Cebu


Cebu
Cebu
Sugbu
—  Province  —

Seal
Map of the Philippines with Cebu highlighted
Coordinates: 10°19′17″N 123°45′17″E / 10.32139°N 123.75472°E / 10.32139; 123.75472Coordinates: 10°19′17″N 123°45′17″E / 10.32139°N 123.75472°E / 10.32139; 123.75472
Country  Philippines
Region Central Visayas (Region VII)
Founded April 27, 1565
Capital Cebu City
Government
 – Type Province of the Philippines
 – Governor Gwendolyn Garcia (Lakas-Kampi-CMD)
 – Vice Governor Agnes Magpale (Lakas-Kampi-CMD)
Area
 – Total 4,932.79 km2 (1,904.6 sq mi)
Area rank 22nd out of 80
Population (2007)
 – Total 2,440,120
 – Rank 5th out of 80
 – Density 494.7/km2 (1,281.2/sq mi)
 – Density rank 7th out of 80
Divisions
 – Independent cities 3
 – Component cities 6
 – Municipalities 44
 – Barangays 1,066
including independent cities: 1,203
 – Districts 1st to 6th districts of Cebu (shared with Mandaue and Lapu-Lapu cities)
including independent cities: 1st and 2nd districts of Cebu City
Time zone PHT (UTC+8)
ZIP Code
Spoken languages Cebuano, English, Filipino
Website Official website

Cebu (Cebuano: Sugbo) is a province in the Philippines, consisting of Cebu Island and 167 surrounding islands. It is located to the east of Negros, to the west of Leyte and Bohol islands. Cebu is a long narrow island stretching 225 kilometers from north to south, surrounded by 167 neighbouring, smaller islands, which include Mactan, Bantayan, Malapascua, Olango and the Camotes Islands. Cebu has narrow coastlines, limestone plateaus and coastal plains. It also has rolling hills and rugged mountain ranges traversing the northern and southern lengths of the island. Cebu's highest mountains are over 1000 meters high. Flat tracts of land can be found in the city of Bogo and in the towns of San Remigio, Medellin and Daanbantayan at the northern region of the province. Its capital is Cebu City, the oldest city in the Philippines, which forms part of the Cebu Metropolitan Area together with four neighboring cities which include Danao City, Lapu-Lapu City, Mandaue City and Talisay City and eight other municipalities. Mactan-Cebu International Airport, located in Mactan island, is the second busiest airport in the Philippines.

Cebu is one of the most developed provinces in the Philippines, with Cebu City as the main center of commerce, trade, education and industry in the Visayas. Condé Nast Traveler Magazine named Cebu the seventh best island destination in the Indian Ocean-Asia region in 2007,[1] eighth best Asian-Pacific island destination in 2005, seventh in 2004 and in 2009.

Contents

Demography

The population of Cebu in 2007 was 2,440,120, with its largest city accounting for 799,762 people, or more than a third of the entire provincial population.[2] Cebuano is the official language spoken in Cebu and it is also spoken in most areas of the Visayas, including Bohol, western Leyte, Negros Oriental and some provinces of Mindanao (Bukidnon, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Davao City, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay, Lanao del Norte, Misamis Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Camiguin, Compostela Valley, and Sarangani. The population of Central Visayas is predominantly young with about 37 percent of its population below 10 years old. This is very evident in the very broad base of the population pyramid in the region which has prevailed since 1970 but at a declining rate. A decline of 2.29 percentage points in the proportion of household population below 15 years old was noted from 1980 to 1995. Conversely, an increase of 3.06 percentage points was observed in the 15-64 age group during the same period. The population of the region is evenly distributed between male and female. However, the male population in the region has been increasing at a faster rate compared to the female population.[3]

Religion

The majority of its population are Roman Catholic,[4] there are also some followers of Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism.

The image of Santo Niño de Cebú (Holy Child of Cebu), the oldest Christian image in the Philippines, is enshrined and venerated at the Basilica of Santo Niño. According to Philippine historical documents, the statue of the Santo Niño (Holy Child) was given to the wife of the Rajah of Cebu by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan. The friendship is depicted in Cebu's cultural event, the Sinulog where street parades and loud drum beats preceded by a Christian mass is celebrated. Cebu has a Roman Catholic Archdiocese and has several major churches, including the Basilica Minor del Santo Niño de Cebu, Cebu Metropolitan Cathedral, Santo Rosario Parish Church, San José-Recoletos Church, Sacred Heart Church, Archdiocesan Shrine of Our Lady of Lourdes, National Shrine of Our Lady of the Rule, National Shrine of Saint Joseph, Archdiocesan Shrine of Our Lady of Guadalupe of Cebu and other Christian churches, as well as several other non-Catholic churches, mosques and temples.

