Provinces of Korea


Provinces of Korea

This article describes the historical development of Korea's provinces (Do ; hangul: 도; hanja: ). For detailed information on current administrative divisions, please see Administrative divisions of North Korea and Administrative divisions of South Korea.

Provinces (Do) have been the primary administrative division of Korea since the mid Goryeo dynasty in the early 11th century, and were preceded by provincial-level divisions (Ju and Mok) dating back to Unified Silla, in the late 7th century.

Contents

Historical summary

During the Unified Silla Period (AD 668–935), Korea was divided into nine Ju (주; ), an old word for "province" that was used to name both the kingdom's provinces and its provincial capitals. (see also: Zhou (country subdivision))

After Goryeo defeated Silla and Later Baekje in 935 and 936 respectively, the new kingdom "was divided into one royal district (Ginae; 기내; 畿內) and twelve administrative districts (Mok; 목; )" (Nahm 1988), which were soon redivided into ten provinces (Do). In 1009 the country was again redivided, this time into one royal district, five provinces (Do) and two frontier districts (Gye; 계; ?). The name and concept of Do originated from the Chinese Dao.

After the Joseon Dynasty's rise to power and the formation of Joseon in 1392, the country was redivided into eight new provinces (Do) in 1413. The provincial boundaries closely reflected major regional and dialect boundaries, and are still often referred to in Korean today simply as the Eight Provinces (Paldo). In 1895, as part of the Gabo Reform, the country was redivided into 23 districts (Bu; 부; ), which were replaced a year later by thirteen new provinces.

The thirteen provinces of 1896 included three of the original eight provinces, with the five remaining original provinces divided into north and south halves (Bukdo (북도; 北道) and Namdo (남도; 南道) respectively). The thirteen provinces remained unchanged throughout the Japanese Colonial Period.

With the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Korean peninsula was divided into Soviet (northern) and American (southern) zones of occupation, with the dividing line established along the 38th parallel. (See Division of Korea for more details.) As a result, three provinces—Hwanghae, Gyeonggi, and Gangwon (Kangwŏn)—were divided into Soviet- and American-occupied sections.

The special cities of Seoul and P'yŏngyang were formed in 1946. Between 1946 and 1954, five new provinces were created: Jeju in South Korea, and North and South Hwanghae, Chagang, and Ryanggang in North Korea.

Since 1954, provincial boundaries in both the North and South have remained unchanged. New cities and special administrative regions have been created, however: see Special cities of Korea for their history. For a comprehensive description of Korea's provinces and special cities today, please see Administrative divisions of North Korea and Administrative divisions of South Korea.

Provinces of Unified Silla

In 660, the southeastern kingdom of Silla conquered Baekje in the Southwest, and in 668, Silla conquered Goguryeo in the north with the help of China's Tang Dynasty (see also Three Kingdoms of Korea). For the first time, most of the Korean peninsula was ruled by a single power. Silla's northern boundary ran through the middle of southern Goguryeo, from the Taedong River (which flows through P'yŏngyang) in the west to Wŏnsan in modern-day Kangwon Province in the east. In 721, Silla solidifed its northern boundary with Balhae (which replaced Goguryeo in the north) by building a wall between P'yŏngyang and Wŏnsan.

The country's capital was Geumseong (modern-day Gyeongju), and sub-capitals were located at Geumgwan-gyeong (Gimhae), Namwon-gyeong, Seowon-gyeong (Cheongju), Jungwon-gyeong (Chungju), and Bugwon-gyeong (Wonju).

The country was divided into nine provinces (Ju): three in the pre-660 territory of Silla, and three each in the former kingdoms of Baekje and Goguryeo.

The table below lists the three preceding kingdoms, each province's name in the Roman alphabet, hangul, and hanja, as well as the provincial capital, and the equivalent modern-day province.

Former kingdom Province Hangul Hanja Capital Modern equivalent
Silla Yangju 양주 良州 Yangju Eastern Gyeongsang
Gangju 강주 康州 Gangju Western South Gyeongsang
Sangju 상주 尙州 Sangju Western North Gyeongsang
Baekje Muju 무주 武州 Muju South Jeolla
Jeonju 전주 全州 Jeonju North Jeolla
Ungju 웅주 熊州 Gongju South Chungcheong
Goguryeo Hanju 한주 漢州 Hanju
(Seoul)
North Chungcheong,
Gyeonggi, Hwanghae
Sakju 삭주 朔州 Sakju Western Gangwon
Myeongju 명주 溟州 Myeongju Eastern Gangwon

