:"For the saint by the name 'Lupercus', see
Marcellus of Tangier."Infobox Holiday
holiday_name = Lupercalia
type = Pagan
longtype = Pagan, Historical
observedby = Roman, Pre-Roman Civilizations
February 13– February 15
relatedto = The Lupercalia was a very ancient, possibly pre-Roman pastoral festival, observed on
February 13through February 15to avert evil spirits and purify the city, releasing health and fertility. The Lupercalia was believed in antiquity to have some connection with the Ancient Greek festival of the Arcadian Lycaea(from Ancient Greek: "λύκος" — "lykos", "wolf", Latin"lupus") and the worship of "Lycaean Pan", the Greek equivalent to Faunus, as instituted by Evander. [ Dionysius of Halicarnassus, "Roman Antiquities" 1.32.3–5, 1.80; Justin, "Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus" 43.6ff; Livy, "History of Rome" 1.5; Ovid, "Fasti" 2.423–42; Plutarch, "Life of Romulus" 21.3, "Life of Julius Caesar", "Roman Questions" 68; Virgil, "Aeneid" 8.342–344; Lydus, "De mensibus" 4.25.]
In Roman mythology, "Lupercus" is a god sometimes identified with the Roman god
Faunus, who is the Roman equivalent of the Greek god Pan.Guralnik, David B., Editor in Chief. “Lupercalia.” "Webster’s New World Dictionary of the American Language". Second College Edition. New York, NY: Prentice Hall Press, 1986. ISBN 0-671-41809-2 (indexed), ISBN 0-671-41807-6 (plain edge), ISBN 0-671-41811-4 (pbk.), and ISBN 0-671-47035-3 (LeatherKraft).] Lupercus is the god of shepherds. His festival, celebrated on the anniversary of the founding of his temple in February 15, was called the Lupercalia. His priests wore goatskins. Lupercus was associated with the Lupercal, the cave where Romulus and Remuswere suckled by a she- wolf. He was associated with goats and dogs.
The celebration during the Late Republic and Empire
Lupercalia, of which many write that it was anciently celebrated by shepherds, and has also some connection with the Arcadian Lycaea. At this time many of the noble youths and of the magistrates run up and down through the city naked, for sport and laughter striking those they meet with shaggy thongs. And many women of rank also purposely get in their way, and like children at school present their hands to be struck, believing that the
pregnantwill thus be helped in delivery, and the barren to pregnancy. [ [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Plutarch/Lives/Caesar*.html#61 Plutarch • Life of Caesar] ]
The Lupercalia festival was partly in honor of Lupa, the she-wolf who suckled the infant orphans,
Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome, [ [http://www.tonykline.co.uk/PITBR/Latin/OvidFastiBkTwo.htm#_Toc69367692 Ovid, "Fasti": Lupercalia] ] explaining the name of the festival, Lupercalia, or "Wolf Festival." The festival was celebrated near the cave of Lupercalon the Palatine (where Rome was founded, see Livy, Book I), to expiate and purify new life in the Spring. The Lupercal cave, which had fallen into a state of decay, was rebuilt by Augustus; the celebration of the festival had been maintained, as we know from the famous occurrence of it in 44 BC. A highly decorated cavern 50 feet below Augustus' palace in the correct approximate location was discovered by archeologists in October 2007, that may prove to be the Lupercal cave when analyzed.
The religious ceremonies were directed by the "Luperci", the "brothers of the wolf ("lupus")", a corporation of priests of
Faunus, dressed only in a goatskin, whose institution is attributed either to the Arcadian Evander, or to Romulus and Remus. The Luperci were divided into two collegia, called "Quinctiliani" (or "Quinctiale"s) and "Fabiani", from the gensQuinctilia (or Quinctia) viz. gens Fabia; at the head of each of these colleges was a magister. In 44 BC. a third college, Luperci "Julii", was instituted in honor of Julius Caesar, the first magister of which was Mark Antony. In imperial times the members were usually of equestrian standing.
