church is held in trust for the diocese and the church as a whole, and that parishes own and control property only so long as they remain part of the Episcopal Church, regardless of who originally donated the goods to the parish. This position is part of the canon law of the Episcopal Church. The Diocese of Virginia [ [http://www.thediocese.net/News_services/pressroom/newsrelease25.html Press release by the Diocese of Virginia] ] has taken legal action against these members. Groups of Episcopalians from the breakaway parishes who were loyal to the Episcopal Church and the Diocese of Virginia have begun holding services at alternative sites until their parishes return to the Church. [ [http://www.thediocese.net/News_services/ve/MarVE07_web.pdf Cherry, Emily. "News of the Diocese, Congregations Depart while Churches Continue" Virginia Episcopalian, March 2007. 116(2):17.] ]
Some former Episcopalians have formed other Anglican jurisdictions in response to women's ordination: for example the
Anglican Catholic Churchand the Congress of St Louis.
Total membership of active baptized members in 2007 is exactly 2,154,572, a 4.15% decline from 2006 according to the 2008 National Council of Churches Report. (This is the figure for all dioceses, the figure for the United States itself is 2,205,376) as counted by the Episcopal Church from all submitted parochial reports for 2005 - the latest year available. [http://www.episcopalchurch.org/documents/2005_Red_Book_Table_of_Statistics_by_Prov_Diocese.pdf From 2005 Parochial Reports. Source: The General Convention Office as of January 2007] Retrieved
25 October 2007]
In recent years many mainline denominations have experienced a decline in membership. [ [http://www.episcopalchurch.org/3577_60792_ENG_HTM.htm Mainline Protestant churches no longer dominate] ] Once changes in how membership is counted are taken into consideration, the Episcopal Church's membership numbers were broadly flat throughout the 1990s, with a slight growth in the first years of the 21st century. [http://www.episcopalchurch.org/documents/2004GrowthReport(1).pdf Is the Episcopal Church Growing (or Declining)? by C. Kirk Hadaway Director of Research, The Episcopal Church Center] , retrieved
2007-10-25] [ [http://www.episcopalchurch.org/3577_55181_ENG_HTM.htm Q&A Context, analysis on Church membership statistics] , retrieved 2007-10-25] [http://www.episcopalchurch.org/documents/Domestic_FAST_FACTS_2005.pdf Episcopal Fast Facts: 2005] , retrieved 2007-10-25] [ [http://www.episcopalchurch.org/documents/Text_Summary_of_Episcopal_Statistics_2005.pdf Overview of Membership, Attendance and Giving Trends in the Episcopal Church] , retrieved 2007-10-25] A loss of 115,000 members was reported for the years 2003–5, which has been attributed in part to controversy concerning ordination of homosexuals to the priesthood and the election of Gene Robinson (who is openly gay) as Bishop of New Hampshire. [ [http://www.christiancentury.org/article.lasso?id=2566, "Episcopal membership loss 'precipitous'"] , The Christian Century, 14 November 2006, retrieved 2007-10-27]
The governance the Episcopal Church is
Episcopal polity, which is the same as other Anglicanchurches. Following the American Revolution, American Anglicans were technically not a part of the Church of England's structure, so they had to form their own. The Church has its own system of canon law.
The Episcopal Church is composed of 110 dioceses in the
United States, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Haiti, Honduras, Puerto Rico, Taiwan, Venezuelaand the Virgin Islands. It also includes the Convocation of American Churches in Europeand the Navajoland Area Mission, which are jurisdictions similar to a diocese. The Presiding Bishop is one of three Anglican primates who together exercise metropolitan jurisdiction over the Episcopal Church of Cuba, which is an extra-provincial diocese in the Anglican Communion. [ [http://www.anglicancommunion.org/tour/province.cfm?ID=Y2 The Anglican Communion Official Website: - Iglesia Episcopal de Cuba ] ]
These dioceses are organized into nine provinces. Each province has a synod and a mission budget, but does not have authority over the dioceses which make it up.
