English numerals

English numerals are words for numbers used in Englishspeaking cultures.
Contents
Cardinal numbers
Cardinal numbers refer to the size of a group.
0 zero (nought) 10 ten 1 one 11 eleven 2 two 12 twelve 20 twenty 3 three 13 thirteen 30 thirty 4 four 14 fourteen 40 forty (no "u") 5 five 15 fifteen (note "f", not "v") 50 fifty (note "f", not "v") 6 six 16 sixteen 60 sixty 7 seven 17 seventeen 70 seventy 8 eight 18 eighteen (only one "t") 80 eighty (only one "t") 9 nine 19 nineteen 90 ninety (note the "e") If a number is in the range 21 to 99, and the second digit is not zero, one typically writes the number as two words separated by a hyphen.
21 twentyone 25 twentyfive 32 thirtytwo 58 fiftyeight 64 sixtyfour 79 seventynine 83 eightythree 99 ninetynine In English, the hundreds are perfectly regular, except that the word hundred remains in its singular form regardless of the number preceding it (nevertheless, one may on the other hand say "hundreds of people flew in", or the like)
100 one hundred 200 two hundred … … 900 nine hundred So too are the thousands, with the number of thousands followed by the word "thousand"
1,000 one thousand 2,000 two thousand … … 10,000 ten thousand 11,000 eleven thousand … … 20,000 twenty thousand 21,000 twentyone thousand 30,000 thirty thousand 85,000 eightyfive thousand 100,000 one hundred thousand or one lakh (Indian English) 999,000 nine hundred and ninetynine thousand (British English)
nine hundred ninetynine thousand (American English)1,000,000 one million 10,000,000 ten million or one crore (Indian English) In American usage, fourdigit numbers with nonzero hundreds are often named using multiples of "hundred" and combined with tens and ones: "One thousand one", "Eleven hundred three", "Twelve hundred twentyfive", "Four thousand fortytwo", or "Ninetynine hundred ninetynine." In British usage, this style is common for multiples of 100 between 1,000 and 2,000 (e.g. 1,500 as "fifteen hundred") but not for higher numbers.
Americans may pronounce fourdigit numbers with nonzero tens and ones as pairs of twodigit numbers without saying "hundred" and inserting "oh" for zero tens: "twentysix fiftynine" or "fortyone oh five". This usage probably evolved from the distinctive usage for years; "nineteeneightyone". It is avoided for numbers less than 2500 if the context may mean confusion with time of day: "ten ten" or "twelve oh four".
Intermediate numbers are read differently depending on their use. Their typical naming occurs when the numbers are used for counting. Another way is for when they are used as labels. The second column method is used much more often in American English than British English. The third column is used in British English, but rarely in American English (although the use of the second and third columns is not necessarily directly interchangeable between the two regional variants). In other words, the British dialect can seemingly adopt the American way of counting, but it is specific to the situation (in this example, bus numbers).
Common British vernacular Common American vernacular Common British vernacular "How many marbles do you have?" "What is your house number?" "Which bus goes to the high street?" 101 "A hundred and one." "Oneohone."
Here, "oh" is used for the digit zero."Oneohone." 109 "A hundred and nine." "Oneohnine." "Oneohnine." 110 "A hundred and ten." "Oneten." "Oneoneoh." 117 "A hundred and seventeen." "Oneseventeen." "Oneoneseven." 120 "A hundred and twenty." "Onetwenty." "Onetwooh", "Onetwozero." 152 "A hundred and fiftytwo." "Onefiftytwo." "Onefivetwo." 208 "Two hundred and eight." "Twooheight." "Twooheight." 334 "Three hundred and thirtyfour." "Threethirtyfour." "Threethreefour." Note: When writing a cheque (or check), the number 100 is always written "one hundred". It is never "a hundred".
Note that in American English, many students are taught not to use the word and anywhere in the whole part of a number, so it is not used before the tens and ones. It is instead used as a verbal delimiter when dealing with compound numbers. Thus, instead of "three hundred and seventythree", one would say "three hundred seventythree". For details, see American and British English differences.
