Islamophobia


Islamophobia
This article is about discrimination. For criticism of Islam, see Criticism of Islam. For criticism of political Islam, see Criticism of Islamism

Islamophobia describes prejudice against, hatred or irrational fear of Islam or Muslims[1][2] The term dates back to the late 1980s or early 1990s,[3] but came into common usage after the September 11, 2001 attacks in the United States.[4]

In 1997, the British Runnymede Trust defined Islamophobia as the "dread or hatred of Islam and therefore, to the fear and dislike of all Muslims," stating that it also refers to the practice of discriminating against Muslims by excluding them from the economic, social, and public life of the nation. It includes the perception that Islam has no values in common with other cultures, is inferior to the West and is a violent political ideology rather than a religion.[5]

Professor in History of Religion, Anne Sophie Roald, states that Islamophobia was recognized as a form of intolerance alongside Xenophobia and Antisemitism at the "Stockholm International Forum on Combating Intolerance"[6]. The conference, attended by UN Secretary General Kofi Annan, High Commissioner for Human Rights Mary Robinson, the OSCE Secretary General Ján Kubis and representatives of the European Union and Council of Europe, adopted a declaration to combat "genocide, ethnic cleansing, racism, antisemitism, Islamophobia and xenophobia, and to combat all forms of racial discrimination and intolerance related to it." [7]

A perceived trend of increasing Islamophobia during the 2000s has been attributed by some commentators to the September 11 attacks,[8] while others associate it with the rapidly growing Muslim populations in the Western world, especially in Western Europe, due to both immigration and high fertility rate.[9] In May 2002, the European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC), a European Union watchdog, released a report entitled "Summary report on Islamophobia in the EU after 11 September 2001", which described an increase in Islamophobia-related incidents in European member states post-9/11.[10] Although the term is widely recognized and used, both the term and the concept have been criticized.

Contents

Definitions

The word Islamophobia is a neologism formed from Islam and -phobia. The compound form Islamo- contains the thematic vowel -o-, and is found in earlier coinages such as Islamo-Christian from the 19th century. As opposed to being a psychological or individualistic phobia, according to professor of religion Peter Gottschalk and Gabriel Greenberg, "Islamophobia" connotes a social anxiety about Islam and Muslims.[11][12]

A number of individuals and organizations have made attempts to define the concept. Kofi Annan told a UN conference on Islamophobia in 2004: "[W]hen the world is compelled to coin a new term to take account of increasingly widespread bigotry, that is a sad and troubling development. Such is the case with Islamophobia."[13]

In 1996, the Runnymede Trust established the Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia, chaired by Professor Gordon Conway, the vice-chancellor of the University of Sussex. Their report, Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All, was launched in November 1997 by the Home Secretary, Jack Straw. In this report, Islamophobia was defined by the Trust as "an outlook or world-view involving an unfounded dread and dislike of Muslims, which results in practices of exclusion and discrimination."[14] An early documented use of the word in the United States was by the conservative American news magazine Insight on the News in 1991, used to describe Russian activities in Afghanistan.[14] Other claims of early use include usage by Iranian clerics in 1979,[15] or its use in 1921 by the painter Étienne Dinet.[16]

The American Muslim writer Stephen Schwartz has defined Islamophobia as the condemnation of the entirety of Islam and its history as extremist; denying the existence of a moderate Muslim majority; regarding Islam as a problem for the world; treating conflicts involving Muslims as necessarily their own fault; insisting that Muslims make changes to their religion; and inciting war against Islam as a whole.[17]

In a 2007 article in Journal of Sociology defines Islamophobia as anti-Muslim racism and a continuation of anti-Asian and anti-Arab racism.[18] Similarly, John Denham has drawn parallels between modern Islamophobia and the antisemitism of the 1930s,[19] so have Maud Olofsson,[20] and Jan Hjärpe, among others.[21][22]