Today, there are over 7000 congregations, each of which elects a
vestryor bishop's committee. Subject to the approval of its diocesan bishop, the vestry of each parish elects a priest, called the rector, who has spiritual jurisdiction in the parish and selects assistant clergy, both deacons and priests. (There is a difference between vestry and clergy elections - clergy are ordained members usually selected from outside the parish, whereas any member in good standing of a parish is eligible to serve on the vestry.) The diocesan bishop, however, appoints the clergy for all missions and may choose to do so for non-self-supporting parishes.
middle judicatoryconsists of a dioceseheaded by a bishop. Diocesan conventions are usually held annually. Unlike the Church of England in which bishops are governmental appointees, the bishops in the Episcopal Church are elected at these diocesan conventions, subject to confirmation by the House of Bishops. (All bishops are first ordained priests.)
At the national level, the church is governed by the triennial General Convention, which consists of two bodies:
House of Deputies(consisting of 4 laity and 4 clergy from each diocese, usually elected at the diocesan convention).
House of Bishops(consisting of all living active bishops who have headed dioceses - retired bishops have voice but not vote). The Chief Officer of the Episcopal Church, elected from and by the House of Bishops and confirmed by the House of Deputies at General Convention, is called the Presiding Bishopand serves on term of 9 years. [ [http://www.episcopalchurch.org/67608_ENG_HTM.htm Church Governance] .]
The location of the Presiding Bishop's office is the Episcopal Church Center, the national administrative headquarters, located at 815 Second Avenue, New York, NY. It is often referred to by Episcopalians simply as "815." [ [http://www.episcopalchurch.org/lw_whatshappening.htm What's Happening at 815?] ]
Worship and liturgy
Varying degrees of liturgical practice prevail within the church, and one finds a variety of worship styles: traditional hymns and anthems, more modern religious music, Anglican chant, liturgical dance, charismatic prayer, and vested clergy of varying degrees. As varied as services can be, the central binding aspect is the Book of Common Prayer or supplemental liturgies.
Often a congregation or a particular service will be referred to as "Low Church" or "High Church". In theory::
High Church, especially the "very" high Anglo-Catholicmovement, is ritually inclined towards embellishments such as incense, formal hymns, and a higher degree of ceremony. In addition to clergy vesting in albs, stoles and chasubles, the lay assistants may also be vested in cassockand surplice. The sung eucharist tends to be emphasized in High Church congregations, with Anglo-Catholic congregations and celebrants using sung services almost exclusively. Often, due to the effects of the Second Vatican Councilon the Roman Catholic Church, some Anglo-Catholic Episcopalian services are actually more elaborate than a modern Roman Catholic Mass. : Low Churchis simpler and may incorporate other elements such as informal praise and worship music. "Low" congregations tend towards a more "traditional Protestant" outlook with its emphasis of Biblical revelation over symbolism. The spoken eucharist tends to be emphasized in Low Church congregations.: Broad Churchincorporates elements of both low church and high church.
A majority of Episcopalian services could be considered to be "High Church" while still falling somewhat short of a typical Anglo-Catholic "very" high church service. In contrast, "Low Church" services are somewhat rarer. However, while some Episcopalians refer to their churches by these labels, often there is overlapping, and the basic rites do not greatly differ. There are also variations that blend elements of all three and have their own unique features, such as New England Episcopal churches, which have elements drawn from Puritan practices, combining the traditions of "high church" with the simplicity of "low church". Typical parish worship features Bible readings from the Old Testament as well as from both the
Epistles and the Gospels of the New Testament.
Eucharistor Holy Communionservice, the Book of Common Prayer specifies that bread and wine are consecrated for consumption by the people. Those wishing for whatever reason to avoid alcohol are free to decline the cup. A Eucharist can be part of a wedding to celebrate a sacramental marriage and of a funeralas a thank offering (sacrifice) to God and for the comfort of the mourners.