Provinces of Goryeo

In 892, Gyeon Hwon founded the kingdom of Later Baekje in southwestern Silla, and in 918, Wanggeon (King Taejo) established the kingdom of Goryeo in the northwest, with its capital at Songak (modern-day Kaesŏng). In 935, Goryeo conquered the remnants of Silla, and in 936, it conquered Later Baekje. Songak was greatly expanded and renamed Gaegyeong. Taejo expanded the country's territory by conquering part of the land formerly belonging to Goguryeo, in the northwest of the Korean peninsula, as far north as the Yalu River. A wall was constructed from the Yalu River in the northwest to the Sea of Japan (East Sea) in the southeast, on the boundary between Goryeo and the northeastern Jurched territory.

The country had one capital (Gaegyeong) and three sub-capitals: Donggyeong (modern-day Gyeongju and the former capital of Silla), Namgyeong (modern-day Seoul), and Seogyeong (modern-day P'yŏngyang).

Originally, the country had one royal district (Ginae; 기내; 畿內) around Gaegyeong and twelve administrative districts (Mok; 목; ): (Note that Gwangju-mok is modern-day Gwangju-si in Gyeonggi Province, not the larger Gwangju Metropolitan City.)

The twelve districts were soon redivided into ten provinces (Do; 도; ). Gwannae-do included the administrative districts of Yangju, Hwangju, Gwangju, and Haeju; Jungwon-do included Chungju and Cheongju; Hanam-do replaced Gongju; Gangnam-do replaced Jeonju; Yeongnam-do replaced Sangju; Sannam-do replaced Jinju; and Haeyang-do replaced Naju and Seungju; the three other new provinces were Yeongdong-do, Panbang-do, and Paeseo-do.

Finally, in 1009, the ten provinces were again redivided, this time into five provinces (Do) and two frontier districts (Gye; 계; ?).

The table below lists the provinces of Silla, the administrative districts of Goryeo that replaced them, then the pre- and post-1009 provinces, as well as their modern equivalents. ^

Province of Silla Administrative district Pre-1009 province Post-1009 province Modern equivalent
Hanju Gyeonggi(京畿) Gyeonggi Gyeonggi Kaesŏng
Yangju-mok(揚州牧) Gwannae-do Seohae-do Hwanghae
Hwangju-mok(黃州牧) North Hwanghae
Haeju-mok(海州牧) South Hwanghae
Gwangju-mok(廣州牧) Yanggwang-do Gyeonggi
Chungju-mok(忠州牧) Jungwon-do North Chungcheong
Ungju Cheongju-mok
Gongju-mok Hanam-do South Chungcheong
Jeonju Jeonju-mok(全州牧) Gangnam-do Jeolla-do North Jeolla
Muju Naju-mok Haeyang-do South Jeolla
Seungju
Sangju Sangju-mok Yeongnam-do Gyeongsang-do North Gyeongsang
Gangju Jinju-mok Sannam-do Western South Gyeongsang
Yangju Yeongdong-do Eastern South Gyeongsang
Sakju -- Sakbang-do Gyoju-do Gangwon
Myeongju -- Donggye
-- -- Paeseo-do Bukgye Pyeongan

Provinces of Joseon

In 1413, Korea (at that time called Joseon) was divided into eight provinces: Chungcheong, Gangwon, Gyeonggi, Gyeongsang, Jeolla, Hamgyŏng (originally called Yeonggil), Hwanghae (originally called P'unghae), and P'yŏngan.

For detailed information on the eight provinces of Joseon—an important subject for understanding Korea's modern geography—please see Eight Provinces (Korea), as well as the articles on the individual provinces, as listed above.