Debate regarding Islamophobia

Support

Kofi Annan asserted at a 2004 conference entitled "Confronting Islamophobia" in that the word Islamophobia had to be coined in order to "take account of increasingly widespread bigotry".[13] Assistant Professor Deepa Kumar writes that the modern-day demonization of Arabs and Muslims by US politicians and others is racist and Islamophobic, and employed in support of an unjust war. About the public impact of this rhetoric, she says that "One of the consequences of the relentless attacks on Islam and Muslims by politicians and the media is that Islamophobic sentiment is on the rise." She also chides some "people on the left" for using the same "Islamophobic logic as the Bush regime". She concludes with the statement "At times like this, people of conscience need to organize and speak out against Islamophobia."[23] Poole argues that many Islamophobic discourses attack what they perceive to be Islam's tenets, while Miles and Brown write that Islamophobia is usually based upon negative stereotypes about Islam which are then translated into attacks on Muslims. They also argue that "the existence of different ‘Islamophobias’ does not invalidate the concept of Islamophobia any more than the existence of different racisms invalidates the concept of racism."[24][25]

Edward Said considers Islamophobia as it is evinced in Orientalism to be a trend in a more general antisemitic Western tradition.[26][27][28] Johann Hari of The Independent argues that authentic Islamophobia exists, and consists of the "notion that Islam is a uniquely evil religion, more inherently war-like and fanatical than Christianity or Judaism or the other primitive delusions." However, he criticizes how organizations like Islamophobia Watch use the term, stating that they "talk about defending Muslims, they end up defending the nastiest and most right-wing part of the Muslim community – the ones who are oppressing and killing the rest."[29]

Criticism

Although the term is widely recognized and used,[30] both the term and the concept itself have been criticized.

Some critics argue that Islamophobia is real but is just another form of racism and does not require its own category.[31] In a 2008 article in the "Journal of Political Ideologies" Jose P. Zuquete argues that Islamophobia is a catch-all term that should be avoided. Islamophobia places under the broad umbrella of 'fear or hatred of Islam' discourses and criticisms that may have distinct sources, motivations and goals. He argues instead for the use of "anti-Islamic" (because it distinguishes between different discourses about Islam). The concept of Islamophobia as formulated by Runnymede is similarly criticized by professor Fred Halliday on several levels. He writes that the target of hostility in the modern era is not Islam and its tenets as much as it is Muslims, suggesting that a more accurate term would be "Anti-Muslimism." He also states that strains and types of prejudice against Islam and Muslims vary across different nations and cultures, which is not recognized in the Runnymede analysis.[32]

Some critics argue that the term conflates criticism of Islamic totalitarianism with hatred of Muslims. In the wake of the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy, a group of 12 writers, including novelist Salman Rushdie, signed a manifesto entitled Together facing the new totalitarianism in the French weekly satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo, warning against the use of the term Islamophobia to prevent criticism of "Islamic totalitarianism".[33][34] Daniel Pipes says that "'Islamophobia' deceptively conflates two distinct phenomena: fear of Islam and fear of radical Islam."[35] Writing in the New Humanist, philosopher Piers Benn suggests that people who fear the rise of Islamophobia foster an environment "not intellectually or morally healthy", to the point that what he calls "Islamophobia-phobia" can undermine "critical scrutiny of Islam as somehow impolite, or ignorant of the religion's true nature."[36]

Some denounce the concept altogether. The New Criterion editor Roger Kimball argues that the word "Islamophobia" is a misnomer. "A phobia describes an irrational fear, and it is axiomatic that fearing the effects of radical Islam is not irrational, but on the contrary very well-founded indeed, so that if you want to speak of a legitimate phobia... ...we should speak instead of Islamophobia-phobia, the fear of and revulsion towards Islamophobia."[37] Neuroscientist and author Sam Harris has stated that "There is no such thing as Islamophobia":

