- Uqaylid Dynasty
The 'Uqailid or 'Uqaylid Dynasty was a
Muslim Arabdynasty with several lines that ruled in various parts of Al-Jazira, northern Syriaand Iraqin the late 10th and 11th centuries. The main line, centered in Mosul, ruled from 990to 1096.
The 'Uqailids were descended from the
Banu Uqayl bedouinsand were Shi'a.Fact|date=September 2007 They first came to power in Diyarbakr when they were granted land there by the Buwayhids, who hoped that they would serve as a buffer against the Kurdish rebel Badh. Soon afterwards the 'Uqailids forged an alliance with the Hamdanids, who had been expelled from Mosul by the Buwayhids in 979. Together the two of them moved against the Buyids and Mosul was occupied in 989. The 'Uqailid leader, Muhammad b. Musayyib, then fought against Badh, which eventually resulted in the death of the Kurdish rebel. Following this, Muhammad turned against the Hamdanids and defeating them as well. He also forced the Buwayhid governor of Mosul to grant him half of his dependencies.
'Uqailids of Mosul
Muhammad b. Musayyib died in
996. He was succeeded by his brother Muqallad, who in that same year marched on Mosul, forcing its Buwayhid governor to flee. From there the 'Uqailids advanced into Iraq; they succeeded in overrunning much of the country and even raiding Baghdad. Eventually the Buwayhid amir Baha' al-Daulacame to terms with Muqallad, whereby the Uqailid was invested by the caliphwith the rule of Mosul, Kufaand Jami'yan. He was also given the title of "Husam al-Daula." The treaty made Muqallad nominally subservient to the Buwayhids but in effect he was independent, refusing to pay the tribute that he owed.
Despite the treaty, Muqallad still desired to take Baghdad, and may have done so had he not been assassinated by one of his Turkish slaves in
1001. This marked the beginning of the long reign of Muqallad's son, Qirwash. In 1002Qirwash raided Buwayhid territory, prompting the Baha' al-Daula's governor of Baghdad to undertake an expedition against the 'Uqailids. Defeated at first, he eventually managed gain a victory over them near Kufa, but at this point was removed from his post as governor, preventing him from following up on this success. In 1005Qirwash was confirmed in all of his possessions by the caliph, who gave him the title "Mu'tamid al-Daula."
Qirwash's major problem during the second half of his reign was finding a way to control the
Oghuz Turkswho were coming in from Iran. The Oghuz once even managed to occupy and sack Mosul in 1044, although Qirwash was able to expel them with the support of the Mazyadids. In 1050Qirwash was removed from power by his brother Baraka ("Za'im al-Daula"), who reigned until 1052when he died. Baraka's son Quraysh ("'Alam al-Din") succeeded him and ruled for the next nine years. During his reign he acknowledged the supremacy of the Seljuks, although he later came into conflict with them and was temporarily expelled from Mosul. He accompanied the Turk Basasiriwhen the latter took Baghdad at the end of 1058, but the Seljuks retook the city in the next year.
Quraysh died in
1061and was followed by his son Muslim ("Sharaf al-Daula"). Sharaf al-Daula was a just ruler; the 'Uqailid domains were relatively stable for most of his reign. He furthermore gained Aleppofrom the Mirdasidsin 1080when its inhabitants offered to hand the city over to him in the hopes that he could protect from Seljuk raids, and he took Harranfrom the Numayridsin the following year. Soon, however, he ran into trouble with the Seljuks himself. He fought against Sultan Malik Shah's forces and was defeated, but he was pardoned. In 1085he was killed fighting the Seljuks of Süleyman b. Qutulmush. Following Sharaf al-Daula's death, his brother Ibrahim, who had previously been imprisoned, was released and declared as his successor. Süleyman meanwhile had been killed by the Seljuk ruler of Damascus, Tutush, who went on to seize Aleppo from the 'Uqailids in 1086.
1089or 1090Ibrahim was summoned to the court of Malik Shah. When he arrived he was imprisoned and was kept close to Malik Shah's side. Mosul during this time was managed by the Seljuk vizier Fakhr al-Daula Ibn Jahir. When Malik Shah died in 1092a fight between Sharaf al-Daula's sons Ali and Muhammad ensued. Ali was brought by his mother Safiyya to Mosul, but Muhammad attempted to take the city for himself. In a battle at Mosul he was defeated and forced to flee. Ibrahim, meanwhile, had been released by Malik Shah's widow so he returned to Mosul, and eventually convinced Safiyya to give up the city to him.
