A hot box is the term used when an axle
bearingoverheats on a piece of railway rolling stock. [cite journal| url=http://info.detnews.com/hotbox/index.cfm| journal=The Hotbox| publisher=North Central Region National Model Railroad Association| accessdate=2008-01-24| title=Hotbox ] [cite patent|US|4659043] The term is derived from the journal-bearing trucks used before the mid 20th century. The axle bearings were housed in a box that used oil-soaked rags or cotton (collectively called "packing") to reduce the friction of the axle against the truck frame. When the oil leaked or dried out, the bearings overheated often starting a fire that could destroy the entire railroad car (and cars coupled to it) if not detected early enough.
The packing and bearing had to be regularly inspected, and packing was often added at major stops. The journal was replaceable, but if neglected it would heat to a temperature where the alloy would melt away and leave the brass carrier riding on the steel axle. This would eventually lead to the axle fracturing and the car above falling onto the wheel, which could cause a major
derailmentof the train. Train worker duties consisted partly of inspecting the train as it ran by, looking for smoke, sparks, or fire. They would then sound the audible report "All Black" to mean the train was not giving off any light energy that would indicate combustion or destruction of the wheel bearings. If the train worker saw "Red" or smoke, he would alert other crew members, or else make an emergency stop to the train to prevent further damage.
When this type of axle box was used, any
diesel exhaustsmells had to be tracked to their source, as a hot-box sometimes smells similar. Most of the larger railroads use defect detectors to scan passing trains for hot box conditions.
Modern ball, roller or tapered bearings can also overheat, but the likelihood of a roller bearing overheating is usually far smaller than it was with journal bearings. When modern bearings do go wrong, the balls or rollers and their races fail, generating heat which can ignite fires or be the ignition source of explosions in grain, coal, sawdust, etc.
1979 Mississauga train derailment
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hot|box — «HOT BOKS», noun. an overheated bearing on a shaft or axle, especially in the journal box of a railroad car, caused by friction: »It seemed as if the train would never reach Baltimore…A hotbox had to be cooled at Wilmington (Mark Twain).… … Useful english dictionary
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