Bigotry and racism exist, of course—and they are evils that all well-intentioned people must oppose. And prejudice against Muslims or Arabs, purely because of the accident of their birth, is despicable. But like all religions, Islam is a system of ideas and practices. And it is not a form of bigotry or racism to observe that the specific tenets of the faith pose a special threat to civil society. Nor is it a sign of intolerance to notice when people are simply not being honest about what they and their co-religionists believe.[38]

Contrasting views of Islam

The Runnymede report contrasted "open" and "closed" views of Islam, and stated that the following eight "closed" views are equated with Islamophobia:

  1. Islam is seen as a monolithic bloc, static and unresponsive to change.
  2. It is seen as separate and "other." It does not have values in common with other cultures, is not affected by them and does not influence them.
  3. It is seen as inferior to the West. It is seen as barbaric, irrational, primitive, and sexist.
  4. It is seen as violent, aggressive, threatening, supportive of terrorism, and engaged in a clash of civilizations.
  5. It is seen as a political ideology, used for political or military advantage.
  6. Criticisms made of "the West" by Muslims are rejected out of hand.
  7. Hostility towards Islam is used to justify discriminatory practices towards Muslims and exclusion of Muslims from mainstream society.
  8. Anti-Muslim hostility is seen as natural and normal.[39]

These "closed" views are contrasted, in the report, with "open" views on Islam which, while founded on respect for Islam, permit legitimate disagreement, dialogue and critique.[40] According to Benn and Jawad, The Runnymede Trust notes that anti-Muslim discourse is increasingly seen as respectable, providing examples on how hostility towards Islam and Muslims is accepted as normal, even among those who may actively challenge other prevalent forms of discrimination.[41]

In some societies, Islamophobia has materialized due to the portrayal of Islam and Muslims as the national "Other", where exclusion and discrimination occurs on the basis of their religion and civilization which differs with national tradition and identity. Examples include Pakistani and Algerian migrants in Britain and France respectively.[42] This sentiment, according to Malcolm Brown and Robert Miles, significantly interacts with racism, although Islamophobia itself is not racism.[43] The publication "Social Work and Minorities: European Perspectives" describes Islamophobia as the new form of racism in Europe,[44] arguing that "Islamophobia is as much a form of racism as anti-semitism, a term more commonly encountered in Europe as a sibling of racism, xenophobia and Intolerance."[45]

Brown and Miles write that another feature of Islamophobic discourse is to amalgamate nationality (i.e. Arab), religion (Islam), and politics (terrorism, fundamentalism) — while most other religions are not associated with terrorism, or even "ethnic or national distinctiveness."[46] They feel that "many of the stereotypes and misinformation that contribute to the articulation of Islamophobia are rooted in a particular perception of Islam", such as the notion that Islam promotes terrorism; especially prevalent after the September 11, 2001 attacks.[47]

Media

According to Elizabeth Poole in the Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic studies, the media has been criticized for perpetrating Islamophobia. She cites a case study examining a sample of articles in the British press from between 1994 and 2004, which concluded that Muslim viewpoints were underrepresented and that issues involving Muslims usually depicted them in a negative light. Such portrayals, according to Poole, include the depiction of Islam and Muslims as a threat to Western security and values.[48] Benn and Jawad write that hostility towards Islam and Muslims are "closely linked to media portrayals of Islam as barbaric, irrational, primitive and sexist."[41] Egorova and Tudor cite European researchers in suggesting that expressions used in the media such as "Islamic terrorism", "Islamic bombs" and "violent Islam" have resulted in a negative perception of Islam.[49]

In 2008 Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting published a study "Smearcasting, How Islamophobes Spread Bigotry, Fear and Misinformation." It described as bigoted against Islam authors Bruce Bawer and Robert Spencer, television and radio talk show hosts Sean Hannity, Glenn Beck and Michael Savage, political commentators David Horowitz, Alan Dershowitz and Daniel Pipes and televangelist Pat Robertson, among others.[50]