RR Romaja Hangul Hanja Name Origin Capital Regional Name Dialect Post-1896 Provinces
Chungcheong 충청도 忠淸道 Chungju,
Cheongju
Gongju Hoseo (1) Chungcheong dialect Chungcheongbuk
Chungcheongnam
Gangwon 강원도 江原道 Gangneung,
Wonju
Wonju Gwandong
(Yeongseo, Yeongdong (2))
Gangwon dialect Gangwon
Gyeonggi 경기도 京畿道 (See note) Hanseong
(Seoul)
Gijeon (3) Seoul dialect Gyeonggi
Gyeongsang 경상도 慶尙道 Gyeongju,
Sangju
Daegu Yeongnam Gyeongsang dialect Gyeongsangbuk
Gyeongsangnam
Hamgyeong 함경도 咸鏡道 Hamheung,
Gyeongseong
Hamheung Gwanbuk, Gwannam (4) Hamgyeong dialect Hamgyeongbuk
Hamgyeongnam
Hwanghae 황해도 黃海道 Hwangju,
Haeju
Haeju Haeseo Hwanghae dialect Hwanghae (5)
Jeolla 전라도 全羅道 Jeonju,
Naju (6)
Jeonju Honam Jeolla dialect;
Jeju Dialect (7)
Jeollabuk / Jeollanam
Jeju
Pyeongan 평안도 平安道 Pyeongyang,
Anju
Pyeongyang Gwanseo Pyeongan dialect Pyeonganbuk
Pyeongannam
Notes
1. Pronounced "Ho-suh," not "Ho-zay-oh," as the spelling might suggest.
2. "Gwandong" is the name for the region as a whole, with "Yeongseo" denoting the western half of the province and "Yeongdong" the eastern half. "Yeongdong" is used more often than either of the other two terms, however, especially in reference to railway and road arteries that cross through Gangwon, connecting the Seoul and Yeongdong regions.
3. The province's name literally means "area within a 500-li (200-km) radius" (gi; ) of the "capital" (Gyeong; ), referring to the royal capital Hanseong (modern-day Seoul). The regional name "Gijeon" is obsolete. The 20th-century term "Sudogwon" ("Capital Region") is used today to denote the Seoul-Incheon conurbation and that part of Gyeonggi Province that forms part of the same built-up, urban area.
4. "Gwanbuk" was used to designate either the province as whole, or only the northern part thereof. In the latter case, "Gwannam" was then used to denote the southern part of the province.
5. The modern-day division of the province into North and South did not occur until 1954.
6. The initial "n" in "Naju" is pronounced as "l" (lower-case "L") when it comes after another consonant; the final "n" in the "Jeon" of "Jeonju" is then assimilated to an "l" sound.
7. The distinctive Jeju dialect is used on Jeju Island, which became a separate province in 1946.

Districts of Late Joseon

In 1895, Korea was redivided into 23 districts (Bu; 부; ), each named for the city or county that was its capital. The districts were short-lived, however, as the following year, the provincial system was restored (see below).

Each district name in the following list links to the article on the province from which the district was formed, and where more detailed information on the district is provided:

Andong, Chuncheon, Chungju, Daegu, Dongnae, Gangneung, Gongju, Haeju, Hamhŭng, Hanseong, Hongju, Incheon, Jeju, Jeonju, Jinju, Kaesŏng, Kanggye, Kapsan, Kyŏngsŏng, Naju, Namwon, P'yŏngyang, Ŭiju

Provinces of the Korean Empire

In 1896, the former eight provinces were restored, with five of them (Chungcheong, Gyeongsang, Jeolla, Hamgyŏng, and P'yŏngan) being divided into North and South Provinces (Bukdo (북도; 北道) and Namdo (남도; 南道) respectively). The resulting system of thirteen provinces lasted through the entire Japanese Colonial Period, until the Division of Korea in 1945.

The thirteen provinces were: North and South Chungcheong, Gangwon, Gyeonggi, North and South Gyeongsang, North and South Hamgyŏng, Hwanghae, North and South Jeolla, and North and South P'yŏngan.

Provinces under Japanese rule

Under Japanese rule, Korean provinces remained much the same, only taking on the Japanese reading of the hanja. The Provinces of Chōsen were:

Keikidō (Gyeonggi-do), Kōgendō (Gangwon-do), Chūsei-hokudō (Chungcheongbuk-do), Chūsei-nandō (Chungcheongnam-do), Zenra-hokudō (Jeollabuk-do), Zenra-nandō (Jeollanam-do), Keishō-hokudō (Gyeongsangbuk-do), Keishō-nandō (Gyeongsangnam-do), Heian-nandō (Pyeongannam-do), Heian-hokudō (Pyeonganbuk-do), Kōkaidō (Hwanghae-do), Kankyō-nandō (Hamgyeongnam-do), and Kankyō-hokudo (Hamgyeongbuk-do).

Provinces since the division of Korea

Provinces of North Korea.PNG
520px-Provinces of South Korea Txt.PNG

At the end of World War II in 1945, Korea was divided into American and Soviet zones of occupation. (See Division of Korea for more information.) The peninsula was divided at the 38th parallel, with the Americans controlling the south half of the peninsula and the Soviets controlling the north half. In 1948, the two zones became the independent countries of North and South Korea.

Three provinces—Hwanghae, Gyeonggi, and Gangwon—were divided by the 38th parallel.