Climate


Though Cebu has two official seasons, Dry and Wet, rainfall is usually not that high, with average rainfall hitting around 100 millimeters per month. The wet season usually comes from June to December, while the dry season comes from January until May. Rainfall is highest in June and July. Cebu's temperatures can reach a high of 36 degree celsius from March to May, to as low as 18 degrees at the mountains during the cooler season from October to January. The average temperature in Cebu is around 24 to 32 degree celsius, and does not fluctuate much except for the month of May, which is the hottest month. Cebu averages 70-80 percent humidity.[5]

History

Between the 13th and 16th century Cebu then known as Zubu[6] (or Sugbo) was an island inhabited by Hindu, animist and Muslim[7] ruled by Rajahs and Datus.[8] It was a kingdom of the defunct Rajahnate of Cebu.

The Rajahnate of Cebu was a native kingdom which used to exist in Cebu prior to the arrival of the Spaniards. It was founded by Sri 'Lumay' otherwise known as 'Rajamuda Lumaya', a native prince of the Chola dynasty which had invaded Sumatra in Indonesia. He was sent by the Maharajah to establish a base for expeditionary forces to subdue the local kingdoms, but he rebelled and established his own independent Rajahnate instead. This rajahnate waged war against the 'magalos' or (Slave traders) of Maguindanao and had an alliance with the Butuan Rajahnate before it was weakened by the insurrection of Datu (chieftain or king) Lapu-Lapu who converted to Islam and swore allegiance to Sultan Kiram.[9]

The arrival of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 established a period of Spanish exploration and colonization.[10][11]

A map showing the route of the Magellan expedition circumnavigating the world.

Losing favor for his plan of reaching the Spice Islands from king Manuel I of Portugal, by sailing west from Europe, Magellan offered his services to king Charles I of Spain. On September 20, 1519, Magellan led five ships with a crew of 250 people from the Spanish fort of Sanlúcar de Barrameda enroute to Southeast Asia via the Americas and Pacific Ocean. They reached the Philippines on March 16, 1521. Rajah Kolambu the king of Mazaua told them to sail for Cebu, where they could trade and have provisions.

Pigafetta's illustrations of Cebuanos during the expedition.

Arriving in Cebu City, Magellan, with Enrique of Malacca as translator, befriended Rajah Humabon the Rajah or King of Cebu and persuaded the natives of allegiance to Charles I of Spain. Humabon and his wife were given Christian names and baptized as Carlos and Juana. The Santo Niño was presented to the native queen of Cebu, as a symbol of peace and friendship between the Spaniards and the Cebuanos. On April 14, Magellan erected a large wooden cross on the shores of Cebu. Afterwards, about 700 islanders were baptized.

Magellan soon heard of Datu Lapu-Lapu, a native king in nearby Mactan Island, a rival of the Rajahs of Cebu. It was thought that Humabon and Lapu-Lapu had been fighting for control of the flourishing trade in the area. On April 27, the Battle of Mactan occurred where the Spaniards were defeated and Magellan killed by the natives of Mactan[12] in Mactan Island. According to Italian historian and chronicler, Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan's body was never recovered despite efforts to trade for it with spice and jewels. Magellan's second in command, Juan Sebastián Elcano took his place as captain of the expedition and sailed their fleet back to Spain, circumnavigating the world.

