Doctrine


Doctrine

Doctrine (Latin: doctrina) is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system. The Greek analogy is the etymology of catechism.[1]

Often doctrine specifically connotes a corpus of religious dogma as it is promulgated by a church, but not necessarily: doctrine is also used to refer to a principle of law, in the common law traditions, established through a history of past decisions, such as the doctrine of self-defense, or the principle of fair use, or the more narrowly applicable first-sale doctrine. In some organizations, doctrine is simply defined as "that which is taught", in other words the basis for institutional teaching of its personnel internal ways of doing business.

Contents

Religious usage

Examples of religious doctrines include:

One department of the Roman Curia is called the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.[2][3] Also shows other doctrines involved in the shape of government and politics.[4]

Military usage

The term also applies to the concept of an established procedure to a complex operation in warfare. The typical example is tactical doctrine in which a standard set of maneuvers, kinds of troops and weapons are employed as a default approach to a kind of attack.

Examples of military doctrines include:

Almost every military organization has its own doctrine, sometimes written, sometimes unwritten. Some military doctrines are transmitted through training programs. More recently, in modern peacekeeping operations, which involve both civilian and military operations, more comprehensive (not just military) doctrines are now emerging such as the 2008 United Nations peacekeeping operations' "Capstone Doctrine"[5] which speaks to integrated civilian and military operations.

Political

A policy, position or principle advocated, taught or put into effect concerning the acquisition and exercise of the power to govern or administrate in society.[6]

Legal usage

A legal doctrine is a body of inter-related rules (usually of common law and built over a long period of time) associated with a legal concept or principle. For example the doctrine of frustration of purpose now has many tests and rules applicable with regards to each other and can be contained within a "bubble" of frustration. In a court session a defendant may refer to the doctrine of justification.

It can be seen that a branch of law contains various doctrines, which in turn contain various rules or tests. The test of non-occurrence of crucial event is part of the doctrine of frustration which is part of contract law. Doctrines can grow into a branch of law; restitution is now considered a branch of law separate to contract and tort.

Indoctrination

The term indoctrination came to have awkward connotations during the 20th century, but it is necessary to retain it, in order to distinguish it from education. In education one is asked to stand as much as possible outside the body of accumulated knowledge and analyze it oneself. In indoctrination on the other hand, one stands within the body of knowledge and absorbs its teachings without critical thought.

See also

References

External links


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Synonyms:

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  • doctrine — [ dɔktrin ] n. f. • 1160 « enseignement »; lat. doctrina, de docere « enseigner » 1 ♦ Ensemble de notions qu on affirme être vraies et par lesquelles on prétend fournir une interprétation des faits, orienter ou diriger l action humaine. ⇒ dogme,… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • doctrine — doc·trine / däk trən/ n: a principle established through judicial decisions compare law, precedent doc·tri·nal / trə nəl/ adj Merriam Webster’s Dictionary of Law. Merriam Webster …   Law dictionary

  • doctrine — DOCTRINE. s. f. Savoir, érudition. Grande doctrine. Profonde doctrine. Doctrine consommée. Cet homme a beaucoup de doctrine. Ce livre est plein de doctrine. [b]f♛/b] Il se prend aussi pour Maximes, sentimens, enseignemens. Bonne, saine doctrine.… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798

  • doctrine — Doctrine. s. f. Sçavoir, erudition. Grande doctrine. profonde doctrine. doctrine consommée. cet homme a beaucoup de doctrine. ce livre est plein de doctrine. Il se prend aussi pour Maximes, sentiments, enseignements. Bonne, saine doctrine,… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • doctrine — doc trine (d[o^]k tr[i^]n), n. [F. doctrine, L. doctrina, fr. doctor. See {Doctor}.] 1. Teaching; instruction. [1913 Webster] He taught them many things by parables, and said unto them in his doctrine, Hearken. Mark iv. 2. [1913 Webster] 2. That… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Doctrine — Тип ORM Написана на PHP Операционная система кроссплатформенный Последняя версия 2.2.0 (29 января 2012) Лицензия GNU Lesser General Public License Сайт …   Википедия

  • doctrine — doctrine, dogma, tenet are synonymous only when they mean a principle (usually one of a series or of a body of principles) accepted as authoritative (as by members of a church, a school of philosophers, or a branch of science). Doctrine is often… …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • Doctrine — steht für Doctrine (PHP), Framework zur objektrelationalen Abbildung The Anti Doctrine, deutsche Band Fairness Doctrine, Rundfunkrichtline der USA Doctrine classique, Regeldrama der französischen Klassik Siehe auch Doktrin …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • doctrine — [däk′trin] n. [ME < L doctrina < doctor: see DOCTOR] 1. something taught; teachings 2. something taught as the principles or creed of a religion, political party, etc.; tenet or tenets; belief; dogma 3. a rule, theory, or principle of law ☆ …   English World dictionary

  • doctrine — UK US /ˈdɒktrɪn/ noun [C] ► a principle or set of principles that are followed by a particular group or in a particular situation: »The doctrine of continuous quality improvement is being implemented in the health care industry worldwide. »an… …   Financial and business terms

  • doctrine — (n.) late 14c., from O.Fr. doctrine (12c.) teaching, doctrine, and directly from L. doctrina teaching, body of teachings, learning, from doctor teacher (see DOCTOR (Cf. doctor)) …   Etymology dictionary


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