There have been several initiatives, based upon the sixty recommendations listed in the Runnymede Trust's report, aimed at increasing Muslim participation in media and politics. Soon after the release of the Runnymede report, the Muslim Council of Britain was formed to serve as an umbrella body aiming to "represent Muslims in the public sphere, to lobby government and other institutions." The "Forum Against Islamophobia and Racism" (FAIR) was also established, designed to monitor coverage in the media and establish dialogue with media organizations. Following the attacks of September 11, the Islam Awareness Week and the "Best of British Islam Festival" were introduced to improve community relations and raise awareness about Islam.[51]

Trends

Islamophobia has become a topic of increasing sociological and political importance.[46] According to Benn and Jawad, Islamophobia has increased since Ayatollah Khomeini's denouncement of Salman Rushdie's "The Satanic Verses" and the September 11 attacks.[52] Anthropologist Steven Vertovec writes that the purported growth in Islamophobia may be associated with increased Muslim presence in society and successes.[9] He suggests a circular model, where increased hostility towards Islam and Muslims results in governmental countermeasures such as institutional guidelines and changes to legislation, which itself may fuel further Islamophobia due to increased accommodation for Muslims in public life. Vertovec concludes: "As the public sphere shifts to provide a more prominent place for Muslims, Islamophobic tendencies may amplify."[9]

A mannequin symbolizing a Muslim in a keffiyeh, strapped to a "Made in the USA" bomb display at a protest of Park51 in New York City.

Patel, Humphries, and Naik claim that "Islamophobia has always been present in Western countries and cultures. In the last two decades, it has become accentuated, explicit and extreme."[53] However, Vertovec states that some have observed that Islamophobia has not necessarily escalated in the past decades, but that there has been increased public scrutiny of it.[9] According to Abduljalil Sajid, one of the members of the Runnymede Trust's Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia, "Islamophobias" have existed in varying strains throughout history, with each version possessing its own distinct features as well as similarities or adaptations from others.[54] An observatory report on Islamophobia by the Organisation of the Islamic Conference similarly states that Islamophobia has existed for as long as Islam itself.[55]

EUMC reports

The largest project monitoring Islamophobia was undertaken following 9/11 by the EU watchdog, European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia (EUMC). Their May 2002 report "Summary report on Islamophobia in the EU after 11 September 2001", written by Chris Allen and Jorgen S. Nielsen of the University of Birmingham, was based on 75 reports — 15 from each EU member nation.[56][57] The report highlighted the regularity with which ordinary Muslims became targets for abusive and sometimes violent retaliatory attacks after 9/11. Despite localized differences within each member nation, the recurrence of attacks on recognizable and visible traits of Islam and Muslims was the report's most significant finding. Incidents consisted of verbal abuse, blaming all Muslims for terrorism, forcibly removing women's hijabs, spitting on Muslims, calling children "Usama", and random assaults. Muslims have been hospitalized and on one occasion paralyzed.[57] The report also discussed the portrayal of Muslims in the media. Inherent negativity, stereotypical images, fantastical representations, and exaggerated caricatures were all identified. The report concluded that "a greater receptivity towards anti-Muslim and other xenophobic ideas and sentiments has, and may well continue, to become more tolerated."[57]

The EUMC has since released a number of publications related to Islamophobia, including "The Fight against Antisemitism and Islamophobia: Bringing Communities together (European Round Tables Meetings)" (2003) and "Muslims in the European Union: Discrimination and Islamophobia" (2006).[58]

Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting

In 2008 Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting published the study Smearcasting: How Islamophobes Spread Bigotry, Fear and Misinformation that described the strategies used by Islamophobes. [59] The report cites several instances where mainstream or close to mainstream journalists, authors and academics have made analyses that essentialize negative traits as an inherent part of Muslims' moral makeup.

Islamophobic incidents

Efforts against Islamophobia

There have been efforts against Islamophobia by many organizations in many countries; some of these are detailed below.