The veneration of saints in the Episcopal Church is a continuation of an ancient tradition from the early Church which honors important people of the Christian faith. The usage of the term "saint" is similar to Catholic and Orthodox traditions. Those inclined to the Anglo-Catholic traditions may explicitly invoke saints as intercessors in prayer.
Book of Common Prayer
The Episcopal Church publishes its own
Book of Common Prayer(BCP) (similar to other Anglican BCPs), containing most of the worship services (or "liturgies") used in the Episcopal Church. Because of its widespread use in the church, the BCP is both a reflection of and a source of theology for Episcopalians.
The full name of the BCP is: "The Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments and Other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church Together with The Psalter or Psalms of David According to the use of The Episcopal Church".
Previous American BCPs were issued in 1789, 1892, and 1928. (A proposed BCP was issued in 1786 but not adopted.) The BCP is in the
public domain; however, any new revisions of the BCP are copyrighted until they are approved by the General Convention. After this happens, the BCP is placed into the public domain.
The current edition dates from 1979 and was marked by a linguistic modernization and, in returning to ancient Christian tradition, it restored the
eucharistas the central liturgyof the church. The 1979 version also de-emphasized the notion of personal sin and reflected the theological and worship changes of the ecumenical reforms of the 1960s and 1970s. On the whole, it changed the theological emphasis of the church to be more Catholicin nature. In 1979, the Convention adopted the revision as the "official" BCP and required churches using the old (1928) prayer book to also use the 1979 revision. There was enough strife in implementing and adopting the 1979 BCP that an apology was issued at the 2000 General Convention [ [http://www.council-dwtx.org/GenConv/Parish%20conversation%20curriculum/2_2006_GC_session2_support.pdf From "Synopsis of Social Teaching/Contentious Resolutions of the Episcopal Church" (PDF)] , from the "Parish Conversation Curriculum" for the 2006 General Convention of the Episcopal Church, page 16. Retrieved November 5, 2006. ] for any who were "offended or alienated during the time of liturgical transition to the 1979 Book of Common Prayer". The 2000 General Convention also authorized the occasional use of some parts of the 1928 book, under the direction of the bishop.
Doctrine and practice
The center of Episcopal teaching is the life and resurrection of
Jesus Christ. [ [http://www.episcopalchurch.org/visitors_16966_ENG_HTM.htm?menupage=43796 A Basic Introduction to Christianity] from the Visitor's section of the Episcopal website.] The basic teachings of the church, or catechism, includes:
*Jesus Christ is fully human and fully God. He died and was resurrected from the dead.
*Jesus provides the way of eternal life for those who believe.
*God the Father, God the Son (Jesus Christ), and God the Holy Spirit, are one God, and are called the Holy Trinity, "Three and yet one"
*The Old and New Testaments of the Bible were written by people "under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit." The Apocrypha are additional books that are used in Christian worship, but not for the formation of doctrine.
*The two great and necessary sacraments are Holy Baptism and Holy Eucharist
*Other sacramental rites are
confirmation, ordination, marriage, reconciliation of a penitent, and unction.
heaven, hell, and Jesus's return in glory.
The full catechism is included in the Book of Common Prayer and posted on Episcopal website [http://www.episcopalchurch.org/visitors_10898_ENG_HTM.htm here] . The threefold sources of authority in Anglicanism are scripture, tradition, and reason. These three sources uphold and critique each other in a dynamic way.