The festival began with the
sacrificeby the Luperci (or the flamen dialis) of two male goats and a dog. Next two patricianyoung Luperci were led to the altar, to be anointed on their foreheads with the sacrificial blood, which was wiped off the bloody knife with woolsoaked in milk, after which they were expected to smile and laugh; the smearing of the forehead with blood probably refers to human sacrifice originally practised at the festival.fact|date=February 2008
The sacrificial feast followed, after which the Luperci cut thongs from the skins of the victims, which were called Februa, dressed themselves in the skins of the sacrificed goats, in imitation of Lupercus, and ran round the walls of the old Palatine city, the line of which was marked with stones, with the thongs in their hands in two bands, striking the people who crowded near. Girls and young women would line up on their route to receive lashes from these whips. This was supposed to ensure fertility, prevent sterility in women and ease the pains of childbirth. This tradition itself may survive (Christianised, and shifted to Spring) in certain ritual
The Lupercalia in the fifth century
By the fifth century, when the public performance of pagan rites had been outlawed, a nominally Christian Roman populace still clung to the Lupercalia in the time of Gelasius (494–96). It had been literally degraded since the first century, when in 44 BC the consul
Mark Antonydid not scruple to run with the Luperci; [ Plutarch, "Life of Antony".] now the upper classes left the festivities to the rabble, ["ad viles trivialesque personas, abiectos et infimos". (Gelasius)] prompting Pope Gelasius I's taunt to the senators who would preserve it: "If you assert that this rite has salutary force, celebrate it yourselves in the ancestral fashion; run nude yourselves that you may properly carry out the mockery." [Gelasius, "Epistle to Andromachus", quoted in Green 1931:65.] The remark was addressed to the senator Andromachus by Gelasius in an extended literary epistle that was virtually a thesis against Lupercalia. Gelasius finally abolished the Lupercalia after a long contest.
References in art
William Shakespeare's play "Julius Caesar" begins during Lupercalia, with Caesar's rejection of the "kingly crown", as reported by Mark Antony, being used to turn the sympathies of the Roman people against the assassins: "You did see, on the Lupercal I thrice presented him a kingly crown; which he did thrice refuse." ("Julius Caesar", Act 3, Scene 2).
*1911 |article=Lupercalia |url=http://en.wikisource.org/w/index.php?title=User:Tim_Starling/ScanSet_TIFF_demo&vol=17&page=EC7A141
* Liebler, Naomi Conn (1988). "The Ritual Ground of Julius Caesar".
* [http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/secondary/SMIGRA*/Lupercalia.html William Smith, "Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities," 1875] : Lupercalia.
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Lupercalia — Roman festival held Feb. 15, in honor of Lupercus, god (identified with Lycean Pan) who had a grotto at the foot of the Palatine Hill, from L. Lupercalia (pl.), from Lupercalis pertaining to Lupercus, whose name derives from lupus wolf (see WOLF… … Etymology dictionary
Lupercalia — [lo͞o′pərkal΄lo͞o΄pər kā′lē ə] n. pl. Lupercalias or Lupercalia [L < Lupercalis, of Lupercus < Lupercus < lupus, a wolf: orig. meaning obscure] [occas. with pl. v.] an ancient Roman festival with fertility rites, held Feb. 15 in honor of … English World dictionary
Lupercalia — Lu per*ca li*a, n. pl. [L. luperealis, fr. Lupercus the Lycean Pan, so called fr. lupus a wolf, because he kept off the wolves.] (Rom. Antiq.) A feast of the Romans in honor of Lupercus, or Pan. [1913 Webster] … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Lupercalĭa — (Lykäa), römisches Fest, am 15. Februar zu Ehren des Lupercus, welcher als Beschützer der Heerden gegen die Wölfe verehrt u. mit Faunus u. dem Lykäischen Pan identificirt wurde, zur Sühnung der Heerden u. Hirten gefeiert. Beim Lupercal, dem… … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Lupercalia — /looh peuhr kay lee euh, kayl yeuh/, n., pl. Lupercalia, Lupercalias. a festival held in ancient Rome on the 15th of February to promote fertility and ward off disasters. * * * Ancient Roman festival held each February 15. Its origins are… … Universalium
Lupercalia — noun Etymology: Latin, plural, from Lupercus, god of flocks Date: circa 1580 an ancient Roman festival celebrated February 15 to ensure fertility for the people, fields, and flocks • Lupercalian adjective … New Collegiate Dictionary
Lupercalia — Die Lupercalien (auch Luperkalien) waren das Hauptfest des italischen Herdengottes Faunus, der den Beinamen Lupercus (lateinisch: „Wolfsabwehrer“) führte und am Palatin in Rom eine heilige Grotte (Lupercal) hatte, wo sein mit einem Ziegenfell… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Lupercalia — Lupercales Dans la Rome antique, les Lupercales sont des fêtes annuelles célébrées à Rome par les luperques du 13 au 15 février, près d une grotte nommée le Lupercal (située au pied du mont Palatin et probablement découverte en novembre 2007), en … Wikipédia en Français
LUPERCALIA — a Roman festival held on Feb. 15 in honour of Lupercus, regarded as the god of fertility, in the celebration of which dogs and goats were sacrificed and their skins cut up into thongs, with which the priests ran through the city striking every … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
Lupercalia — [ˌlu:pə keɪlɪə] (also Lupercal lu:pəkal) noun [usu. treated as sing.] an ancient Roman festival of purification and fertility, held annually on 15 February. Origin L., neut. plural of lupercalis relating to Lupercus , Roman equivalent of the… … English new terms dictionary