  • In 2006 the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC) set up an observatory on Islamophobia which will monitor and document activities perceived as Islamophobic around the world.[60]
  • A radio talk show host from 630 WMAL on November 26, 2006 exposed the prevalence of Islamophobia by seeming to advocate a government program to force all Muslims to wear "identifying markers."[61] The hoax was revealed at the end of the program. See Jerry Klein’s 2006 Islamophobia Radio Experiment for more details.
  • During the accession talks regarding Turkey's possible entry to the EU, then Prime Minister of Holland, Jan Peter Balkenende, said Islamophobia must not affect the possibility of Turkey's entry to the European Union.[62]
  • 50,000 people signed a petition urging French President Jacques Chirac to "consider Islamophobia as a new form of racism, punishable by law. The statement reads that the publishing of insulting cartoons of Muhammad by the French press hurt and offended the feelings of French Muslims."[63]
  • In Tower Hamlets, a densely populated area in London with a large Muslim community, a crime reporting scheme called "Islamophobia – Don't Suffer in Silence" has been set up which police hope will raise awareness of Islamophobia and help them to understand the extent of the problem.[64]
  • The British National Union of Teachers (NUT) has issued guidance to teachers in the union advising that teachers have to "Challenge Islamophobia", and that they have a "crucial role" to play in helping to "dispel myths about Muslim communities."[65]
  • Following an Islamist demonstration outside the Danish Embassy in London organized by the Al Ghurabaa organization in response to the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy, the Muslim Association of Britain organized a peaceful rally in Trafalgar Square. Organizers made available placards and T-shirts bearing the rally's official slogan, the phrase, "United against Islamophobia, united against incitement."[66][67]
  • Following the July 7 bombings, the British government set up a number of initiatives aimed at combating Islamophobia, including the "National Forum against extremism and Islamophobia".[68] There was also plans by the British government to ban incitement to "religious hatred", however, this failed to get through the House of Commons.[69][70]
  • The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan issued a call in 1999 to world leaders to combat Islamophobia.[71] Abdel-Elah Khatib, the Jordanian foreign minister said "The international community must consider how to confront this phenomenon of Islamophobia in order to prevent its proliferation".
  • The Muslim Council of Britain (MCB) and the Trades Union Congress (TUC) held a seminar on how to combat Islamophobia.[72]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Teaching the Global Dimension" David Hick, Cathie Holden (2007). P.140.
  2. ^
    • Sandra Fredman, Discrimination and Human Rights, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-924603-3, p.121.
    • Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad, Muslims in the West: From Sojourners to Citizens, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-514806-1, p.19
    • Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All, Runnymede Trust, 1997, p. 1, cited in Quraishi, Muzammil. Muslims and Crime: A Comparative Study, Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2005, p. 60. ISBN 0-7546-4233-X. Early in 1997, the Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia, at that time part of the Runnymede Trust, issued a consultative document on Islamophobia under the chairmanship of Professor Gordon Conway, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Sussex. The final report, Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All, was launched in November 1997 by Home Secretary Jack Straw
  3. ^ Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All, Runnymede Trust, 1997, p. 1, cited in Quraishi, Muzammil. Muslims and Crime: A Comparative Study, Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2005, p. 60; Annan, Kofi. "Secretary-General, addressing headquarters seminar on confronting Islamophobia", United Nations press release, December 7, 2004.
