Thirteenth dynasty of Egypt
Dynasties of Ancient Egypt
The thirteenth dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XIII) is often combined with Dynasties XI, XII and XIV under the group title Middle Kingdom. Other writers separate it from these dynasties and join it to Dynasties XIV through XVII as part of the Second Intermediate Period. Dynasty XIII was from approximately 1773 BC to sometime after 1650 BC.
There are many known rulers for Dynasty XIII. Some of the better known ones are listed below. The names and order in the table is based on Dodson and Hilton.
Dynasty XIII pharaohs Pharaoh Horus-name Burial Consort(s) Comments Sobekhotep Sekhemre-Khutawy or Wegaf no agreement yet in Egyptology who was the first king of the Dynasty XIII Amenemhat V Sekhemkare Ameny Qemau Pyramid in South Dashur Son of Ameny? Qemau Siharnedjheritef Hotepibre Son of Qemau? Amenemhet VI Sankhibre Nebnuni Semenkare Sobekhotep II Sekhemre-Khutawy possibly Dahshur Renseneb Hor Auibre
"Re Succours the Heart"
Dahshur near the pyramid of Amenemhet III Nubhotepi Amenemhet VII Sedjefakare Wegaf Khutawyre
"Re Protects the Two Lands"
Unknown Khendjer Userkare / Nikanimaetre Pyramid, South Saqqara  Seneb[henas?] Intef Sehetepkare Aya (Iy)? Sobekhotep III Sekhemre Sewadjtawy Senebhenas 
Neferhotep I Khasekhemre Senebsen  Sobekhotep IV Khaneferre Tjin  Sobekhotep V Merhotepre Nubkhaes ?  Sobekhotep VI Khahotepre Ibiaw Wahibre Ay Merneferre Inni ? Ini I Merhotepre Sewadjtu Sankhenre
In later texts, this dynasty is usually described as an era of chaos and disorder. However, the period may have been more peaceful than was once thought since the central government in Itj-tawy near the Faiyum was sustained during most of the dynasty and the country remained relatively stable. Unfortunately, the true chronology of this dynasty is difficult to determine as there are few monuments dating from the period. Many of the kings' names are only known from an odd fragmentary inscription or from scarabs.
Sobekhotep I and II
Ryholt gives a ruler named "Sobkhotep I Sekhemre-khutawy" as the first king of this dynasty. Sobekhotep Sekhemre Khutawy is referred to as Sobekhotep II in this article. Ryholt places Sobkhotep Sekhemrekhutawy at the beginning of the dynasty at ca 1800 BC, and Sobekhotep Khaankhre ca 20 years later at 1780 BC.  Dodson and Hilton similarly has Sobekhotep Sekhemrekhutawy predating Sobekhotep Khaankhre. 
After allowing discipline at the southern forts to deteriorate, the government eventually withdrew its garrisons and, not long afterward, the forts were reoccupied by the rising Nubian state of Kush. In the north, parts of Lower Egypt became heavily settled by an immigrant Asiatic population. An independent line of kings created Dynasty XIV that arose in the western Delta during later Dynasty XIII. According to Manetho, into this unstable mix came invaders from the east called the Hyksos. Their regime, called Dynasty XV, replaced Dynasties XIII and XIV in most of the country.
- ^ Shaw, Ian, ed (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. p. 480. ISBN 0-19-815034-2.
- ^ Aidan Dodson, Dyan Hilton: The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. The American University in Cairo Press, London 2004
- ^ a b Verner, Miroslav. The Pyramids: The Mystery, Culture, and Science of Egypt's Great Monuments. Grove Press. 2001 (1997). ISBN 0-8021-3935-3
- ^ K. S. B. Ryholt, Hotepibre, a Supposed Asiatic King in Egypt with Relations to Ebla, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 311 (Aug., 1998), pp. 1-6
- ^ a b c d e Grajetzki, Ancient Egyptian Queens: A Hieroglyphic Dictionary, Golden House Publications, London, 2005, ISBN 978-0954721893
- ^ K.S.B. Ryholt. The Political Situation in Egypt during the Second Intermediate Period c. 1800-1550 B.C. Carsten Niebuhr Institute Publications 20. Copenhagen
- ^ Dodson, Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, 2004
- Clayton, Peter A. Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. London: Thames & Hudson Ltd., 2006. ISBN 0500286280.
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