  • Most of Hwanghae Province belonged to the Soviet (northern) zone. The southern portion became part of Gyeonggi Province in the south.
  • Most of Gyeonggi Province belonged to the American (southern) zone. In 1946, the northern portion became part of Kangwŏn Province in the north (see next item).
  • Gangwon Province was divided roughly in half, to form modern-day Gangwon Province in South Korea and Kangwon Province in North Korea. The northern province is expanded in 1946 to include the northern portion of Gyeonggi Province and the southern portion of South Hamgyong Province (around the city of Wonsan).

Also in 1946, the cities of Seoul in the south and Pyongyang in the north separated from Gyeonggi and South P'yŏngan Provinces respectively to become Special Cities. Finally, the new provinces of Jeju (in the south, in 1946) and Chagang (in the north, 1949) were formed, from parts of South Jeolla and North P'yŏngan respectively. In 1954, Ryanggang Province split from South Hamgyong.

For more details, see the articles Administrative divisions of South Korea and Administrative divisions of North Korea, as well as the articles on the thirteen provinces of the Korean Empire and the individual articles linked to in this section.

North

M-C Romaja Chosongul Hanja Type Capital Region Area ISO
Pyongyang 평양시 平壤市 Directly Governed City (Chung-guyok) Kwanso 2,273 KP-01
Rason 라선시 羅先市 Special City (Rajin-guyok) Kwanbuk 746 KP-13
Pyongannam 평안남도 平安南道 Province Pyongsong Kwanso 11,890.6 KP-02
Pyonganbuk 평안북도 平安北道 Province Sinuiju Kwanso 12,680.3 KP-03
Chagang 자강도 慈江道 Province Kanggye Kwanso 16,765 KP-04
Hwanghaenam 황해남도 黃海南道 Province Haeju Haeso 8,450.3 KP-05
Hwanghaebuk 황해북도 黃海北道 Province Sariwon Haeso 8,153.7 KP-06
Kangwon 강원도(북) 江原道(北) Province Wonsan Kwandong 11,091 KP-07
Hamgyongnam 함경남도 咸鏡南道 Province Hamhung Kwannam 18,534 KP-08
Hamgyongbuk 함경북도 咸鏡北道 Province Chongjin Kwanbuk 15,980 KP-09
Ryanggang * 량강도 兩江道 Province Hyesan Kwannam 13,880 KP-10

* – Rendered in Southern dialects as "Yanggang" (양강도).

South

RR Romaja Hangul Hanja Type Capital Region Area[2] ISO
Seoul 서울시 (首爾)市[1] Special City (Jung-gu) Sudogwon 605.25 KR-11
Busan 부산시 釜山市 Metropolitan City (Yeonje-gu) Yeongnam 763.46 KR-26
Incheon 인천시 仁川市 Metropolitan City (Namdong-gu) Sudogwon 964.53 KR-28
Daegu 대구시 大邱市 Metropolitan City (Jung-gu) Yeongnam 884.15 KR-27
Gwangju 광주시 光州市 Metropolitan City (Seo-gu) Honam 501.36 KR-29
Daejeon 대전시 大田市 Metropolitan City (Seo-gu) Hoseo 539.84 KR-30
Ulsan 울산시 蔚山市 Metropolitan City (Nam-gu) Yeongnam 1,056.4 KR-31
Gyeonggi 경기도 京畿道 Province Suwon Sudogwon 10,131 KR-41
Gangwon 강원도(남) 江原道(南) Province Chuncheon Gwandong 16,894 KR-42
Chungcheongbuk 충청북도 忠清北道 Province Cheongju Hoseo 7,436 KR-43
Chungcheongnam 충청남도 忠清南道 Province Daejeon Hoseo 8,352[2] KR-44
Jeollabuk 전라북도 全羅北道 Province Jeonju Honam 8,043 KR-45
Jeollanam 전라남도 全羅南道 Province Muan Honam 11,858 KR-46
Gyeongsangbuk 경상북도 慶尙北道 Province Daegu Yeongnam 19,440[3] KR-47
Gyeongsangnam 경상남도 慶尙南道 Province Changwon Yeongnam 11,859 KR-48
Jeju 제주도 濟州道 Special Self-governing Province Jeju City Jejudo 1,845.55 KR-49

Notes: 1see Names of Seoul; 2 Daejeon excluded; 3 Daegu excluded

See also

Notes

^ Sources include Nahm 1988; [1] (in Korean).

References

  • Nahm, Andrew C. (1988). Korea: Tradition and Transformation - A History of the Korean People. Elizabeth, NJ: Hollym International.

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