The Episcopal Church follows the "via media" or "middle way" between
Protestantand Roman Catholicdoctrine and practices: that is both Catholic and Reformed. Not all Episcopalians self-identify with this image, especially those whose convictions lean toward either evangelicalismor Anglo-Catholicism. There are many different theologies represented within the Episcopal Church. Some Episcopal theologians hold evangelical positions, affirming the authority of scripture over all. The Episcopal Church website glossary defines the sources of authority as a balance between scripture, tradition, and reason. These three are characterized as a "three-legged stool" which will topple if any one overbalances the other. It also notes:The Anglican balancing of the sources of authority has been criticized as clumsy or "muddy." It has been associated with the Anglican affinity for seeking the mean between extremes and living the via media. It has also been associated with the Anglican willingness to tolerate and comprehend opposing viewpoints instead of imposing tests of orthodoxy or resorting to heresy trials. [ [http://www.episcopalchurch.org/19625_13797_ENG_HTM.htm Authority, Sources of (in Anglicanism)] on the Episocopal Church site, accessed on April 19, 2007, which in turn credits Church Publishing Incorporated, New York, NY, from "An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church, A User Friendly Reference for Episcopalians," Don S. Armentrout and Robert Boak Slocum, editors.] This balance of scripture, tradition and reason is traced to the work of Richard Hooker, a sixteenth century apologist. In Hooker's model, scripture is the primary means of arriving at doctrine and things stated plainly in scripture are accepted as true. Issues that are ambiguous are determined by tradition, which is checked by reason. [ [http://www.anglicanlistening.org/anglican_listening_61766_ENG_HTM.htm Anglican Listening] on the Episcopal Church site goes into detail on how scripture, tradition, and reason work to "uphold and critique each other in a dynamic way". ] More recently, the Episcopal Church has developed a fourth leg known as "experience." This understanding is highly dependent on the work of Friedrich Schleiermacher. These "four legs" of Episcopal theology may be likened to the Wesleyan Quadrilateralof Methodisttheology.
A public example of this struggle between different Christian positions in the church has been the 2003 consecration of the Right Reverend
Gene Robinson, an openly gay man living with a long-term partner. The acceptance/rejection of his consecration is motivated by different views on the authority of and understanding of scripture. [As stated in section 2.16 of [http://www.episcopalchurch.org/documents/ToSetOurHopeOnChrist.pdf To Set Our Hope On Christ (PDF)] , because "the biblical writers [...] write at different times and in different circumstances, they do not always agree with one another. [...] For example, it is helpful to know that when Ezra (chapter 10) commands the men of Israel to divorce their wives, it is because they had married foreign wives, who are seen to be a danger to Israel in exile. But there is another belief about foreign wives in the Book of Ruth, probably written at about the same time. [...] Today, in some situations, it may be faithful to follow Ezra, while in most situations it is faithful to follow Ruth." ] This struggle has some members concerned that the church may not continue its relationship with the larger Anglican Church. Others, however, view this pluralism as an asset, allowing a place for both sides to balance each other.
Comedian and Episcopalian
Robin Williamsonce described the Episcopal faith (and, in a performance in London, specifically the Church of England) as "Catholic Lite -- same rituals, half the guilt." ["Robin Williams: Live on Broadway"]
The preparation materials for delegates to the 2006 General Convention highlighted areas of "Social Teaching/Contentious Resolutions" [ [http://www.council-dwtx.org/GenConv/Parish%20conversation%20curriculum/2_2006_GC_session2_support.pdf From "Synopsis of Social Teaching/Contentious Resolutions of the Episcopal Church" (PDF)] , from the "Parish Conversation Curriculum" for the 2006 General Convention of the Episcopal Church. Retrieved November 6, 2006. ] made by the General Convention in the previous 30 years including race, economic justice, ordination of women, and inclusion. In some areas, such as race, the church has maintained a consistent theme. In other areas, such as human sexuality, the church has faced larger struggles.
