Timeline of hydrogen technologies

Timeline of hydrogen technologies A timeline of the history of hydrogen technology.

Timeline

1600s

* 1625 - First description of hydrogen by Johann Baptista van Helmont. First to use the word "gas".
* 1650 - Turquet de Mayerne obtained by the action of dilute sulphuric acid on iron a gas or "inflammable air".
* 1662 - Boyle's law (gas law relating pressure and volume)
* 1670 - Robert Boyle produced hydrogen by reacting metals with acid.
* 1672 - "New Experiments touching the Relation between Flame and Air" by Robert Boyle.
* 1679 - Denis Papin - safety valve

1700s

* 1700 - Nicolas Lemery showed that the gas produced in the sulfuric acid/iron reaction was explosive in air
* 1755 - Joseph Black confirmed that different gases exist. / Latent heat
* 1766 - Henry Cavendish discovered "dephlogisticated air" by reacting zinc metal with hydrochloric acid and isolated a gas 7 to 11 times lighter than air.
* 1774 - Joseph Priestley isolated and categorized hydrogen.
* 1780 - Felice Fontana discovers the water gas shift reaction
* 1783 - Antoine Lavoisier gave hydrogen its name ("Gk": hydro = water, genes = born of)
* 1783 - Jacques Charles made the first flight with his hydrogen balloon "La Charlière".
* 1783 - Antoine Lavoisier and Pierre Laplace measured the heat of combustion of hydrogen using an ice calorimeter.
* 1784 - Jean-Pierre Blanchard, The first trial with a dirigible hydrogen balloon.
* 1784 - The invention of the Lavoisier Meusnier process, generating hydrogen by passing steam through the red-hot barrel of an iron cannon.
* 1785 - Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier built the hybrid Rozière balloon.
* 1787 - Charles's law (Gas law, relating volume and temperature)

1800s

* 1800 - William Nicholson and Johann Ritter decomposed water into hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis.
* 1806 - François Isaac de Rivaz build the first internal combustion engine powered by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen.
* 1809 - Thomas Foster observed with a theodolite the drift of small free pilot balloons filled with "inflammable gas" [ [http://www.colby.edu/sts/st215/history_of_meteorology.pdf 1809 - Fleming, History of Metorology 25 Pag. 25] ] [ [http://www.csulb.edu/~mbrenner/history.htm 1809 - Pilot balloon resources] ]
* 1809 - Gay-Lussac's law (Gas law, relating temperature and pressure)
* 1811 - Amedeo Avogadro - Avogadro's law a gas law
* 1819 - Edward Daniel Clarke invented the hydrogen gas blowpipe.
* 1820 - W. Cecil wrote a letter "On the application of hydrogen gas to produce a moving power in machinery" [ [http://www.eng.cam.ac.uk/DesignOffice/projects/cecil/engine.html 1820 Cecil engine] ] [ [http://www.eng.cam.ac.uk/DesignOffice/projects/cecil/cecil.pdf 1820 Cecil the letter] ]
* 1823 - Goldsworthy Gurney demonstrated Limelight.
* 1823 - Döbereiner's Lamp a lighter invented by Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner.
* 1823 - Goldsworthy Gurney devised an oxy-hydrogen blowpipe.
* 1824 - Michael Faraday invented the rubber balloon.
* 1826 - Thomas Drummond built the Drummond Light.
* 1826 - Samuel Brown tested his internal combustion engine by using it to propel a vehicle up Shooter's Hill
* 1834 - Michael Faraday published Faraday's laws of electrolysis.
* 1834 - Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron - Ideal gas law
* 1836 - John Frederic Daniell invented a primary cell in which hydrogen was eliminated in the generation of the electricity.
* 1839 - Christian Friedrich Schönbein published the principle of the fuel cell in the "Philosophical Magazine".
* 1839 - William Robert Grove developed the Grove cell.
* 1842 - William Robert Grove developed the first fuel cell (which he called the gas voltaic battery)
* 1849 - Eugene Bourdon - Bourdon_gauge (manometer)
* 1863 - Etienne Lenoir made a test drive from Paris to Joinville-le-Pont with the 1-cylinder, 2-stroke Hippomobile.
* 1866 - August Wilhelm von Hofmann invents the Hofmann voltameter for the electrolysis of water.
* 1873 - Thaddeus S. C. Lowe - Water gas, the process used the water gas shift reaction.
* 1874 - Jules Verne - The Mysterious Island, "water will one day be employed as fuel, that hydrogen and oxygen of which it is constituted will be used" [ [http://www.online-literature.com/verne/mysteriousisland/33/ 1874 - Jules Verne, The Mysterious Island] ]
* 1884 - Charles Renard and Arthur Constantin Krebs launch the airship La France.
* 1885 - Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewski published hydrogen's critical temperature as 33 K; critical pressure, 13.3 atmospheres; and boiling point, 23 K.
* 1889 - Ludwig Mond and Carl Langer coined the name "fuel cell" and tried to built one running on air and Mond gas.
* 1893 - Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwald experimentally determined the interconnected roles of the various components of the fuel cell.
* 1896 - Jackson D.D. and Ellms J.W., hydrogen production by microalgae (anabaena)
* 1896 - Leon Teisserenc de Bort carries out experiments with high flying instrumental weather balloons [ [http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/corporate/pressoffice/anniversary/balloon.html 1896 Weather balloon] ] .
* 1897 - Paul Sabatier facilitated the use of hydrogenation with the discovery of the Sabatier reaction.
* 1898 - James Dewar liquefied hydrogen for the first time by using regenerative cooling and his invention, the vacuum flask.
* 1899 - James Dewar collected solid hydrogen for the first time.