  4. ^
    • Casciani, Dominic. "Islamophobia pervades UK – report", BBC News, June 2, 2004.
    • Rima Berns McGowan writes in Muslims in the Diaspora (University of Toronto Press, 1991, p. 268) that the term "Islamophobia" was first used in an unnamed American periodical in 1991.
  5. ^ Runnymede 1997, p. 5, cited in Quraishi 2005, p. 60.
  6. ^ Roald, Anne Sophie (2004). New Muslims in the European Context: The Experience of Scandinavian Converts. Brill. p. 53. ISBN 9004136797. 
  7. ^ "Conference Two: Combating Intolerance". Chancellery of the Goverment of Sweden. http://www.humanrights.gov.se/stockholmforum/2001/conference_2001.html. Retrieved 19 November 2011. 
  8. ^ Benn, Jawad (2004) p. 111
  9. ^ a b c d Steven Vertovec, "Islamophobia and Muslim Recognition in Britain"; in Haddad (2002) pp. 32–33
  10. ^ See:
    • Greaves (2004) p. 133
    • Allen, Chris; Nielsen, Jorgen S.; Summary report on Islamophobia in the EU after 11 September 2001 (May 2002), EUMC.
  11. ^ Corrina Balash Kerr (2007-11-20). "Faculty, Alumnus Discuss Concept of "Islamophobia" in Co-Authored Book". Wesleyan University Newsletter. http://www.wesleyan.edu/newsletter/campus/2007/1107islambook.html. Retrieved 2007-12-29. 
  12. ^ "Images of Muslims: Discussing Islamophobia with Peter Gottschalk". Political Affairs.. 2007-11-19. Archived from the original on 2007-12-06. http://web.archive.org/web/20071206034654/http://www.politicalaffairs.net/article/articleview/6181/1/296/. Retrieved 2007-12-29. 
  13. ^ a b Annan, Kofi. "Secretary-General, addressing headquarters seminar on confronting Islamophobia", United Nations press release, December 7, 2004.
  14. ^ a b Encyclopedia of Race and Ethics, p. 215
  15. ^ Islamophobie?, Caroline Fourest & Fiammetta Venner; in prochoix, no.26/27, 2003.
  16. ^ :: Minorités ::[dead link]
  17. ^ "The 'Islamophobes' That Aren't", FrontPage Magazine, April 28, 2005.
  18. ^ Scott Poynting, Victoria Mason (2007). "The resistible rise of Islamophobia". Journal of Sociology 43 (1): 61–86. doi:10.1177/1440783307073935. 
  19. ^ The Times: Fascism fears: John Denham speaks out over clashes
  20. ^ SvD: Reinfeldt: Kärnan i partiets idé
  21. ^ SvD: Sverigedemokrat till hårt angrepp mot muslimsk ideologi i tal
  22. ^ VG: Erna Solberg mener muslimer hetses som jødene på 30-tallet
  23. ^ Fighting Islamophobia: A Response to Critics – Deepa Kumar, MRZine, February 2006
  24. ^ Miles; Brown (2003) pp. 165–166
  25. ^ Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies (2003)p. 219
  26. ^ Edward W.Said, Orientalism, Pantheon Books, New York 1978 pp.27–28
  27. ^ Edward W. Said, ‘Orientalism Reconsidered’ in Francis Barker, Peter Hulme, Margaret Iversen, Diana Loxley (eds), Literature, Politics, and Theory, Methuen & Co, London 1986 pp.210–229, pp.220f.
  28. ^ Bryan Stanley Turner, introd. to Bryan S. Turner (ed.) Orientalism: Early Sources, (Vol 1, Readings in Orientalism), Routledge, London (2000) reprint 2002 p.12
  29. ^ He writes: While Islamophobia Watch talk about defending Muslims, they end up defending the nastiest and most right-wing part of the Muslim community – the ones who are oppressing and killing the rest."- Hari, Johann. "Don't call me an Islamophobe", June 6, 2006.
  30. ^ Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic studies p. 218, Routledge 2003. Routledge. 2003. p. 218. "The Runnymede Trust has been successful in that the term Islamophobia is now widely recognized and used, though many right-wing commentators either reject its existence or argue that it is justified." 
  31. ^ Bodi, Faisal (2004-01-12). "Islamophobia should be as unacceptable as racism". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2004/jan/12/race.religion. Retrieved 2010-05-05. 
  32. ^ Aldridge, Alan (February 1, 2000). Religion in the Contemporary World: A Sociological Introduction. Polity Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-0745620831. 