For numbers above a million, there are two different systems for naming numbers in English (for the use of prefixes such as kilo for a thousand, mega for a million, milli for a thousandth, etc. see SI units):
 the long scale (decreasingly used in British English) designates a system of numeric names in which a thousand million is called a ‘‘milliard’’ (but the latter usage is now rare), and ‘‘billion’’ is used for a million million.
 the short scale (always used in American English and increasingly in British English) designates a system of numeric names in which a thousand million is called a ‘‘billion’’, and the word ‘‘milliard’’ is not used.
Number notation Power
notationShort scale Long scale 1,000,000 10^{6} one million one million 1,000,000,000 10^{9} one billion
a thousand millionone milliard
a thousand million1,000,000,000,000 10^{12} one trillion
a thousand billionone billion
a million million1,000,000,000,000,000 10^{15} one quadrillion
a thousand trillionone billiard
a thousand billion1,000,000,000,000,000,000 10^{18} one quintillion
a thousand quadrillionone trillion
a million billion1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 10^{21} one sextillion
a thousand quintillionone trilliard
a thousand trillionThe numbers past a trillion, in ascending powers of ten, are as follows: quadrillion, quintillion, sextillion, septillion, octillion, nonillion, decillion, undecillion, duodecillion, tredecillion, quattuordecillion, and quindecillion (that's 10 to the 48th, or a one followed by 48 zeros). The highest number listed on Robert Munafo's table,^{[1]} is a millimillillion. That's 10 to the 3000003rd.
The googolplex has often been nominated as the largest named number in the world. If a googol is ten to the one hundredth, then a googolplex is one followed by a googol of zeroes.^{[2]}
Although British English has traditionally followed the longscale numbering system, the shortscale usage has become increasingly common in recent years. For example, the UK Government and BBC websites use the newer shortscale values exclusively.
Here are some approximate composite large numbers in American English:
Quantity Written Pronounced 1,200,000 1.2 million one point two million 3,000,000 3 million three million 250,000,000 250 million two hundred fifty million 6,400,000,000 6.4 billion six point four billion 23,380,000,000 23.38 billion twentythree point three eight billion Often, large numbers are written with (preferably nonbreaking) halfspaces or thin spaces separating the thousands (and, sometimes, with normal spaces or apostrophes) instead of commas—to ensure that confusion is not caused in countries where a decimal comma is used. Thus, a million is often written 1 000 000.
In some areas, a point (. or ·) may also be used as a thousands' separator, but then, the decimal separator must be a comma.
Specialized numbers
A few numbers have special names (in addition to their regular names):
 0: has several other names, depending on context:
 zero: formal scientific usage
 naught / nought: mostly British usage
 aught: Mostly archaic but still occasionally used when a digit in midnumber is 0 (as in "thirtyaughtsix", the .3006 Springfield rifle cartridge and by association guns that fire it)
 oh: used when spelling numbers (like telephone, bank account, bus line)
 nil: in general sport scores, British usage ("The score is twonil.")
 nothing: in general sport scores, American usage ("The score is two to nothing.")
 null: used technically to refer to an object or idea related to nothingness. The 0th aleph number () is pronounced "alephnull".
 love: in tennis, badminton, squash and similar sports (origin disputed, often said to come from French l'œuf, "egg"; but the Oxford English Dictionary mentions the phrase for love, meaning nothing is at risk)
 zilch, nada (from Spanish), zip: used informally when stressing nothingness; this is true especially in combination with one another ("You know nothing—zero, zip, nada, zilch!")
 nix: also used as a verb
 cypher / cipher: archaic, from French chiffre, in turn from Arabic sifr, meaning zero
 1:
 ace: in certain sports and games, as in tennis or golf, indicating success with one stroke, and the face of a die or playing card with one pip
 solo
 unit
 2:
 couple
 brace, from Old French "arms" (the plural of arm), as in "what can be held in two arms".
 pair
 deuce: the face of a die or playing card with two pips
 duo
 3:
 trey: the face of a die or playing card with three pips
 trio
 4:
 cater: (rare) the face of a die or playing card with four pips
 quartet
 5:
 cinque: (rare) the face of a die or playing card with five pips
 quintet
 nickel (informal American, from the value of the nickel (United States coin), but applied in nonmonetary references)
 6:
 half a dozen
 sice: (rare) the face of a die or playing card with six pips
 sextet
 7:
 8:
 9:
 10:
 12: a dozen (first power of the duodecimal base), used mostly in commerce
 13: a baker's dozen
 20: a score (first power of the vigesimal base), nowadays archaic; famously used in the opening of the Gettysburg Address: "Four score and seven years ago..." The Number of the Beast in the King James Bible is rendered "Six hundred threescore and six".