Survivors of the Magellan expedition brought tales of a savage island in the East Indies with them when they returned to Spain. Consequently, several Spanish expeditions were sent to the islands but all ended in failure. In 1564, Spanish explorers led by Miguel López de Legazpi sailing from Mexico arrived in 1565 and established a colony.[13] The Spaniards fought the King Rajah Tupas and occupied his territories. The Spaniards established settlements, trade flourished and renamed the island to "Villa del Santíssimo Nombre de Jesús" (Town of the Most Holy Name of Jesus). Cebu became the first European settlement established by the Spanish Cortés in the Philippines. In 1595, the Universidad de San Carlos (University of San Carlos) was established and in 1860, Cebu opened its forts to foreign trade. The first printing house ("Imprenta de Escondrillas y Cia") was established in 1873 and in 1880, the Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepcion (College of the Immaculate Conception) was established and the first periodical The Bulletin of Cebu ("El Boletin de Cebú") began publishing in 1886. In 1898, the island was ceded to the United States after the Spanish-American War and Philippine-American War. In 1901, Cebu was governed by the United States for a brief period, however it became a charter province on February 24, 1937 and was governed independently by Filipino politicians.

Cebu, being one of the most densely populated island in the Philippines, served as a Japanese base during their occupation in World War II which began with the landing of Japanese soldiers in April 1942. The 82nd Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was reestablished on June 1942 to June 1946 at the military general headquarters and the military camps and garrisoned in Babag, Cebu City and started by the Anti-Japanese military operations in Cebu from April 1942 to September 1945 and helping Cebuano guerrillas and fought against the Japanese Imperial forces. Almost three years later in March 1945, combined Filipino and American forces landed and reoccupied the island during the liberation of the Philippines. Cebuano guerrilla groups led by an American, James Cushing is credited for the establishment of the Koga Papers which is said to have changed the American plans to retake the Philippines from Japanese occupation in 1944, by helping the combined United States and the Philippine Commonwealth Army forces enter Cebu in 1945. The following year the island achieved independence from colonial rule in 1946.

Infrastructure and electricity

The Mactan-Cebu International Airport on Mactan Island has regular direct flights to Hong Kong, Singapore, Busan-Gimhae and Seoul-Incheon (South Korea), Tokyo-Narita (Japan), and Doha (Qatar).

With the number of weekly international flights to and from Mactan International Airport is increasing, a new international terminal has been proposed. The Cebu International Port is the largest shipping hub in Visayas and Mindanao island groups. Cebu also has several business districts attracting different industries. Among them is the Cebu Business Park, a prime business and financial center in Cebu City. Nearby is the Asiatown Information Technology Park, built on what was once the location of the Lahug Airport (Cebu's old airport prior to Mactan International Airport), another business district that caters mostly to businesses related to the information technology industry such as software development, telecommunications, engineering research and development centers, business process outsourcing, including a number of call centers and other industrial businesses.

The Cebu South Road Properties (SRP)

South of the city is the South Road Properties Special Economic Zone, a large reclaimed property. It is a prime real estate zone that will house a business district, a tourism zone and an industrial area patterned after the Mactan Export Processing Zone on nearby Mactan Island. The new South Coastal Highway, which stretches from Cebu City to Talisay passes through the property. A 1.2-kilometer tunnel, which passes beneath Plaza Independencia is currently being constructed at the highway's entrance in Cebu City to connect it with Sergio Osmeña Avenue which traverses the North Reclamation Area.

Despite this new developments, poverty is remarkable all around the city, with traders on most sidewalks and little stores (Sari Sari) dedicated to the sale of very basic grocery items at retail level. Houses are mostly poor and of very basic materials.

Roads across the different neighborhoods (Barangays) are not enough for the densely populated city and its cars, adding up to huge traffic jams and extremely slow pace in work hours.

The city receives its electricity from an interconnection grid with the Leyte and Negros Geothermal Power Plants which also powers majority of the Visayan Islands. There are also coal fired power plants. Distribution of electricity is provided by the Visayas Electric Company. Telecommunication facilities in the city are abundant provided by some of the country's largest telecommunication companies. Connections to the internet are also available.

Economy

Cebu City is the largest city and economic hub of the province.

About 80% of its domestic shipping is located in Cebu. The island has the most domestic air and shipping and cargo vessels in the Philippines. The island also has a major industrial, commercial, trade and educational system. Its extensive international port facilities, its accessibility to Asia and the rest of the world has led more than a hundred firms, with multinational companies like Convergys Corporation, Jp Morgan Chase, Mitsumi, BMC Group, Pentax Corp., Marine Colloids, Fairchild Semiconductor, Tsuneishi Heavy Industries, Muramoto Audio-Visual, Lexmark International, Asahi Optical, Teradyne, NEC Technologies, Timex, Olympus Optical, United Technologies, Maithland-Smith, Taiyo Yuden and other companies to established manufacturing industries on the islands, leading the whole country in exports with growth rates for the past 5 years averaged close to 20% higher than that of the entire country. Government support and incentives provide a major development for its growth.