*In 1976 the Convention called for an end to apartheid while commending the Anglican Church of Southern Africa (formerly the Church of the Province of Southern Africa) for its ministry. [General Convention [http://www.episcopalarchives.org/cgi-bin/acts/acts_resolution.pl?resolution=1976-D036 Resolution 1976-D036] Support Efforts by Church, Government and Business to End Apartheid]
*In 1979 the Convention condemned the Ku Klux Klan and all similarly racist groups and called on church members to oppose them. [General Convention [http://www.episcopalarchives.org/cgi-bin/acts/acts_resolution-complete.pl?resolution=1979-D066 Resolution 1979-D066] Condemn Ku Klux Klan and Similar Groups]
*Between 1982 and 1985
equal opportunity employmentand affirmative actionwere first implemented within the church. [General Convention [http://www.episcopalarchives.org/cgi-bin/acts/acts_resolution-complete.pl?resolution=1982-A152 Resolution 1982-A152] Ratify the Executive Council's Affirmative Action Plan] [General Convention [http://www.episcopalarchives.org/cgi-bin/acts/acts_resolution-complete.pl?resolution=1982-D078 Resolution 1982-D078] Support Affirmative Action Programs Within the Church] [General Convention [http://www.episcopalarchives.org/cgi-bin/acts/acts_resolution.pl?resolution=1985-A078 Resolution 1985-A078] Conduct a Racial Audit and Prepare a Report on Implementation of Affirmative Action] [General Convention [http://www.episcopalarchives.org/cgi-bin/acts/acts_resolution-complete.pl?resolution=1985-A140 Resolution 1985-A140] Request Dioceses to Establish and Report on Affirmative Action Procedures] [General Convention [http://www.episcopalarchives.org/cgi-bin/acts/acts_resolution-complete.pl?resolution=1985-C023 Resolution 1985-C023] Eradicate Institutional Sexism and Pursue Affirmative Action]
*In 1991 the Convention declared 'the practice of
racismis sin' and called on all church members to work to remove racism from the US. [General Convention [http://www.episcopalarchives.org/cgi-bin/acts/acts_resolution.pl?resolution=1991-B051 Resolution 1991-B051] Call for the Removal of Racism from the Life of the Nation ]
*In 1994 the Convention condemned "the racist and unjust treatment" of immigrants. [General Convention [http://www.episcopalarchives.org/cgi-bin/acts/acts_resolution.pl?resolution=1994-D132 Resolution 1994-D132] Reject Racism Toward Immigrants and Request the Church to Respond ]
On economic justice
*In 1991 the Convention recommended parity in pay and benefits between clergy and lay employees in equivalent positions. [General Convention [http://www.episcopalarchives.org/cgi-bin/acts/acts_resolution-complete.pl?resolution=1991-D066 Resolution 1991-D066] Support a Policy of Pay Equity in the Church and Society]
*Several times between 1979 and 2003 the Convention expressed concern over
affordable housingand supported the church working to provide affordable housing. [General Convention [http://www.episcopalarchives.org/cgi-bin/acts/acts_resolution-complete.pl?resolution=2003-D040 Resolution 2003-D040] Reaffirm Commitment to Provide Affordable Housing for the Poor]
*In 1982 and 1997, the Convention reaffirmed the Church's commitment to eradicating
povertyand malnutritionand challenged parishes to increase ministries to the poor. [General Convention [http://www.episcopalarchives.org/cgi-bin/acts/acts_resolution-complete.pl?resolution=1997-D030 Resolution 1997-D030] Challenge Congregations to Establish Direct Ministries to the Poor]
*In 1997 and 2000, the Convention urged the church to promote
living wages for all. [General Convention [http://www.episcopalarchives.org/cgi-bin/acts/acts_resolution-complete.pl?resolution=1997-D082 Resolution 1997-D082] Urge Church-wide Promotion of the Living Wage] [General Convention [http://www.episcopalarchives.org/cgi-bin/acts/acts_resolution-complete.pl?resolution=2000-A081 Resolution 2000-A081] Urge Bishops and Diocesan Leaders to Support the National Implementation of a Just Wage]