 50: half a century, literally half of a hundred, usually used in cricket scores.
 100: a century, also used in cricket scores.
 120: a great hundred (twelve tens; as opposed to the small hundred, i.e. 100 or ten tens), also called small gross (ten dozens), both archaic; also sometimes referred to as duodecimal hundred
 144: a gross (a dozen dozens, second power of the duodecimal base), used mostly in commerce
 1000: a grand, colloquially used especially when referring to money, also in fractions and multiples, e.g. half a grand, two grand, etc.
 1728: a great gross (a dozen gross, third power of the duodecimal base), used mostly in commerce
 10,000: a myriad (a hundred hundred), commonly used in the sense of an indefinite very high number
 100,000: a lakh (a hundred thousand), loanword used mainly in Indian English
 10,000,000: a crore (a hundred lakh), loanword used mainly in Indian English
 10^{100}: googol (1 followed by 100 zeros), used in mathematics; not to be confused with the name of the company Google (which was originally a misspelling of googol)
 10^{googol} googolplex (1 followed by a googol of zeros)
 10^{googolplex} googolplexplex (1 followed by a googolplex of zeros)
Combinations of numbers in most sports scores are read as in the following examples:
 1–0 British English: one nil; American English: onenothing, onezip, or onezero
 0–0 British English: nilnil, or nil all; American English: zerozero or nothingnothing, (occasionally scoreless or no score)
 2–2 twotwo or two all; American English also twos, two to two, even at two, or two up.)
Naming conventions of Tennis scores (and related sports) are different than other sports.
Multiplicative numerals
A few numbers have specialised multiplicative numerals expresses how many fold or how many times^{[3]}:
one time once two times twice three times thrice Negative numbers
The name of a negative number is the name of the corresponding positive number preceded by "minus" or (American English) "negative". Thus 5.2 is "minus five point two" or "negative five point two". For temperatures, Americans colloquially say "below" —short for "below zero"— so a temperature of 5 ° is "five below".
Ordinal numbers
See also: Numbering of storeys in buildingsOrdinal numbers refer to a position in a series. Common ordinals include:
0th zeroth or noughth (see below) 10th tenth 1st first 11th eleventh 2nd second 12th twelfth (note "f", not "v") 20th twentieth 3rd third 13th thirteenth 30th thirtieth 4th fourth 14th fourteenth 40th fortieth 5th fifth 15th fifteenth 50th fiftieth 6th sixth 16th sixteenth 60th sixtieth 7th seventh 17th seventeenth 70th seventieth 8th eighth (only one "t") 18th eighteenth 80th eightieth 9th ninth (no "e") 19th nineteenth 90th ninetieth Zeroth only has a meaning when counts start with zero, which happens in a mathematical or computer science context.
Ordinal numbers such as 21st, 33rd, etc., are formed by combining a cardinal ten with an ordinal unit.
21st twentyfirst 25th twentyfifth 32nd thirtysecond 58th fiftyeighth 64th sixtyfourth 79th seventyninth 83rd eightythird 99th ninetyninth Higher ordinals are not often written in words, unless they are round numbers (thousandth, millionth, billionth). They are written using digits and letters as described below. Here are some rules that should be borne in mind.
 The suffixes th, st, nd and rd are occasionally written superscript above the number itself.
 If the tens digit of a number is 1, then write "th" after the number. For example: 13th, 19th, 112th, 9,311th.
 If the tens digit is not equal to 1, then use the following table:
If the units digit is: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 write this after the number th st nd rd th th th th th th  For example: 2nd, 7th, 20th, 23rd, 52nd, 135th, 301st.
