Tenebrioninae

Taxobox
name = Tenebrioninae



image_width = 240px
image_caption = Red Flour Beetle ("Tribolium castaneum": Triboliini)
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Arthropoda
subphylum = Hexapoda
classis = Insecta
subclassis = Pterygota
infraclassis = Neoptera
superordo = Endopterygota
ordo = Coleoptera
superfamilia = Tenebrionoidea
familia = Tenebrionidae
subfamilia = Tenebrioninae
subfamilia_authority = Latreille, 1802
subdivision_ranks = Tribes
subdivision = Some 20, but see text

Tenebrioninae are a large subfamily of the darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae), containing among others the flour beetles.

Many of these robust and usually mid-sized beetles have elytra with some sort of corrugation on the upperside. They are usually colored blackish, dark brown or grey, and often have a satiny sheen; they are generally not glossy (some are outright matte) and few are metallic. The body is shaped like a medical capsule or like a bullet; the legs can be shortish and stout or long and spindly. They eat both fresh and decaying vegetation as well as vegetable produce, and several are commercially important pests e.g. of flour and other cereal products.

Tenebrioninae are eaten by large invertebrates and small vertebrates, such as birds, rodents, and lizards. The larval stages of several species are cultured as feeder insects for captive insectivores, and include mealworms and mini mealworms.

Notable species

The Mealworm Beetle ("Tenebrio molitor") is commonly used as food for terrestrial amniotes kept in terraria. Other "Tenebrio" and "Tribolium" species are also bred as animal food. The Red Flour Beetle ("Tribolium castaneum") is a popular genetics laboratory animal and model organism, especially in studies of intragenomic conflict and population ecology. Several species of "Tenebrio" and "Tribolium" (e.g. Confused Flour Beetle "T. confusum" or "T. destructor") and other genera (e.g. "Gnathocerus cornutus") are pests of cereal and flour silos and other storage facilities.

ystematics

The Tenebrioninae are traditionally divided in some 20 tribes. The exact delimitation and validity of several of these is disputed however. Molecular phylogenetic studies have yielded highly inconsistent results, perhaps due to any or all of hybridization, horizontal gene transfer by "Wolbachia" bacteria and insufficient taxon sampling obfuscating the information contained in DNA sequence data.Angelini & Jockusch (2008)]

In some treatments, the Pimeliinae are included as yet another tribe. This may be correct, but as far as can be told they are a closely related but well distinct lineage of Tenebriodidae. The Crypticini and Pentaphyllini are sometimes placed here, but more commonly in the Diaperinae

The tribes (and some notable genera) are:Alphitobiini Reitter, 1917 (sometimes included in Triboliini)
* "Alphitobius" Stephens, 1829
* "Diaclina" Jacquelin du Val 1861Amarygmini
* "Amarygmus"
* "Plesiophthalmus"Biuini
Blaptini Leach, 1815
* "Blaps" Fabricius, 1775
* "Gnaptor" Brullé 1832
* "Prosodes" Eschscholtz 1829
* "Tagona" Fischer von Waldheim 1822Bolitophagini Kirby, 1837
* "Atasthalomorpha"
* "Bolitoxenus"
* "Bolitophagus" Illiger 1798
* "Byrsax"
* "Eledona" Latreille 1796
* "Eledonoprius" Reitter 19116Dendarini Espanol, 1945 (sometimes included in Pedinini)
* "Bioplanes" Mulsant 1854
* "Dendarus" Latreille 1829
* "Heliopathes" Mulsant 1854
* "Isocerus" Latreille 1829
* "Micrositus" Mulsant & Rey 1854
* "Phylan" Dejean, 1821Heleini

Helopini Latreille, 1802
* "Allardius"
* "Catomus"
* "Cylindronotus" Faldermann, 1837
* "Enoplopus"
* "Entomogonus"
* "Erionura"
* "Euboeus"
* "Gunarus"
* "Hedyphanes"
* "Helopelius"
* "Helops"
* "Italohelops"
* "Misolampus"
* "Nalassus" Mulsant, 1854
* "Nephodinus"
* "Nesotes"
* "Odocnemis"
* "Probaticus"
* "Pseudoprobaticus"
* "Raiboscelis"
* "Stenohelops"
* "Stenomax" Allard, 1876
* "Xanthomus"

Heterotarsini LeConte, 1862
* "Heterotarsus"Leichenini Leng, 1920
* "Leichenum"Melanimini

Opatrini Brullé, 1832Verify source|date=August 2008
* "Adavius"
* "Ammobius"
* "Anemia"
* "Clitobius"
* "Dilamus"
* "Falsocaedius"
* "Gonocephalum"
* "Hadrus"
* "Lobodera"
* "Melanesthes"
* "Melanimon" Steven, 1829
* "Mesomorphus"
* "Opatroides"
* "Opatrum"
* "Penthicus"
* "Platynosum"
* "Polycoelogastridium"
* "Prodilamus"
* "Psammestus"
* "Pseudoammobius"
* "Scleron"
* "Scleropatrum"
* "Sinorus"

Palorini Matthews, 2003
* "Astalbus"
* "Austropalorus"
* "Eutermicola"
* "Palorinus"
* "Palorus"
* "Platycotylus"
* "Prolabrus"
* "Pseudeba"
* "Ulomotypus"Pedinini Eschscholtz, 1829
* "Pedinus" Latreille, 1796Platyscelidini Lacordaire, 1859
* "Bioramix"
* "Oodescelis" Motschulsky, 1845Scaphidemini Reitter, 1922
* "Basanus"
* "Scaphidema"Tenebrionini Latreille, 1802
* "Bius" Dejean, 1834
* "Cryphaeus" Klug 1833
* "Encyalesthus"
* "Iphthiminus" Spilman 1973
* "Menephilus" Mulsant 1854
* "Neatus" Le Conte, 1862
* "Tenebrio" Linnaeus, 1758
* "Upis"Titaenini
* "Artystona"
* "Callismilax"
* "Cerodolus"
* "Demtrius"
* "Leaus"
* "Partystona"
* "Pseudhelops"
* "Titaena"Toxicini
Triboliini Mulsant, 1854 (sometimes included in Ulomini)
* "Aesymnus"
* "Erelus" Mulsant & Rey 1853 (tentatively placed here)
* "Latheticus" Waterhouse, 1880
* "Lyphia"
* "Martianus" Fairmaire, 1893 (tentatively placed here)
* "Metulosonia"
* "Mycotrogus"
* "Palorus" Mulsant, 1854
* "Tharsus"
* "Tribolium" Macleay, 1825 (probably paraphyletic)
* "Ulosonia"Ulomini Blanchard, 1845
* "Gnathocerus"
* "Pelleas" Bates 1872
* "Uloma" Dejean, 1821Verify source|date=August 2008
* "Ulomina" Baudi 1876 (sometimes in Palorini)

In addition, the genus "Aphtora" is of uncertain placement in this subfamily.

Footnotes

References

* (2008): Relationships among pest flour beetles of the genus "Tribolium" (Tenebrionidae) inferred from multiple molecular markers. "Mol. Phylogenet. Evol." 46(1): 127–141. doi|10.1016/j.ympev.2007.08.017 (HTML abstract)

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