*In 2003 the Convention urged legislators to raise the US
minimum wageand to establish a living wagewith health benefitsas the national standard. [General Convention [http://www.episcopalarchives.org/cgi-bin/acts/acts_resolution-complete.pl?resolution=2003-A130 Resolution 2003-A130] Support the Establishment of a Living Wage] [General Convention [http://www.episcopalarchives.org/cgi-bin/acts/acts_resolution-complete.pl?resolution=2003-C030 Resolution 2003-C030] Urge Legislation to Raise the Federal Minimum Wage]
On the ordination of women
*The first women were ordained priests in the Episcopal Church on
29 July 1974, though the orders had not been endorsed by General Convention. The so-called Philadelphia 11 were ordained by Bishops Daniel Corrigan, Robert L. DeWitt, Edward R. Welles, assisted by Antonio Ramos. [ [http://www.episcopalchurch.org/41685_3311_ENG_HTM.htm Episcopal Church Women's Ministries: The Philadelphia 11] ] On 7 September 1975, four more women were irregularly ordained by retired Bishop George W. Barrett. [ [http://www.episcopalchurch.org/41685_3410_ENG_HTM.htm Episcopal Church Women's Ministries: The Washington 4] ] The 1976General Convention, which approved the ordination of women to the priesthood and episcopate, voted to regularize the 15 forerunners.
*In 1994 the Convention affirmed that there is value in the theological position that women should not be ordained
*In 1997 the Convention affirmed that "the canons regarding the ordination, licensing, and deployment of women are mandatory and that dioceses noncompliant in 1997 shall give status reports on their progress toward full implementation." [ [http://www.council-dwtx.org/GenConv/Parish%20conversation%20curriculum/2_2006_GC_session2_support.pdf From "Synopsis of Social Teaching/Contentious Resolutions of the Episcopal Church" (PDF)] , page 15, Resolution 1997-A053 from the "Parish Conversation Curriculum" for the 2006 General Convention of the Episcopal Church. Retrieved January 26, 2007. See also [http://www.episcopalarchives.org/cgi-bin/acts/acts_resolution.pl?resolution=1997-A053 text of Resolution 1997-A053] in the Episcopal Archives. ] [ Currently, the dioceses of Fort Worth, Quincy, and San Joaquin do not ordain women or recognize the holy orders of women clergy. ]
*In 2006 the convention elected
Katharine Jefferts Schorias Presiding Bishop. She is the first woman to serve as primate in the Anglican Communion.
The three "non-compliant" dioceses are San Joaquin, Quincy, and Fort Worth. The 2006 directory of the North American Association for the Diaconate lists three women deacons in Quincy, 15 in San Joaquin, and 8 in Fort Worth. [ [http://www.diakonoi.org/Directory06.pdf Directory of Deacons, Episcopal Church and Anglican Church of Canada, Autumn 2006] ] Fort Worth also allows parishes that wish to call a woman priest to transfer to the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Dallas.
On gender and sexuality
*In 1976 the Convention declared that homosexuals are "children of God" and "entitled to full civil rights". [ [http://www.council-dwtx.org/GenConv/Parish%20conversation%20curriculum/2_2006_GC_session2_support.pdf From "Synopsis of Social Teaching/Contentious Resolutions of the Episcopal Church" (PDF)] , page 26, Resolutions 1976-A069 and 1976-A071 from the "Parish Conversation Curriculum" for the 2006 General Convention of the Episcopal Church. Retrieved February 3, 2007. ]
*In 1979 the Convention endorsed the
Equal Rights Amendmentand urged legislatures to ratify it.
*In 1988 the Convention reaffirmed the expectation of chastity and fidelity in relationships.