These ordinal abbreviations are actually hybrid contractions of a numeral and a word. 1st is "1" + "st" from "first". Similarly, we use "nd" for "second" and "rd" for "third". In the legal field and in some older publications, the ordinal abbreviation for "second" and "third" is simply, "d".
 For example: 42d, 33d, 23d
NB: The practice of using "d" to denote "second" and "third" is still often followed in the numeric designations of units in the US armed forces, for example, 533d Squadron.
Any ordinal name that doesn't end in "first", "second", or "third", ends in "th".
Dates
See also: Calendar dateThere are a number of ways to read years. The following table offers a list of valid pronunciations and alternate pronunciations for any given year of the Gregorian calendar.
Year Most common pronunciation method Alternative methods 1 BC (The year) One Before Christ (BC) 1 before the Common era (BCE) 1 (The year) One Anno Domini (AD) 1
1 of the Common era (CE)
In the year of Our Lord 1235 Two thirtyfive Twothreefive
Two hundred (and) thirtyfive911 Nine eleven Nineoneone
Nine hundred (and) eleven999 Nine ninetynine Nineninenine
Nine hundred (and) ninetynine
Triple nine1000 One thousand Ten hundred
1K
Ten aught
Ten oh1004 One thousand (and) four Ten ohfour 1010 Ten ten One thousand (and) ten 1050 Ten fifty One thousand (and) fifty 1225 Twelve twentyfive Onetwotwofive
One thousand, two hundred (and) twentyfive
Twelvetwofive1900 Nineteen hundred One thousand, nine hundred
Nineteen aught1901 Nineteen ohone Nineteen hundred (and) one
One thousand, nine hundred (and) one
Nineteen aught one1919 Nineteen nineteen Nineteen hundred (and) nineteen
One thousand, nine hundred (and) nineteen1999 Nineteen ninetynine Nineteen hundred (and) ninetynine
One thousand, nine hundred (and) ninetynine2000 Two thousand Twenty hundred
Two tripleoh2001 Two thousand (and) one Twenty ohone
Twenty hundred (and) one
Two doubleohone
Two ohohone2009 Two thousand (and) nine Twenty ohnine
Twenty hundred (and) nine
Two doubleohnine
Two ohohnine2010 Two thousand (and) ten
Twenty tenTwenty hundred (and) ten
twoohoneohFractions and decimals
In spoken English, ordinal numbers are also used to quantify the denominator of a fraction. Thus 'fifth' can mean the element between fourth and sixth, or the fraction created by dividing the unit into five pieces. In this usage, the ordinal numbers can be pluralized: one seventh, two sevenths. The sole exception to this rule is division by two. The ordinal term 'second' can only refer to location in a series; for fractions English speakers use the term 'half' (plural 'halves').
Here are some common fractions (partitive numerals^{[4]}):
1/16 onesixteenth 1/10 or 0.1 onetenth 1/8 oneeighth 2/10 or 0.2 twotenths 1/4 onequarter or (mainly American English) onefourth 3/10 or 0.3 threetenths 1/3 onethird 3/8 threeeighths 4/10 or 0.4 fourtenths 1/2 one half 6/10 or 0.6 sixtenths 5/8 fiveeighths 2/3 twothirds 7/10 or 0.7 seventenths 3/4 threequarters or threefourths 8/10 or 0.8 eighttenths 7/8 seveneighths 9/10 or 0.9 ninetenths 15/16 fifteensixteenths Alternatively, and for greater numbers, one may say for 1/2 "one over two", for 5/8 "five over eight", and so on. This "over" form is also widely used in mathematics. (This form is not common in British English.)
Numbers with a decimal point may be read as a cardinal number, then "and", then another cardinal number followed by an indication of the significance of the second cardinal number (not common in British English); or as a cardinal number, followed by "point", and then by the digits of the fractional part. The indication of significance takes the form of the denominator of the fraction indicating division by the smallest power of ten larger than the second cardinal. This is modified when the first cardinal is zero, in which case neither the zero nor the "and" is pronounced, but the zero is optional in the "point" form of the fraction.
 For example:
 0.002 is "two thousandths" (mainly U.S.); or "point zero zero two", "point oh oh two", "nought point zero zero two", etc.
