Four Asian Tigers
Four Asian Tigers A map showing the Four Asian Tigers
Hong Kong Singapore
South Korea Taiwan
Chinese name Traditional Chinese 亞洲四小龍 Simplified Chinese 亚洲四小龙 Literal meaning Asia's Four Little Dragons Transcriptions Mandarin - Hanyu Pinyin Yǎzhōu sì xiǎo lóng Cantonese (Yue) - Jyutping aa3 zau1 sei3 siu2 long4 Korean name Hangul 아시아의 네 마리 용 Literal meaning Asia's four dragons Transcriptions - Revised
asia ui ne mari yong
The Four Asian Tigers or Asian Dragons is a term used in reference to the highly developed economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan. These nations and areas were notable for maintaining exceptionally high growth rates (in excess of 7 percent a year) and rapid industrialization between the early 1960s and 1990s. By the 21st century, all four have developed into advanced and high-income economies, specializing in areas of competitive advantage. For example, Hong Kong and Singapore have become world-leading international financial centres, whereas South Korea and Taiwan are world leaders in manufacturing information technology. Their economic success stories have served as role models for many developing countries, especially the Tiger Cub Economies.
The tigers experienced decades of supercharged growth based largely on industrial policies supporting exports to rich, industrialized nations. Many of these policies, including import substitution in Taiwan and South Korea, contradicted the neo-liberal economic ideas promoted by the United States. All the same, these economies enjoyed extremely high growth rates sustained over decades. Other common characteristics of the tigers included heavy government investment in education, non-democratic and relatively authoritarian political systems during the early years of development, high levels of U.S. bond holdings, and high public and private savings rates.
The first major setback experienced by the tiger economies was the 1997 Asian financial crisis. While Singapore and Taiwan were relatively unscathed, South Korea underwent a major stock market crash brought on by high levels of non-performing corporate loans, while Hong Kong came under intense speculative attacks against its stock market and currency necessitating unprecedented market interventions by the Hong Kong Monetary Authority. In the years after the crisis, all four economies rebounded strongly. South Korea, the worst-hit of the tigers, has managed to triple its per capita GDP in dollar terms since 1997.
Territory and region data
Area km² Population Population density
Human Development Index
Capital Hong Kong 1,104 7,108,100 6,349 0.898 (13th) Hong Kong Singapore 710 5,076,700 7,148 0.866 (26th) Singapore South Korea 100,210 48,219,000 487 0.897 (15th) Seoul Taiwan 36,191 23,197,947 639 0.868 (24th) Taipei
millions of USD (2010)
millions of USD (2010)
GDP nominal per capita
GDP PPP per capita
millions of USD (2010)
millions of USD (2010)
Hong Kong 224,459 327,232 31,514 45,944 388,600 437,000 Singapore 222,699 292,829 43,117 56,694 358,400 310,400 South Korea 1,014,482 1,466,125 20,756 29,997 464,300 422,400 Taiwan 429,845 824,671 18,558 35,604 274,400 251,400
Property rights index
Press Freedom Index
Corruption Perceptions Index
Political Status Hong Kong 5.92 7.7 10.75 8.4 Partially Democratic SAR Singapore 5.89 7.9 47.50 9.3 Parliamentary Republic South Korea 8.11 6.2 13.33 5.4 Presidential Republic Taiwan 7.52 6.5 14.50 5.8 Semi-Presidential Republic
Organizations and groups
G20 OECD APEC EAS ASEAN Hong Kong × × ○ × × Singapore × × ○ ○ ○ South Korea ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ (APT) Taiwan × × ○ × ×
- Asian Century
- Economic miracle (full list of miracles and "tigers")
- Taiwan miracle
- 1997 Asian financial crisis
- ^ "Can Africa really learn from Korea?". afrol News. 24 November 2008. http://www.afrol.com/articles/22953. Retrieved 2009-02-16.
- ^ "Korea role model for Latin America: envoy". Korean Culture and Information Service. 1 March 2008. http://www.korea.net/news/news/newsView.asp?serial_no=20080301004&part=103. Retrieved 2009-02-16. [dead link]
- ^ Leea, Jinyong; LaPlacab, Peter; Rassekh, Farhad (2 September 2008). "Korean economic growth and marketing practice progress: A role model for economic growth of developing countries". Industrial Marketing Management (Elsevier B.V. (subscription required)). doi:10.1016/j.indmarman.2008.09.002. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V69-4TR37CX-3&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=5614827be8562007c3b0d6865ef92d15. Retrieved 2009-02-16.
- ^ "East Asian Tigers- Definition". WordIQ.com. 1 February 2010. http://www.wordiq.com/definition/East_Asian_Tigers. Retrieved 2011-03-01.
- ^ Monthly Bulletin of Interior Statistics 2011.4, Department of Statistics, Ministry of the Interior, Taiwan/R.O.C.
- ^ http://www.dgbas.gov.tw/public/Attachment/11715383471.doc
- Ezra F. Vogel, The Four Little Dragons: The Spread of Industrialization in East Asia (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991).
- BBC report on the Asian Tigers in the aftermath of the 1997 Financial Crisis (includes map of the Asian Tigers)
- ASEAN tigers
- The Elephant at the Gate in China Economic Review
Four Asian Tigers Economy of Hong Kong History Currency Industry and Business Government agencies Employment and Tax Infrastructure
Rankings Finance and BankingHong Kong Futures Exchange • Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing • Securities and Futures Commission • Hong Kong Stock Exchange • Hong Kong Securities Institute • Linked exchange rate • P Chips Frauds • Red chips • Electronic Payment Services • Growth Enterprise Market • Hong Kong Mercantile Exchange • Hang Seng Index Agreements EnergyList of power stations in Hong Kong • Other See also: Economy of Macau • Economy of the People's Republic of China Economy of Taiwan History Currency Banking and Finance Government agencies Research Energy RankingsInternational rankings of Republic of China (Taiwan) Industrial park Associations AgreementsEconomic Cooperation Framework Agreement Economy of South Korea History Currency Industry and business Government agencies Employment and tax Infrastructure and transport RankingsInternational rankings • Regions by GDP Finance and banking AgreementsComprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement • South Korea-Peru Free Trade Agreement • European Union • United States Energy Other See also: Economy of North Korea Singapore topics History Politics and
Geography Economy Demographics Culture Transport Symbols Related topics
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