Temperature measurement using modern scientific
thermometers and temperaturescales goes back at least as far as the early 18th century, when Gabriel Fahrenheitadapted a thermometer (switching to mercury) and a scale both developed by Ole Christensen Røemer. Fahrenheit's scale is still in use, alongside the Celsiusscale and the Kelvinscale.
The world's average surface air temperature is about 15 °C. For information on temperature changes relevant to
climate changeor Earth's geologic past see: Temperature record.
Many methods have been developed for measuring temperature. Most of these rely on measuring some physical property of a working material that varies with temperature. One of the most common devices for measuring temperature is the glass thermometer. This consists of a glass tube filled with mercury or some other liquid, which acts as the working fluid. Temperature increases cause the fluid to expand, so the temperature can be determined by measuring the volume of the fluid. Such thermometers are usually calibrated, so that one can read the temperature, simply by observing the level of the fluid in the thermometer. Another type of thermometer that is not really used much in practice, but is important from a theoretical standpoint is the
Other important devices for measuring temperature include:
Resistance Temperature Detector(RTD)
Langmuir probes (for electron temperature of a plasma)
One must be careful when measuring temperature to ensure that the measuring instrument (thermometer, thermocouple, etc) is really the same temperature as the material that is being measured. Under some conditions heat from the measuring instrument can cause a temperature gradient, so the measured temperature is different from the actual temperature of the system. In such a case the measured temperature will vary not only with the temperature of the system, but also with the heat transfer properties of the system. An extreme case of this effect gives rise to the
wind chill factor, where the weather feels colder under windy conditions than calm conditions even though the temperature is the same. What is happening is that the wind increases the rate of heat transfer from the body, resulting in a larger reduction in body temperature for the same ambient temperature.
The theoretical basis for thermometers is the
zeroth law of thermodynamicswhich postulates that if you have three bodes, A, B and C, if A and B are at the same temperature, and B and C are at the same temperature then A and C are at the same temperature. B, of course, is the thermometer.
The practical basis of thermometry is the existence of
triple pointcells. Triple points are conditions of pressure, volume and temperature such that three phases (matter)are simultaneously present, for example solid, vapor and liquid. For a single component there are no degrees of freedom at a triple point and any change in the three variables results in one or more of the phases vanishing from the cell. Therefore, triple point cells can be used as universal references for temperature and pressure. (See Gibb's phase rule)
Under some conditions it becomes possible to measure temperature by a direct use of the
Planck's law of black body radiation. For example, the cosmic microwave backgroundtemperature has been measured from the spectrum of photons observed by satellite observations such as the WMAP. In the study of the quark-gluon plasmathrough heavy-ion collisions, single particle spectrasometimes serve as a thermometer.
urface air temperature
Meteorological observatories measure the temperature and humidity of the air near the surface of the Earth usually using thermometers placed in a
Stevenson screen, a standardized well-ventilated white-pained instrument shelter. The thermometers should be positioned 1.25–2 m above the ground. Details of this setup are defined by the World Meteorological Organization(WMO).
The true daily mean, obtained from a thermograph, is approximated by the mean of 24 hourly readings (which is not the same as the mean of the daily minimum and maximum readings). [http://eobglossary.gsfc.nasa.gov/Library/glossary.php3?mode=alpha&seg=s]
temperature conversion formulas.
:"See main article:
For some systems and specific definitions of temperature, it is possible to obtain a
negative temperature. A system with a negative temperature is not colder than absolute zero, but rather it is, in a sense, "hotter than infinitetemperature" ("sic").
* [http://thermodynamics-information.net A Brief History of Temperature Measurement]
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