Rose Pastor Stokes
Rose Pastor Stokes (1879 - 1933) was a Socialist Party leader and
feminist. Born in Russia, she emigrated to the United Statesand became active in labor politics and women's issues. Scandalizing "polite" society, she married millionaire James Graham Phelps Stokes, a personal friend of President Woodrow Wilson.
Youth and emigration
Stokes was born in the tiny
Jewishsettlement of Augustava Suvolk on July 18, 1879. She was the daughter of Jacob and Anna Wieslander. Her mother remarried when Rose was a youth and gave her daughter the name of her stepfather, Pastor. The family was very indigent and remained but a short time in Russia.
They migrated to
Londonwhen Pastor was three, settling in the depressed Whitechapeldistrict. She attended classes for a time at the Bell Lane Free School. Israel Zangwillwas once a pupil there and later an instructor. When Pastor was twelve her family emigrated to Cleveland, Ohio, where she was forced to find work as soon as possible. In 1892 she found a job in a Cleveland cigarfactory and worked as a cigar-maker for the next eleven years.
Writing and marriage
During this time, Pastor discovered her talent for writing poems. She submitted some of her work to the "
Jewish Daily News" in New York City. These were accepted, as well as others which followed. Her success led to her removal from Cleveland and relocation in New York in 1903. Pastor became a columnist with the paper, advising young women in a part of the English section. Her salary was approximately $15 a week.
Five months after coming to New York, she was asked by the paper to interview Mr. Stokes. He was often in the news at this time because of his lifestyle. Stokes was descended from families who were prominent during the colonial history of
New England. He was a railwaypresident and a societyfigure who had given up his mansion at 299 Madison Avenuea short time earlier in order to be nearer the work he found most appealing, that of social projects. George moved to the University Settlementon the Lower East Side, in close proximity to the office of the "Jewish Daily News". Rose praised Stokes' ideals in her report of the interview.
Soon Rose became active performing the work of the settlement. Her friendship with Stokes deepened, and in early 1905 their engagement was announced. The couple were married in July. Both became active members of the Socialist Party.
War and prosecution
The first impediment in their relationship came in 1917. It was when the Socialists denounced the American war program. Stokes withdrew from the party, joining the armed forces of the United States. Rose at first left the Socialists, but then returned and became associated with the Left Wing of the political faction. This element grew into the American Communist Party.
Rose began to travel throughout America, speaking and contributing articles to various newspapers. In 1918, Mrs. Stokes wrote a letter to the editor of the "
Kansas City Star" criticizing US involvement in World War I. The communication berated the US government as being allied to profiteers. The controversy over her letter to the editor led to her federal indictment and trial in Kansas City, Missouri, for violating the Espionage Act of 1917.
After receiving a sentence of 30 years in prison, Stokes and her attorney,
Seymour Stedmanof Chicago, Illinois, successfully appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuitin St. Louis, Missouri. The government afterwards dropped the case against her.
Divorce and death
Relations between Rose and Graham Stokes were congenial until 1925. Mr. Stokes brought a petition for divorce in
Nyack, New York, on grounds of misconduct. He won a decree. Rose then issued a statement denouncing the New York divorce laws. Furthermore she stated she and her husband had co-existed as friendly enemies for some time. She said she would cherish her freedom.
In the ensuing years she devoted herself to Communist Party causes, serving on the central executive committee of the
Workers Party of Americain 1923. [cite web cite web
title = Communist Party officials
publisher = Marxist History
url = http://www.marxists.org/history/usa/eam/cpa/cpaofficials.html
format = html
accessdate = 2006-10-08 ] She participated in strikes and making court appearances to support men and women arrested for picketing and/or demonstrating. News that Rose had remarried became known after she was arrested in 1929 for demonstrating during a textile workers' strike. Her second husband, Isaac Romaine, was a language instructor. The couple lived at 215
In April 1933 friends of Rose Pastor Stokes held a mass meeting at
Webster Hall. The group collected funds for her hospital expenses. Friends announced that she was in Germany but her whereabouts there were not revealed. There was fear that she might be persecuted by National Socialists because she was a Communistand a Jew.
She entered Municipal Hospital in
Frankfurt, Germany, on April 15, where she was operated on for cancer by Professor Vito Schmiden. She subsequently died in the hospital of a heart attack. Her body was to be cremated and the ashes sent to New York. She was 54 years old.