Ibrahim managed to keep his renewed power for only a short time. The emir of Damascus, Tutush, demanded that he recognize him as sultan in the
khutbaand allow him passage through his territory. Ibrahim refused, prompting Tutush to move his army against him. The two sides met outside Mosul in April 1093, and in the ensuing battle he was defeated and captured by the Seljuk. Tutush had him executed before installing Ali and his mother Safiyya as his representatives in Mosul.
Muhammad b. Sharaf al-Daula continued to attempt gain Mosul. He recruited the Turkish commander Kür-Bugha and his brother, but Kür-Bugha imprisoned him. He then attempted to take Mosul from Ali but failed. Kür-Bugha then executed Muhammad and tried again to take Mosul. As the siege continued, Ali decided to flee to the Mazyadids. Kür-Bugha eventually gained control of the city in late
1096and became its amir, ending 'Uqailid rule there.
Several other 'Uqailid lines were established in various areas, including Jazirat ibn Umar,
Takrit, Hīt, and Ukbara(whose ruler, Gharib b. Muhammad once gave refuge to the Buwayhid amir Jalal al-Daulawhen he found it necessary to leave Baghdad). Some of these lines were still extant after the overthrow of the 'Uqailids in Mosul, with one branch in Raqqa and Qal'at Ja'bar lasting until 1169when it was ended by the Zengids.
After the Banu 'Uqail lost power in Iraq and Syria, they migrated to pasture grounds in
*Bosworth, Clifford Edmund. "The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual." Great Britain: Columbia University Press, 1996. ISBN 0231107145
*Kabir, Mazifullah. "The Buwayhid dynasty of Baghdad, 334/946-447/1055." Calcutta: Iran Society, 1964.
*Richards, D. S. "The Annals of the Saljuq Turks: Selections from al-Kamil fi'l Ta'rikh of 'Izz al-Din Ibn al-Athir." Great Britain: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002. ISBN 0700715762
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Uqaylid Dynastyʿ — ▪ Muslim Arab dynasty Muslim Arab dynasty whose various branches ruled Mosul (c. 992–1096) and Takrīt (1036–c. 1057), in what is now Iraq. The ʿUqaylids, descendants of the famous Bedouin tribe of ʿĀmir ibn Ṣaʿṣaʿah, established… … Universalium
Mazyadid Dynasty — ▪ Muslim Arab dynasty Muslim Arab dynasty that ruled central Iraq from its capital at al Ḥillah in the period from about 961 to 1150. The Mazyad family, which belonged to the Bedouin tribe of Asad, had settled along the Euphrates River,… … Universalium
Banu Uqayl — ( ar. بنو عُـقَـيـْل) are an ancient Arab tribe that played an important role in the history of eastern Arabia and Iraq. They belonged to the Banu Ka b branch of the large Banu Amir confederation.The Banu Amir confederation of tribes had their… … Wikipedia
Iraq — /i rak , i rahk /, n. a republic in SW Asia, N of Saudi Arabia and W of Iran, centering in the Tigris Euphrates basin of Mesopotamia. 22,219,289; 172,000 sq. mi. (445,480 sq. km). Cap.: Baghdad. Also, Irak. * * * Iraq Introduction Iraq Background … Universalium
Banu 'Amir — Genealogical scheme of the tribes of Banu Amir ibn Sa sa ah. Banu Amir ibn Sa sa ah or Banu Amir (Arabic: بنو عامر بن صعصعة) were a large and ancient Arab tribal confederation originating from central and southwestern Arabia that dominated Nejd… … Wikipedia
Abbasid Caliphate — For the Caliphate of Córdoba (Al Andalus) dynasty see Abbadids; for the southwest Arabia Islamic sect, see Abādites. Abbasid Caliphate الخلافة العباسية al khilāfah al ‘abbāsīyyah … Wikipedia
Umayyad Caliphate — بنو أمية Banu Umayyah (Arabic) ← … Wikipedia
Fatimid Caliphate — Fatimid Islamic Caliphate الدولة الفاطمية al Fāṭimiyyūn ← … Wikipedia
History of Muslim Egypt — History of Egypt This article is part of a series Prehistory Ancient Egypt Early … Wikipedia
Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) — For other uses of the word Mamluk (Turks), see Mamluk. For the sultanate in Delhi, see Mamluk Sultanate (Delhi) Mamluk Sultanate سلطنة المماليك Sulṭanat al Mamālīk ← … Wikipedia