*In 1991 the Convention restated that "physical sexual expression" is only appropriate within a monogamous "union of husband and wife". The Convention also called on the church to "continue to reconcile the discontinuity between this teaching and the experience of members", referring both to dioceses that have chosen to bless monogamous same-sex unions and to general tolerance of premarital relations. [ [http://www.council-dwtx.org/GenConv/Parish%20conversation%20curriculum/2_2006_GC_session2_support.pdf From "Synopsis of Social Teaching/Contentious Resolutions of the Episcopal Church" (PDF)] , page 23, Resolution 1991-A104 from the "Parish Conversation Curriculum" for the 2006 General Convention of the Episcopal Church. Retrieved February 3, 2007. See also text of [http://www.episcopalarchives.org/cgi-bin/acts/acts_resolution.pl?resolution=1991-A104 Resolution 1991-A104] . ]
*In 2000 the Convention affirmed "the variety of human relationships in and outside of marriage" and acknowledged "disagreement over the Church's traditional teaching on human sexuality." [ [http://www.council-dwtx.org/GenConv/Parish%20conversation%20curriculum/2_2006_GC_session2_support.pdf From "Synopsis of Social Teaching/Contentious Resolutions of the Episcopal Church" (PDF)] , page 25, Resolution 2000-D039 from the "Parish Conversation Curriculum" for the 2006 General Convention of the Episcopal Church. Retrieved February 3, 2007. See also text of [http://www.episcopalarchives.org/cgi-bin/acts/acts_resolution.pl?resolution=2000-D039 Resolution 2000-D039] . ]
*The 2006 General Convention affirmed "support of gay and lesbian persons and children of God"; calls on legislatures to provide protections such as bereavement and family leave policies; and opposes any state or federal constitutional amendment that prohibits same-sex civil marriages or civil unions." [ See text of [http://gc2006.org/legislation/view_leg_detail.aspx?id=101&type=CURRENT Resolution 2006-A095] . ]
Like many other Anglican churches, the Episcopal Church has entered into
full communionwith the Old Catholic Churches of the Union of Utrecht. The Episcopal Church is also in a relationship of full communion with the Philippine Independent Church, the Mar Thoma Syrian Church of Malabar, and the union churches in south Asia: the Church of Bangladesh, the Church of North India, the Church of Pakistan, and the Church of South India.
Apostolic Successionand the episcopacy did not foil progress in the relationship with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. In 1999, the document " Called to Common Mission" led to full communion between the two churches. [ [http://www.elca.org/ecumenical/fullcommunion/Episcopal/CCMresources/text.html Text of "Called to Common Mission"] ]
The Episcopal Church itself maintains ecumenical dialogues with the
United Methodist Church, the Roman Catholic Church, and the Moravian Church in America, and participates in pan-Anglican dialogues with the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the World Alliance of Reformed Churches, and the Roman Catholic Church. In 2006a relation of interim Eucharistic sharing was inaugurated with the United Methodist Church, a step that may ultimately lead to full communion.
Historically Anglican churches have had strong ecumenical ties with the Eastern Orthodox Churches, and the Episcopal Church particularly with the
Russian Orthodox Church, but relations in more recent years have been strained, following the ordination of womenand the ordination of Gene Robinsonto the episcopate. A former relation of full communion with the Polish National Catholic Church(itself once a part of the Union of Utrecht) was broken off by the PNCC in 1976over the ordination of women.
The Episcopal Church was a founding member of the
Consultation on Church Unionand participates in its successor, Churches Uniting in Christ. The Episcopal Church is a founding member of the National Council of Churches, the World Council of Churches, and the new Christian Churches Together in the USA. Dioceses and parishes are frequently members of local ecumenical councils as well.
*Complete list of Presiding Bishops
Dioceses of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America
Succession of Bishops of the Episcopal Church in the United States
List of colleges and seminaries affiliated with the Episcopal Church
Churches Uniting in Christ
Chronological order of publication (oldest first)
Anglican & Episcopal History" (articles, church reviews, and book reviews).
*Articles on leading Episcopalians, both lay (e.g.,
George Washington, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Frances Perkins) and ordained, in "American National Biography". (1999). Edited by John A. Garraty and Mark C. Carnes. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Also 100 biographical articles in Hein and Shattuck, "The Episcopalians": see below.