Rose was working on her autobiography at the time of death. Before her death, she had sent documents related to her writing to agents she was close to in the United States.
New York Times, "Rose Stokes Dies After Operation", June 21, 1933, Page 17.
"The Woman Who Wouldn't and Other Plays" (New York: Putnam's, 1916).
"I Belong to the Working Class": The Unfinished Autobiography of Rose Pastor Stokes." Eds. Herbert Shapiro and David L. Sterling (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1992).
Translation, in collaboration with Helena Frank, "Songs of Labor by Morris Rosenfeld" (Boston: Richard G. Badger, 1914).
* cite web
last = Stokes
first = Rose Pastor
title = Rose Pastor Stokes
work = The Communist, November 8, 1919
publisher = Marxists Internet Archive
url = http://www.marxists.org/subject/women/authors/stokes/index.htm
accessdate = 2006-10-08
* cite web
last = Engdahl
first = J. Louis
authorlink = Louis Engdahl
title = Rose Pastor Stokes Asks Privilege to Return to Socialist Party Ranks
work = The Eye Opener (Chicago), v. 9, no. 26, pg. 4.
publisher = Marxists Internet Archive
date = January 19, 1918
url = http://www.marxists.org/history/usa/parties/spusa/1918/0119-engdahl-onstokes.pdf
format = PDF
accessdate = 2006-10-08 .
* [http://www.geocities.com/mike_donnelly_umkc/042801stokes.html Rose Pastor Stokes]
* [http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/REVhistoryUSA20.htm Spartacus UK - History of the United States in the 20th Century]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
STOKES (Wieslander), ROSE PASTOR — (1879–1933), U.S. socialist writer and lecturer. Born in Augustow, Poland, her impoverished family emigrated to London in 1882 and then settled in Cleveland, Ohio, when she was 12 years old. She educated herself while working as a cigar maker,… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Stokes (surname) — Stokes is a surname, and may refer to:A* Adrian Scott Stokes (1854 1935), English landscape painter * Alan Stokes * Alec Stokes (1919 ndash;2003), English scientist and contributor to discovery of DNA * Andy Stokes * Anthony StokesB* Barry Stokes … Wikipedia
Espionage Act of 1917 — The Espionage Act of 1917 was a United States federal law passed shortly after entering World War I, on June 15, 1917, which made it a crime for a person:* to convey information with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the armed… … Wikipedia
Maximilian Cohen — Max Cohen, circa 1919. Maximilian Max Cohen was an American socialist politician of the early 20th Century. Cohen held a series of important posts during the pivotal year of 1919, including Secretary of the Left Wing Section of the Socialist… … Wikipedia
New York Communist — John Reed, editor of The New York Communist. The New York Communist was a short lived weekly newspaper issued by the Left Wing Section of the Socialist Party of Local Greater New York, encompassing the New York City metro area. The paper was… … Wikipedia
Anzia Yezierska — (c. 1880 1970) was a novelist born in Pinsk, Congress Poland, Russian Empire and immigrated to New York City. Personal life Anzia Yezierska was born in the 1880s in the town of Pinsk on the Russian Polish border. She was the youngest of thirteen… … Wikipedia
V. J. Jerome — Victor Jeremy Jerome (1896 1965) was born Jerome Isaac Romain in Strykov, Poland in 1896. He immigrated to New York City in 1915, and went to City College. He was a bookkeeper for the International Ladies Garment Workers Union in the early 1920s … Wikipedia
Socialist Party of America — Infobox Historical American Political Party party name= Socialist Party of America party logo= party articletitle= Socialist Party of America active= 1901ndash 1973 ideology= American Socialism, Democratic Socialism position= Left wing… … Wikipedia
Max Eastman — The young Max Eastman. Max Forrester Eastman (January 4, 1883 – March 25, 1969) was an American writer on literature, philosophy and society, a poet, and a prominent political activist. For many years, Eastman was a supporter of socialism, a… … Wikipedia
Commercial Telegraphers Union of America — The Commercial Telegraphers Union of America (CTUA) was a United States labor union formed to promote the interests of commercial telegraph operators. Logo, Commercial Telegraphers Union of America. Source: Commercial Telegraphers Journal, June… … Wikipedia