  33. ^ "We refuse to renounce our critical spirit out of fear of being accused of "Islamophobia", a wretched concept that confuses criticism of Islam as a religion and stigmatisation of those who believe in it." Rushdie, Salman et al. "Writers' statement on cartoons", BBC News, March 1, 2006.
  34. ^ Rushdie, Salman et al. "Writers' statement on cartoons", BBC News, March 1, 2006.
  35. ^ Pipes, Daniel (2005-10-25). "Islamophobia?". New York Sun. http://www.danielpipes.org/article/3075. 
  36. ^ "On Islamophobia-phobia".
  37. ^ Kimball, Roger. "After the suicide of the West", January 2006.
  38. ^ Harris, Sam (August 13, 2010). "What Obama Got Wrong About the Mosque". The Daily Beast.
  39. ^ "Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All"PDF (69.7 KB), Runnymede Trust, 1997.
  40. ^ Benn; Jawad (2004) p. 162
  41. ^ a b Benn; Jawad (2004) p. 165
  42. ^ See:
    • Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic studies, p. 216
    • Miles; Brown (2003) p. 163
  43. ^ Miles; Brown (2003) p. 163, 164
  44. ^ Johnson; Soydan; Williams (1998) p. 182
  45. ^ Johnson; Soydan; Williams (1998) p. xxii
  46. ^ a b Miles; Brown (2003) p. 163
  47. ^ Miles; Brown (2003) p. 166
  48. ^ Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic studies, p. 217
  49. ^ See Egorova; Tudor (2003) pp. 2–3, which cites the conclusions of Marquina and Rebolledo in: "A. Marquina, V. G. Rebolledo, ‘The Dialogue between the European Union and the Islamic World’ in Interreligious Dialogues: Christians, Jews, Muslims, Annals of the European Academy of Sciences and Arts, v. 24, no. 10, Austria, 2000, pp. 166–8. "
  50. ^ Steve Rendall and Isabel Macdonald, Making Islamophobia Mainstream; How Muslim-bashers broadcast their bigotry, summary of Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting report, at its website, November/December 2008.
  51. ^ Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic studies, p. 218
  52. ^ Benn; Jawad (2004) p. 111
  53. ^ Naina Patel, Beth Humphries and Don Naik, "The 3 Rs in social work; Religion,‘race’ and racism in Europe", in Johnson; Soydan; Williams (1998) pp. 197–198
  54. ^ Imam Dr Abduljalil Sajid. "Islamophobia: A new word for an old fear". http://www.wcrp.be/articles/Sajid9-11-04.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  55. ^ 1st OIC Observatory Report on Islamophobia[dead link]
  56. ^ "EUMC presents reports on Discrimination and Islamophobia in the EU". "European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia media release". 2006-12-18. http://www.eumc.europa.eu/eumc/index.php?fuseaction=content.dsp_cat_content&catid=43d8bc25bc89d&contentid=4582ddc822d41. 
  57. ^ a b c Allen, Chris and Nielsen, Jorgen S. "Summary report on Islamophobia in the EU after 11 September 2001", EUMC, May, 2002.
  58. ^ EUMC website – Publications . Retrieved 2007-11-17.
  59. ^ Steve Rendall and Isabel Macdonald, Making Islamophobia Mainstream: How Muslim-Basher broadcast Their bigotry, summary of Fairness and Accuracy in reporting 's report Smearcasting: How Islamophobes Spread bigotry, Fear and misinformation, November / December 2008.
  60. ^ "OIC set up observatory on Islamophobia"[dead link] IslamOnline, May 9, 2006.
  61. ^ Bernd Debusmann (December 1, 9:05). "In U.S., fear and distrust of Muslims runs deep". Reuters. http://www.asiamedia.ucla.edu/article.asp?parentid=58909. Retrieved December 16, 2006. 
  62. ^ Islam 'must not cloud Turkey bid' BBC -Wednesday, 21 July 2004
  63. ^ FRANCE: 50,000 SIGN UP AGAINST ISLAMOPHOBIA[dead link] – ADN Kronos – June 2, 2006
  64. ^ Scheme to fight faith hate crimes BBC – Wednesday, 17 November 2004
  65. ^ Teaching tolerance amid tension BBC – Friday, 15 July 2005
  66. ^ Prayer mats lined the pavements BBC – Saturday, 11 February 2006
  67. ^ Muslims fly flag for peaceful protest against cartoons The Guardian – Sunday February 12, 2006
  68. ^ Call for Muslim scholars to tour BBC – Thursday, 10 November 2005
  69. ^ Racial and Religious Hatred Bill BBC – Friday, 27 January 2006
  70. ^ Religious hatred: How MPs voted BBC – Wednesday, 1 February 2006
  71. ^ Jordan: Stop attacking Islam BBC – Tuesday, September 21, 1999
  72. ^ Kuwait News Agency: Drive to combat Islamophobia[dead link]

