Timeline of hydrogen technologies
Timelineof hydrogen technologiesA timeline of the history of hydrogentechnology.
* 1625 - First description of hydrogen by Johann Baptista van Helmont. First to use the word "gas".
* 1650 - Turquet de Mayerne obtained by the action of dilute sulphuric acid on iron a gas or "inflammable air".
* 1662 -
Boyle's law(gas law relating pressure and volume)
* 1670 -
Robert Boyleproduced hydrogen by reacting metals with acid.
* 1672 - "New Experiments touching the Relation between Flame and Air" by
* 1679 -
Denis Papin- safety valve
* 1700 -
Nicolas Lemeryshowed that the gas produced in the sulfuric acid/iron reaction was explosive in air
* 1755 -
Joseph Blackconfirmed that different gases exist. / Latent heat
* 1766 -
Henry Cavendishdiscovered "dephlogisticated air" by reacting zinc metal with hydrochloric acidand isolated a gas 7 to 11 times lighter than air.
* 1774 -
Joseph Priestleyisolated and categorized hydrogen.
* 1780 -
Felice Fontanadiscovers the water gas shift reaction
* 1783 -
Antoine Lavoisiergave hydrogen its name ("Gk": hydro = water, genes = born of)
* 1783 -
Jacques Charlesmade the first flight with his hydrogen balloon "La Charlière".
* 1783 -
Antoine Lavoisierand Pierre Laplacemeasured the heat of combustion of hydrogen using an ice calorimeter.
* 1784 -
Jean-Pierre Blanchard, The first trial with a dirigible hydrogen balloon.
* 1784 - The invention of the Lavoisier Meusnier process, generating hydrogen by passing steam through the red-hot barrel of an iron cannon.
* 1785 -
Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozierbuilt the hybrid Rozière balloon.
* 1787 -
Charles's law(Gas law, relating volume and temperature)
* 1800 - William Nicholson and
Johann Ritterdecomposed waterinto hydrogenand oxygenby electrolysis.
* 1806 -
François Isaac de Rivazbuild the first internal combustion enginepowered by a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen.
* 1809 -
Thomas Fosterobserved with a theodolitethe drift of small free pilot balloons filled with "inflammable gas" [ [http://www.colby.edu/sts/st215/history_of_meteorology.pdf 1809 - Fleming, History of Metorology 25 Pag. 25] ] [ [http://www.csulb.edu/~mbrenner/history.htm 1809 - Pilot balloon resources] ]
* 1809 -
Gay-Lussac's law(Gas law, relating temperature and pressure)
* 1811 -
Amedeo Avogadro- Avogadro's lawa gas law
* 1819 -
Edward Daniel Clarkeinvented the hydrogen gas blowpipe.
* 1820 - W. Cecil wrote a letter "On the application of hydrogen gas to produce a moving power in machinery" [ [http://www.eng.cam.ac.uk/DesignOffice/projects/cecil/engine.html 1820 Cecil engine] ] [ [http://www.eng.cam.ac.uk/DesignOffice/projects/cecil/cecil.pdf 1820 Cecil the letter] ]
* 1823 -
Goldsworthy Gurneydemonstrated Limelight.
* 1823 -
Döbereiner's Lampa lighterinvented by Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner.
* 1823 -
Goldsworthy Gurneydevised an oxy-hydrogen blowpipe.
* 1824 -
Michael Faradayinvented the rubber balloon.
* 1826 -
Thomas Drummondbuilt the Drummond Light.
* 1826 - Samuel Brown tested his
internal combustion engineby using it to propel a vehicle up Shooter's Hill
* 1834 -
Michael Faradaypublished Faraday's laws of electrolysis.
* 1834 -
Benoît Paul Émile Clapeyron- Ideal gas law
* 1836 -
John Frederic Daniellinvented a primary cellin which hydrogen was eliminated in the generation of the electricity.
* 1839 -
Christian Friedrich Schönbeinpublished the principle of the fuel cellin the " Philosophical Magazine".
* 1839 -
William Robert Grovedeveloped the Grove cell.