*"A Brief History of the Episcopal Church". Holmes, David L. (1993). Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International.
*"A Dictionary for Episcopalians". Wall, John N. (2000). Boston, MA: Cowley Publications.
*"Documents of Witness: A History of the Episcopal Church, 1782–1985". Armentrout, Don S., & Slocum, Robert Boak. (1994). New York: Church Hymnal Corporation.
*"The Episcopal Clerical Directory". New York: Church Publishing.
*" An Episcopal Dictionary of the Church: A User Friendly Reference for Episcopalians". Armentrout, Don S., & Slocum, Robert Boak. (Eds.). (  ). New York: Church Publishing Incorporated.
*"The Episcopalians". Hein, David, and Gardiner H. Shattuck Jr. (2005). New York: Church Publishing.
*" [http://www.commonwealmagazine.org/article.php?id_article=1647 Episcopalian Crisis: Authority, Homosexuality & the Future of Anglicanism] ". Seltser, Barry Jay "Commonweal" CXXXIII, 10 (
May 19, 2006). An essay on Hooker and the present discontents, accessed December 19, 2006.
*"The History of the Episcopal Church in America, 1607–1991: A Bibliography". Caldwell, Sandra M., & Caldwell, Ronald J. (1993). New York: Garland Publishing.
* [http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/Article.jsp?id=h-1551&sug=y New Georgia Encyclopedia article on the Episcopal Church in the U.S. South]
*"Noble Powell and the Episcopal Establishment in the Twentieth Century". Hein, David. (2001, 2007). Urbana: University of Illinois Press; paperback reprint, Eugene, Ore.: Wipf & Stock.
*"Readings from the History of the Episcopal Church". Prichard, Robert W. (Ed.). (1986). Wilton, CT: Morehouse-Barlow.
* " [http://www.ekklesia.co.uk/content/rewritinghistory.pdf Rewriting History: Scapegoating the Episcopal Church"] . Savitri Hensman. Ekklesia. 2007.
* [http://www.episcopalchurch.org/ The Episcopal Church]
* [http://www.episcopalchurch.org/gc/ Executive Offices of the General Convention]
* [http://www.episcopalchurch.org/ens/ Episcopal News Service]
* [http://episcopalchurch.typepad.com/episcope/ epiScope] , a blog from the Episcopal Church's Office of Communication
* [http://www.episcopalarchives.org/ The Archives of the Episcopal Church]
* [http://justus.anglican.org/resources/bcp/bcp.htm 1979 Book of Common Prayer]
* [http://satucket.com/lectionary/Calendar.htm Calendar of the Church Year]
* [http://www.episcopalmedia.org Episcopal Media Center]
* [http://www.episcopalonline.org Episcopal Online Identity Wear]
* [http://www.stmichaelshouston.org/glossary/hope-glossary.html "Episcopal/Anglican Glossary"]
* [http://naeced.org/downloads/pdf/episcopallanguagei.pdf Episcopal Church Language 1 (PDF)]
* [http://naeced.org/downloads/pdf/episcopallanguage2.pdf Episcopal Church Language 2 (PDF)]
* [http://www.cuac.org/53810_43981_ENG_HTM.htm?menu=menu53912/ Association of Episcopal Colleges]
* [http://www.guildofscholars.org The Guild of Scholars of the Episcopal Church]
* [http://www.archive.org/details/journalsofgenera01episiala "Journals of general conventions of the Protestant Episcopal Church, in the United States, 1785-1835 (Volume 1)"]
* [http://www.archive.org/details/journalsofgenera02episiala "Journals of general conventions of the Protestant Episcopal Church, in the United States, 1785-1835 (Volume 2)"]
* [http://www.archive.org/details/journalsofgenera03episiala "Journals of general conventions of the Protestant Episcopal Church, in the United States, 1785-1835 (Volume 3)"]
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