Cebu's labor force is oriented towards non-agricultural lines and is rated one of the most productive work force in the country. High domestic and foreign tourist arrivals, geographic location, accessibility and natural resources have fueled the development growth of Cebu with an excellent industrial record and now the fastest growing economy in the Philippines.

Cebu is home to some national and international corporations like AAA Commercial Broker & Consultancy Inc, Ayala Corporation, JobsDB.com, Gaisano Group of Companies, Aboitiz Group of Companies, WG&A, Norkis Group of Companies, Bigfoot International, Affiliated Computer Services (A Xerox Company), Lexmark Philippines Inc., Lhuillier Jewellers and among others. Its international port (cargo and container) is currently one of the busiest in the country. Homegrown brands in the city have expanded throughout the past years finding success in the national and even in the international market like Penshoppe, Oxygen, Loalde and Island Souvenirs. Other homegrown brands that have expanded outside the city and province include BO's Coffee Club, Julie's Bakeshop, Orange Brutus, Mother's Fried Chicken and other businesses.

Due to its burgeoning furniture-making industry, Cebu has been named as the furniture capital of the Philippines. The Department of Trade and Industry in Cebu is aiming to develop this aspect of Cebu's economy by specifically targeting small to medium enterprises or SMEs whose products are considered export quality. Cebu is also becoming an IT hub as many companies, either local or international, are establishing their headquarters in Cebu. The city has become a site for various call centers and BPOs. The Cebu Chamber of Commerce and Industry, an organization of Cebu's businesses, are hedging the city's growth and economy on information and communications technology, with the aim of making it a premier ICT investment, software and e-services hub in Southeast Asia. Shipbuilding companies in Cebu have manufactured bulk carriers of up to 70,000 metric tons deadweight (DWT) and double hulled fastcrafts as well.

The Cebu International Convention Centre serves as a landmark in recognition of Mandaue City’s involvement in the international trade. As venue of the 12th ASEAN summit, the city continues to establish an important role in international industrial relation, becoming the core of development and strengthening its role as the growth center of the province of Cebu.

Education

The Philippine elementary school begins in grade 1 to grade 6. The high school program takes four years to finish, taken after graduating from elementary school. Cebu is the main educational institute in the central region of the country. It has several large universities each with a number of college branches throughout Cebu City and more than a dozen other schools and universities specializing in various courses such as Medicine, Engineering, Nautical courses, Nursing, Law, Commerce, Education, Computer and IT and other professions.

The most prominent of these universities are the University of San Carlos, University of the Philippines Cebu College, University of San Jose–Recoletos, Cebu Normal University, University of Cebu, University of Southern Philippines, Southwestern University, and the University of the Visayas. The only medical university in the country is the Cebu Doctors' University (formerly Cebu Doctors' College) located in the Cebu Boardwalk in nearby Mandaue City. It was elevated to university status in November 2004. The Cebu Institute of Technology – University (formerly Cebu Institute of Technology) located in N. Bacalso Ave. and the Cebu Technological University (formerly Cebu State College of Science and Technology) which is located in M.J. Cuenco Avenue cor. R. Palma Street, Cebu City are the newest universities. CIT-U and CTU were elevated to university status in the year 2010. The Cebu's first film school, The International Academy of Film and Television was established on Mactan Island in 2004.The Asian College of Technology-the country's best and largest computer school is also located in Cebu City.

Media

Cebu has television and cable stations namely: Cebu Television Channel 28, Real Cebu Television (RCTV - 36) and the Cebu Catholic Television Network (CCTN 47) (a religious station partly owned and endorsed by the Archdiocese of Cebu). Cebu! Television Channel 28 and the Real Cebu Television (RCTV - 36) are only seen on cable television and CCTN operates an UHF frequency on channel 47 on free TV. It can also be accessed through Skycable's channel 56.

Despite having these local stations, Cebuanos prefer to watch the Philippines' two dominant television networks namely: ABS-CBN, TV5 and GMA Network Inc. While national newspapers have presence in the island, Cebu has English-language local newspapers: The Freeman, Sun-Star - Cebu and Cebu Daily News, while there are also Cebuano language newspapers, SunStar SuperBalita owned by Sun Star and Banat News owned by The Freeman. Each of the local newspapers sell for about 10 peso a copy, which is much cheaper than their national counterparts.