* 1842 -
William Robert Grovedeveloped the first fuel cell (which he called the gas voltaic battery)
* 1849 -
Eugene Bourdon- Bourdon_gauge ( manometer)
* 1863 -
Etienne Lenoirmade a test drive from Paris to Joinville-le-Pont with the 1-cylinder, 2-stroke Hippomobile.
* 1866 -
August Wilhelm von Hofmanninvents the Hofmann voltameterfor the electrolysis of water.
* 1873 -
Thaddeus S. C. Lowe- Water gas, the process used the water gas shift reaction.
* 1874 -
Jules Verne- The Mysterious Island, "water will one day be employed as fuel, that hydrogen and oxygen of which it is constituted will be used" [ [http://www.online-literature.com/verne/mysteriousisland/33/ 1874 - Jules Verne, The Mysterious Island] ]
* 1884 -
Charles Renardand Arthur Constantin Krebslaunch the airshipLa France.
* 1885 -
Zygmunt Florenty Wróblewskipublished hydrogen's critical temperature as 33 K; critical pressure, 13.3 atmospheres; and boiling point, 23 K.
* 1889 -
Ludwig Mondand Carl Langercoined the name " fuel cell" and tried to built one running on air and Mond gas.
* 1893 -
Friedrich Wilhelm Ostwaldexperimentally determined the interconnected roles of the various components of the fuel cell.
* 1896 -
Jackson D.D.and Ellms J.W., hydrogen productionby microalgae( anabaena)
* 1896 -
Leon Teisserenc de Bortcarries out experiments with high flying instrumental weather balloons [ [http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/corporate/pressoffice/anniversary/balloon.html 1896 Weather balloon] ] .
* 1897 - Paul Sabatier facilitated the use of
hydrogenationwith the discovery of the Sabatier reaction.
* 1898 -
James Dewarliquefied hydrogen for the first time by using regenerative coolingand his invention, the vacuum flask.
* 1899 -
James Dewarcollected solid hydrogenfor the first time.
* 1900 -
Count Ferdinand von Zeppelinlaunched the first hydrogen-filled Zeppelin LZ1 airship.
* 1901 -
Wilhelm Normannintroduced the hydrogenationof fats.
* 1903 -
Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovskiipublished "The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices" [ [http://epizodsspace.testpilot.ru/bibl/dorev-knigi/ciolkovskiy/issl-03st.html Tsiolkovsky's Исследование мировых пространств реактивными приборами - "The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices" (Russian paper)] ]
* 1909 - Ferdinand Adolf August von Zeppelin made the first long distance flight with the
* 1910 - The first Zeppelin passenger flight with the
* 1910 -
Fritz Haberpatented the Haber process.
* 1912 - The first scheduled international Zeppelin passenger flights with the
* 1919 - The first Atlantic crossing by airship with the Beardmore HMA R34.
* 1920 -
Hydrocracking, a plant for the commercial hydrogenation of brown coal is commissioned at Leunain Germany [ [http://www.cheresources.com/refining5.shtml 1920 - Hydrocracking] ] .
* 1923 -
Steam reforming, the first synthetic methanol is produced by BASF in Leuna
* 1923 -
J. B. S. Haldaneenvisioned in Daedalus; or, Science and the Future"great power stations where during windy weather
* the surplus power will be used for the electrolytic decomposition of water into oxygen and hydrogen."
* 1926 -
Partial oxidation, Vandeveer en Parr at the University of Illinoisused oxygen in the place of air for the production of syngas.
* 1926 -
Cyril Norman Hinshelwooddescribed the phenomenon of chain reaction.
* 1926 -
Umberto Nobilemade the first flight over the north polewith the hydrogen airship Norge
* 1929 -
Paul Harteckand Karl Friedrich Bonhoefferachieve the first synthesis of pure parahydrogen.
* 1930 -
Rudolf Erren- Erren engine- GB patent GB364180 - Improvements in and relating to internal combustion engines using a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen as fuel [ [http://www.wikipatents.com/gb/0364180.html Improvements in and relating to internal combustion engines using a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen as fuel] ]
* 1935 -
Eugene Wignerand H.B. Huntingtonpredicted metallic hydrogen.
* 1937 - The Zeppelin
LZ 129 Hindenburgwas destroyed by fire.