References

  • Cashmore, E, ed (2003). Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies. Routledge. 
  • Benn, T.; Jawad, H. (2004). Muslim Women in the United Kingdom and Beyond: Experiences and Images. Brill Publishers. ISBN 9004125817. 
  • Egorova, Y.; Parfitt, T. (2003). Jews, Muslims, and Mass Media: Mediating the 'Other'. London: Routledge Curzon. ISBN 0415318394. 
  • Haddad, Y. (2002). Muslims in the West: From Sojourners to Citizens. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195148053. 
  • Johnson, M. R. D.; Soydan, H; Williams, C. (1998). Social Work and Minorities: European Perspectives. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415169623. 
  • Miles, R.; Brown, M. (2003). Racism. London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415296765. 

Further reading

  • Allen, Chris. Islamophobia (Ashgate Publishing Company; 2011)
  • Abbas, Tahir (2005). Muslim Britain: Communities Under Pressure. Zed. ISBN 978-1842774496. 
  • van Driel, B. (2004). Confronting Islamophobia In Educational Practice. Trentham Books. ISBN 1858563402. 
  • Gottschalk, P.; Greenberg, G. (2007). Islamophobia: Making Muslims the Enemy. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield publishers. ISBN 978-0742552869. 
  • Greaves, R. (2004). Islam and the West Post 9/11. Ashgate publishing Ltd. ISBN 0754650057. 
  • Kaplan, Jeffrey (2006). Islamophobia in America?: September 11 and Islamophobic Hate Crime, Terrorism and Political Violence (Routledge), 18:1, 1–33.
  • Kincheloe, Joe L. and Shirley R. Steinberg (2004).The Miseducation of the West: How the Schools and Media Distort Our Understanding of Islam. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Press. (Arabic Edition, 2005).
  • Konrad, Felix: From the "Turkish Menace" to Exoticism and Orientalism: Islam as Antithesis of Europe (1453–1914)?, European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2011, retrieved: June 22, 2011.
  • Pynting, Scott; Mason, Victoria (2007). The resistible rise of Islamophobia: Anti-Muslim racism in the UK and Australia before 11 September 2001. Journal of Sociology, The Australian Sociological Association. 43(1): 61–86.
  • Richardson, John E. (2004). (Mis)representing Islam: the racism and rhetoric of British broadsheet newspapers. John Benjamins Publishing Company. ISBN 9027226997. http://books.google.com/?id=WanqiF2XULsC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q= 
  • Shryock, Andrew, ed. Islamophobia/Islamophilia: Beyond the Politics of Enemy and Friend (Indiana University Press; 2010) 250 pages; essays on Islamophobia past and present; topics include the "neo-Orientalism" of three Muslim commentators today: Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Reza Aslan, and Irshad Manji.
  • Tausch, Arno with Christian Bischof, Tomaz Kastrun and Karl Mueller (2007), ‘'Against Islamophobia: Muslim Communities, Social Exclusion and the Lisbon Process in Europe'’ Hauppauge, N.Y.: Nova Science Publishers
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  • Zuquete, Jose Pedro (2008), The European extreme-right and Islam: New directions, [Journal of Political Ideologies]

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