1900s

* 1900 - Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin launched the first hydrogen-filled Zeppelin LZ1 airship.
* 1901 - Wilhelm Normann introduced the hydrogenation of fats.
* 1903 - Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovskii published "The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices" [ [http://epizodsspace.testpilot.ru/bibl/dorev-knigi/ciolkovskiy/issl-03st.html Tsiolkovsky's Исследование мировых пространств реактивными приборами - "The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices" (Russian paper)] ]
* 1909 - Ferdinand Adolf August von Zeppelin made the first long distance flight with the Zeppelin LZ5.
* 1910 - The first Zeppelin passenger flight with the Zeppelin LZ7.
* 1910 - Fritz Haber patented the Haber process.
* 1912 - The first scheduled international Zeppelin passenger flights with the Zeppelin LZ13.
* 1919 - The first Atlantic crossing by airship with the Beardmore HMA R34.
* 1920 - Hydrocracking, a plant for the commercial hydrogenation of brown coal is commissioned at Leuna in Germany [ [http://www.cheresources.com/refining5.shtml 1920 - Hydrocracking] ] .
* 1923 - Steam reforming, the first synthetic methanol is produced by BASF in Leuna
* 1923 - J. B. S. Haldane envisioned in Daedalus; or, Science and the Future "great power stations where during windy weather
* the surplus power will be used for the electrolytic decomposition of water into oxygen and hydrogen."
* 1926 - Partial oxidation, Vandeveer en Parr at the University of Illinois used oxygen in the place of air for the production of syngas.
* 1926 - Cyril Norman Hinshelwood described the phenomenon of chain reaction.
* 1926 - Umberto Nobile made the first flight over the north pole with the hydrogen airship Norge
* 1929 - Paul Harteck and Karl Friedrich Bonhoeffer achieve the first synthesis of pure parahydrogen.
* 1930 - Rudolf Erren - Erren engine - GB patent GB364180 - Improvements in and relating to internal combustion engines using a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen as fuel [ [http://www.wikipatents.com/gb/0364180.html Improvements in and relating to internal combustion engines using a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen as fuel] ]
* 1935 - Eugene Wigner and H.B. Huntington predicted metallic hydrogen.
* 1937 - The Zeppelin LZ 129 Hindenburg was destroyed by fire.
* 1937 - The Heinkel HeS 1 experimental gaseous hydrogen fueled centrifugal jet engine is tested at Hirth in March- the first working jet engine
* 1938 - The first 240 km hydrogen pipeline Rhine-Ruhr [ [http://www.storhy.net/train-in/PDF-TI/03_StorHy-Train-IN-Session-1_3_JToepler.pdf The Technological Steps of Hydrogen Introduction - pag 24] ] .
* 1938 - Igor Sikorsky from Sikorski Aircraft proposed liquid hydrogen as a fuel.
* 1939 - Rudolf Erren - Erren engine - US patent 2,183,674 - Internal combustion engine using hydrogen as fuel
* 1939 - Hans Gaffron discovered that algae can switch between producing oxygen and hydrogen.