Government

Cebu Provincial Capitol building in Cebu City.

Cebu is subdivided into 6 component cities and 44 municipalities. The cities of Cebu, Lapu-Lapu and Mandaue are independent cities that are not under provincial supervision.

Congressional districts

Cities

The cities of Cebu, Lapu-Lapu and Mandaue are often grouped with the province, but are governed independently.

In 2007, the towns of Bogo, Carcar and Naga became cities. They, along with 13 other cities in the country, were demoted back to municipalities the following year by the Philippine Supreme Court, citing that these 16 cities did not pass the requirements of cityhood.[14] However, on December 22, 2009, acting on said appeal, the Court reversed its earlier ruling as it ruled that "at the end of the day, the passage of the amendatory law (regarding the criteria for cityhood as set by Congress) is no different from the enactment of a law, i.e., the cityhood laws specifically exempting a particular political subdivision from the criteria earlier mentioned. Congress, in enacting the exempting law/s, effectively decreased the already codified indicators."[15] As such, the cityhood status of Bogo, Carcar and Naga, are effectively restored.

On August 27, 2010, the cities of Bogo, Carcar and Naga is now plain old municipalities again. It shares the fate of 13 other cities, after the Supreme Court reinstated a 2008 decision declaring as “unconstitutional" the cityhood laws converting 16 municipalities into cities.

A previous law required towns aspiring to become cities to earn at least P100 million annually, which none of the 16 did.

Voting 7-6, with two justices not taking part, the SC reinstated its Nov. 18, 2008 decision declaring as unconstitutional the Republic Acts (RAs) converting 16 municipalities into cities.[16] The most recent development in the legal battles surrounding the "League of 16" came on February 15,2011. Voting 7-6, the Supreme Court (SC) ruled this week that 16 towns that became cities in 2007 can stay as cities. It's the fourth time the SC has ruled on the case and the third reversal. It said the conversion of the 16 towns into cities met all legal requirements.

Municipalities

Landmarks

This is a list of traditional landmarks:[17]

Cebu Heritage Monument.
Magellans' Cross.

Festivals

List of traditional festivities:[18]

  • Sinulog is a religious festival celebrated every third Sunday of January. The feast is held in honor of the patron saint, Señor Santo Niño de Cebú (Lord Holy Child of Cebu) and the arrival of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in the Philippines. The Fiesta Señor (Festival Lord) converge a procession and take part in a mardigras parade.
  • Paskuhan is a Christmas celebration of songs held during the month of December.
  • Kadaugan sa Mactan is an re-enactment held in Punta Engaño, celebrated every April 27, to commemorate the historical Battle of Mactan between the soldiers of Datu Lapu-Lapu and Ferdinand Magellan.
  • Virgin of the Rule Fiesta is held to honor the patron saint of Lapu-Lapu City on November 20 to November 21 which includes social event, and traditions of the people, including feasting and a procession of the patron saint.
  • Semana Santa sa Bantayan is a religious tradition, accompanied by a celebration of Holy Week activities in Bantayan Island.
  • Nuestra Señora de Regla Fiesta en ciudad de Lapu-Lapu is a festivity celebrated to honour the patron saint of Mactan Island on November 20 to November 21.
  • Tres de Abril is held every April 3, a celebration of the colonial resistance in the southern Philippines.

Cebu is dubbed as the "Island of Festivals" due to the popularity and number of festivals celebrated throughout the entire province:

  • Kabanhawan Festival is a festival which celebrates the resurrection of Jesus Christ. The festival is held in Minglanilla.
  • Kabkaban Festival is celebrated on November 24 to November 25 in honor of the town's patron, Saint Catherine of Alexandria. The town of Carcar is known for its old Spanish style houses. During the festivities, the residents invite their friends, relatives and town visitors into their homes to feast on traditional Cebuano cuisines.
  • Tagbo Poro is celebrated every January in honor of the Santo Niño de Poro.
  • Siloy Festival is held every August 26 in the town of Alcoy.
  • Haladaya Festival is held in the town of Daanbatayan in honour of the chieftain Datu Daya.
  • Dinagat-Bakasi Festival is celebrated in the town of Cordova.
  • Dagitab Festival is the Festival in Naga celebrated every town fiesta.
  • Hinulawan Festival is a festival in Toledo.[19]
  • Lapyahan Festival is a festival celebrated in cognizance with the municipality of San Remigio's festivities. It is named after the "lapyahan" meaning "shoreline". The festival is a combination of the town’s history and its tradition.
  • Kinsan Festival is held in the town of Aloguinsan every June 17. It is a festival held to promote the fish, "kinsan", a popular fish in the town.
  • Pasigarbo sa Sugbo Festival is celebrated in 2007. It features all the festivals of the cities and municipalities of Cebu.
  • Tostado Festival is celebrated in Santander.
  • Kagasangan Festival is celebrated in Moalboal.
  • Kinhason Festival is celebrated in Santa Fe.
  • Rosquillos Festival is celebrated in Liloan for its Rosquillos delicacy.
  • Hinulawan Festival is celebrated in Toledo City.
  • Karansa Festival is celebrated in Danao City.
  • Utanon Festival is celebrated in Dalaguete.
  • Sikoy-Sikoy Festival is celebrated in San Fernando.
  • Palawod Festival is celebrated in Bantayan Island.
  • Ani-Anihan Festival is celebrated in Tabuelan.
  • Soli Soli Festival is celebrated in San Francisco in the Camotes Islands.
  • Bonga Festival is celebrated in Sibonga.
  • Pamujuan Festival is celebrated in Pinamungahan.
  • Halad Inasal Festival is celebrated in Talisay City.
  • Tubod Festival is celebrated in Tuburan.
  • La Torta Festival is celebrated in Argao.
  • Sinnanggiyaw Festival is celebrated in Dumanjug.
  • Kawayan Festival is celebrated in Alegria every December 1.
  • Bolho Festival is the festival of the town of Boljoon.
  • Toslob Festival is the festival celebrated in Oslob.
  • Hinatdan Festival is the festival of Ginatilan.
  • Saksak Festival is in Samboan.
  • Sarok Festival is the festival in Consolacion.
  • Hinorno Festival is in Ronda.
  • Kaumahan Fesitval is celebrated in Barili.
  • Balang-balang Festival is in Balamban.
  • Bahandi Festival in Alcantara is celebrated every August.
  • Banig Festival in July is in Badian.
  • Sinamay Festival is celebrated in Carmen.
  • Panagsogod Festival is celebrated in Sogod.
  • Budbod-Kabog Festival in Catmon.
  • Pintos Festival is celebrated in Bogo City.
  • Isda Festival (formerly Kadagaya Festival) is in Madridejos, Bantayan.
  • Silmugi Festival is in Borbon.
  • Binuyocan Festival is in Malabuyoc.
  • Balanghoy Festival is in Tudela.

Only five towns in Cebu (Asturias, Compostela, Pilar, Tabogon, and Medellin) have no festivals.