* 1937 - The
Heinkel HeS 1experimental gaseous hydrogenfueled centrifugaljet engine is tested at Hirth in March- the first working jet engine
* 1938 - The first 240 km hydrogen pipeline
Rhine-Ruhr[ [http://www.storhy.net/train-in/PDF-TI/03_StorHy-Train-IN-Session-1_3_JToepler.pdf The Technological Steps of Hydrogen Introduction - pag 24] ] .
* 1938 -
Igor Sikorskyfrom Sikorski Aircraftproposed liquid hydrogenas a fuel.
* 1939 -
Rudolf Erren- Erren engine- US patent 2,183,674 - Internal combustion engine using hydrogen as fuel
* 1939 -
Hans Gaffrondiscovered that algaecan switch between producing oxygen and hydrogen.
* 1943 -
Liquid hydrogenis tested as rocket fuelat Ohio State University.
* 1949 -
Hydrodesulfurization( Catalytic reformingis commercialized under the name Platforming process)
* 1952 -
* 1952 - Non-
Refrigerated transport Dewar
* 1955 -
W. Thomas Grubbmodified the fuel cell design by using a sulphonated polystyrene ion-exchange membrane as the electrolyte.
* 1957 - Pratt & Whitney's model 304 jet engine using liquid hydrogen as fuel tested for the first time as part of the
Lockheed CL-400 Suntanproject. [cite book | author = Sloop, John L. | title = Liquid hydrogen as a propulsion fuel, 1945-1959.(The NASA history series) (NASA SP-4404)
url = http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-4404/ch8-9.htm | pages = 154–157 | year = 1978 | publisher = National Aeronautics and Space Administration ]
* 1957 - The specifications for the U-2 a double axis liquid hydrogen semi-trailer were issued [ [http://history.nasa.gov/SP-4404/ch8-11.htm NASA-LIQUID HYDROGEN AS A PROPULSION FUEL,1945-1959] ] .
* 1958 -
Leonard Niedrachdevised a way of depositing platinum onto the membrane, this became known as the Grubb-Niedrach fuel cell
* 1958 -
Allis-Chalmersdemonstrated the D 12, the first 15 kW fuel cell tractor[ [http://www.fuelcelltoday.com/media/pdf/archive/Article_1152_Fuel%20Cell%20History%20part%202%20with%20illustrations.pdf 1958 D 12 - Pag. 7] ] .
* 1959 -
Francis Thomas Baconbuilt the Bacon Cell, the first practical 5 kW hydrogen-air fuel cell to power a welding machine.
* 1960 -
Allis-Chalmersbuilds the first fuel cell forklift[ [http://www.hydrogenassociation.org/general/fleet_Module7.pdf 1960 -Fleet module Pag.3] ]
* 1961 -
RL-10liquid hydrogen fuelled rocket enginefirst flight
* 1964 -
Allis-Chalmersbuilt a 750-watt fuel cell to power a one-man underwater research vessel [ [http://www.aesc-inc.com/download/Ishii_Fuel_Cell_Paper.pdf 1964 Allis Chalmers Pag.1] ] .
* 1965 - The first commercial use of a fuel cell in
* 1965 -
Allis-Chalmersbuilds the first fuel cell golf carts.
* 1966 -
* 1966 -
J-2 (rocket engine)liquid hydrogen rocket engine flies
* 1967 -
Akira Fujishimadiscovers the Honda-Fujishima effect which is used for hydrolysisin the photoelectrochemical cell.
* 1970 -
John Bockriscoined the term " hydrogen economy" [ [http://www.getenergysmart.org/Files/Schools/Hydrogen/3HistoryofHydrogen.pdf History of Hydrogen] ]
* 1973 - The 30 km hydrogen pipeline in
* 1975 - John Bockris -
Energy The Solar-Hydrogen Alternative- ISBN 0470084294
* 1979 -
* 1981 -
Space Shuttle main enginefirst flight
* 1990 - The first solar-powered hydrogen production plant
* 1996 - Vulcain rocket engine
* 1997 -
Anastasios Melisdiscovered that the deprivation of sulfurwill cause algaeto switch from producing oxygen to producing hydrogen
Timeline of low-temperature technology
List of timelines
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