* 1943 - Liquid hydrogen is tested as rocket fuel at Ohio State University.
* 1949 - Hydrodesulfurization (Catalytic reforming is commercialized under the name Platforming process)
* 1952 - Hydrogen maser
* 1952 - Non-Refrigerated transport Dewar
* 1955 - W. Thomas Grubb modified the fuel cell design by using a sulphonated polystyrene ion-exchange membrane as the electrolyte.
* 1957 - Pratt & Whitney's model 304 jet engine using liquid hydrogen as fuel tested for the first time as part of the Lockheed CL-400 Suntan project. [cite book | author = Sloop, John L. | title = Liquid hydrogen as a propulsion fuel, 1945-1959.(The NASA history series) (NASA SP-4404)
url = http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-4404/ch8-9.htm | pages = 154–157 | year = 1978 | publisher = National Aeronautics and Space Administration
]
* 1957 - The specifications for the U-2 a double axis liquid hydrogen semi-trailer were issued [ [http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4404/ch8-11.htm NASA-LIQUID HYDROGEN AS A PROPULSION FUEL,1945-1959] ] .
* 1958 - Leonard Niedrach devised a way of depositing platinum onto the membrane, this became known as the Grubb-Niedrach fuel cell
* 1958 - Allis-Chalmers demonstrated the D 12, the first 15 kW fuel cell tractor [ [http://www.fuelcelltoday.com/media/pdf/archive/Article_1152_Fuel%20Cell%20History%20part%202%20with%20illustrations.pdf 1958 D 12 - Pag. 7] ] .
* 1959 - Francis Thomas Bacon built the Bacon Cell, the first practical 5 kW hydrogen-air fuel cell to power a welding machine.
* 1960 - Allis-Chalmers builds the first fuel cell forklift [ [http://www.hydrogenassociation.org/general/fleet_Module7.pdf 1960 -Fleet module Pag.3] ]
* 1961 - RL-10 liquid hydrogen fuelled rocket engine first flight
* 1964 - Allis-Chalmers built a 750-watt fuel cell to power a one-man underwater research vessel [ [http://www.aesc-inc.com/download/Ishii_Fuel_Cell_Paper.pdf 1964 Allis Chalmers Pag.1] ] .
* 1965 - The first commercial use of a fuel cell in Project Gemini.
* 1965 - Allis-Chalmers builds the first fuel cell golf carts.
* 1966 - Slush hydrogen
* 1966 - J-2 (rocket engine) liquid hydrogen rocket engine flies
* 1967 - Akira Fujishima discovers the Honda-Fujishima effect which is used for hydrolysis in the photoelectrochemical cell.
* 1970 - John Bockris coined the term "hydrogen economy" [ [http://www.getenergysmart.org/Files/Schools/Hydrogen/3HistoryofHydrogen.pdf History of Hydrogen] ]
* 1973 - The 30 km hydrogen pipeline in Isbergues
* 1975 - John Bockris - Energy The Solar-Hydrogen Alternative - ISBN 0470084294
* 1979 - HM7B rocket engine
* 1981 - Space Shuttle main engine first flight
* 1990 - The first solar-powered hydrogen production plant Solar-Wasserstoff-Bayern became operational.
* 1996 - Vulcain rocket engine
* 1997 - Anastasios Melis discovered that the deprivation of sulfur will cause algae to switch from producing oxygen to producing hydrogen

ee also

* Timeline of low-temperature technology
* List of timelines

References


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