References

  1. ^ "Condé Nast Traveler Readers' Choice Top Islands". http://www.concierge.com/bestof/readerschoice/top_islands/topislands_asia. 
  2. ^ "2007 Census of population". Philippine government. http://www.census.gov.ph/data/census2007/index.html. Retrieved August 27, 2011. 
  3. ^ "More on demographics". The Commission on Population of the Philippines. http://www.popcom.gov.ph/regions/07/more_on_demographics.html. Retrieved 2011-08-27. 
  4. ^ "Cebu - Paradise: Culture and Lifestyle". www.cebu.gov.ph. http://www.cebu.gov.ph/?getid=2&getsubid=24&infolinkids=26&GetBodyName=Culture%20and%20Lifestyle&rightpdisable=0. 
  5. ^ "Guide to Cebu-Weather in Cebu www.guidetocebu.com". http://www.guidetocebu.com/information/weather.html. 
  6. ^ "Welcome to Cebu- history". www.sinulog.ph. http://www.sinulog.ph/sugbu/history.html. 
  7. ^ "Cebu's history". www.plantationbay.com. http://www.plantationbay.com/cebu.asp. 
  8. ^ "Cebu - History". www.cebu.gov.ph. http://www.cebu.gov.ph/?getid=2&getsubid=5&infolinkids=6&GetBodyName=History&rightpdisable=0. 
  9. ^ Jovito Abellana, Aginid, Bayok sa Atong Tawarik, 1952
  10. ^ "Philippine History-Spanish Colonization". www.philippinecountry.com. http://www.philippinecountry.com/philippine_history/spanish_colonization.html. Retrieved 2006. 
  11. ^ "Philippine history, part2 The first Spanish expedition of 1521". http://www.information.ph/history_02.html. 
  12. ^ "Cebu - History". www.cebu.gov.ph. http://www.cebu.gov.ph?getid=2&getsubid=5&infolinkids=6&GetBodyName=History&rightpdisable=0. 
  13. ^ "Philippine history, part3 The Spanish colonization". http://www.information.ph/history_02B.html. 
  14. ^ Napallacan, Jhunex (2008-11-21). "Cities’ demotion worries DepEd execs". Cebu Daily News. Inquirer.net. http://globalnation.inquirer.net/cebudailynews/news/view/20081121-173541/Cities-demotion-worries-DepEd-execs. Retrieved 2008-11-27. 
  15. ^ Benjamin B. Pulta. "SC reverses self, upholds creation of 16 cities". The Daily Tribune. http://www.tribuneonline.org/nation/20091223nat1.html. 
  16. ^ Rey E. Requejo. "Cityhood ruling overturned". Manila Standard Today. http://www.manilastandardtoday.com/insideNation.htm?f=2010/august/28/nation1.isx&d=2010/august/28. 
  17. ^ "Welcome to Cebu - historical landmark". www.sinulog.ph. http://www.sinulog.ph/sugbu/historical_landmarks.html. 
  18. ^ "Cebu Philippines Festivals, Fiestas and Cultural Event". eTravel Pilipinas - Discover the Wonders of Island Paradise. http://www.etravelpilipinas.com/events_festivals/cebu_festival.htm. 
  19. ^ Toledo City Government Official Website

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Cebú — • Located in the Philippine Islands. Cebú, the diocesan city, spelled also Sebú and Zebú, in the province of the same name Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Cebu     Cebú      …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • CEBU — Île du groupe des Visayas (Philippines), appartenant à la région de Visayas central, entre les îles de Bohol et de Negros (Visayas Ouest), Cebu, de forme allongée (196 km) et étroite (32 km au maximum), est la neuvième île par sa surface (4 422… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Cebu —   [spanisch θe βu],    1) Provinzhauptstadt an der Ostküste der gleichnamigen Insel, wirtschaftliches, kulturelles und religiöses Zentrum der Visayan Islands, Philippinen, 662 000 Einwohner (als Metro Cebu mit den angrenzenden Städten Mandaue und …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Cebu — prop. n. 1. one of the Visayan islands of the central Philippines, important for its fine harbor. [WordNet 1.5] 2. an important seaport on the Island of Cebu in the Philippines. [WordNet 1.5] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Cebu — Cebu, 1) Fluß im Reiche Fez im westlichen Afrika; fließt durch die Stadt Fez u. den Marmorasee in den Atlantischen Ocean; 2) so v.w. Zebu …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Cebu [1] — Cebu, zu den Philippinen (s.d.) gehörige, bis zu 800 m sich erhebende Insel, samt den Nebeninseln 5–6000 qkm mit etwa 500,000 Einw. Die Ernte (jährlicher Wert etwa 5,5 Mill. Mk.) besteht hauptsächlich aus Manilahanf, Zucker und Reis; die… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Cebu [2] — Cebu, Fluß in Marokko, s. Sebu …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Cebú — Cebú, Philippineninsel, s.v.w. Zebu …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • cebú — ‘Bovino doméstico originario del sur de Asia’. Su plural es cebúes o cebús (→ plural, 1c) …   Diccionario panhispánico de dudas

  • cebú — (plural cebúes, preferible a cebús) sustantivo masculino 1. (macho y hembra) Bos indicus. Mamífero rumiante parecido al toro, de color grisáceo, con una giba en la espalda y una gran papada, que está muy extendido en India, donde se le considera… …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

  • cebú — (De or. tibetano). 1. m. Variedad del toro común, caracterizada por la giba adiposa que tiene sobre el lomo. Vive doméstico en la India y en África. 2. Variedad del carayá …   Diccionario de la lengua española


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