 3.1416 is "three point one four one six"
 99.3 is "ninetynine and three tenths" (mainly U.S.); or "ninetynine point three".
In English the decimal point was originally printed in the center of the line (0·002), but with the advent of the typewriter it was placed at the bottom of the line, so that a single key could be used as a full stop/period and as a decimal point. In many nonEnglish languages a fullstop/period at the bottom of the line is used as a thousands separator with a comma being used as the decimal point.
 Fractions together with an integer are read as follows:
 1 1/2 is "one and a half"
 6 1/4 is "six and a quarter"
 7 5/8 is "seven and five eighths"
A space is required between the whole number and the fraction; however, if a special fraction character is used like "½", then the space can be done without, e.g.

 9 1/2
 9½
Whether to use digits or words
According to most copy editors and English teachers,^{[citation needed]} the numbers zero to nine inclusive should be "written out" – meaning instead of "1" and "2", one would write "one" and "two".
 Example: "I have two apples." (Preferred)
 Example: "I have 2 apples."
After "nine", one can head straight back into the 10, 11, 12, etc., although some write out the numbers until "twelve".
 Example: "I have 28 grapes." (Preferred)
 Example: "I have twentyeight grapes."
Another common usage is to write out any number that can be expressed as one or two words, and use figures otherwise.
 Examples:
 "There are six million dogs." (Preferred)
 "There are 6,000,000 dogs."
 "That is one hundred twentyfive oranges."
 "That is 125 oranges." (Preferred)
Numbers at the beginning of a sentence should also be written out.
The above rules are not always used. In literature, larger numbers might be spelled out. On the other hand, digits might be more commonly used in technical or financial articles, where many figures are discussed. In particular, the two different forms should not be used for figures that serve the same purpose; for example, it is inelegant to write, "Between day twelve and day 15 of the study, the population doubled."
Empty numbers
Colloquial English has a small vocabulary of empty numbers that can be employed when there is uncertainty as to the precise number to use, but it is desirable to define a general range: specifically, the terms "umpteen", "umpty", and "zillion". These are derived etymologically from the range affixes:
 "teen" (designating the range as being between 10 and 20)
 "ty" (designating the range as being in one of the decades between 20 and 100)
 "illion" (designating the range as being above 1,000,000; or, more generally, as being extremely large).
The prefix "ump" is added to the first two suffixes to produce the empty numbers "umpteen" and "umpty": it is of uncertain origin. There is a noticeable absence of an empty number in the hundreds range.
Usage of empty numbers:
 The word "umpteen" may be used as an adjective, as in "I had to go to umpteen stores to find shoes that fit." It can also be used to modify a larger number, usually "million", as in "Umpteen million people watched the show; but they still cancelled it."
 "Umpty" is not in common usage. It can appear in the form "umptyone" (parallelling the usage in such numbers as "twentyone"), as in "There are umptyone ways to do it wrong." "Umptyump" is also heard, though "ump" is never used by itself.
 The word "zillion" may be used as an adjective, modifying a noun. The noun phrase normally contains the indefinite article "a", as in "There must be a zillion sites on the World Wide Web."
 The plural "zillions" designates a number indefinitely larger than "millions" or "billions". In this case, the construction is parallel to the one for "millions" or "billions", with the number used as a plural count noun, followed by a prepositional phrase with "of", as in "Out in the countryside, the night sky is filled with zillions of stars."
 Empty numbers are sometimes made up, with obvious meaning: "squillions" is obviously an empty, but very large, number; a "squintillionth" would be a very small number.
 Some empty numbers may be modified by actual numbers, such as "four zillion", and are used for jest, exaggeration, or to relate abstractly to actual numbers.
 Empty numbers are colloquial, and primarily used in oral speech or informal contexts. They are inappropriate in formal or scholarly usage.
See also Placeholder name.
See also
 Indefinite and fictitious numbers
 List of numbers
 Long and short scales
 Names of large numbers
 Natural number
 Number names
References
External links
 English Numbers  explanations, exercises and number generator (cardinal and ordinal numbers)
 Write out numbers  automatic numbers (and sum of money) translation to English and Russian languages
Categories: Numerals
 Naming conventions
 American and British English differences
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