Leone Battista Alberti
Childhood and education
An Italian humanist, Alberti is often seen as a model of the
Renaissance" universal man." He was born in Genoa, one of two illegitimate sons of a wealthy Florentine merchant, Lorenzo Alberti. Leon's mother, Bianca Fieschi, was a Bolognese widow who died during an outbreak of bubonic plague. Like many other families, the Albertis had been expelled from their native city, Florence, by the republican government, run by the Albizzis. At the time of Leon's birth, his father Lorenzo lived in Genoa, but the family soon moved to Venice, where Lorenzo ran the family bankwith his brother. Lorenzo married again in 1408. The ban on the family was lifted in 1428, and that same year Leon visited Florencefor the first time.
Alberti received the best education then available to an Italian nobleman. From around 1414 to 1418 he studied classics at the famous school of
Gasparino Barzizzain Padua. He then completed his education at the University of Bologna, where he studied law. In his youth, according to stories, Alberti could—with his feet together—spring over a man's head, he was a superb horseman, and he "learned music without a master, and yet his compositions were admired by professional judges." [Jacob Burckhard in , 1860.]
After the death of his father, Alberti was supported by his uncles. In his twenties Alberti wrote "On the Advantages and Disadvantages of Letters," which he dedicated to his brother Carlo, also a scholar and writer. Alberti's Latin comedy, "Philodoxus," aimed to teach that "a man dedicated to study and hard work can attain glory, just as well as a rich and fortunate man." For a short time it was passed as a genuinely antique Roman play. Like
Petrarch, who had been the first famous philologist to study the works of the ancient Roman poets, Alberti loved classics, but he compared continual reading and rereading in libraries. Later he also complained, that "the learned don't become rich, or if they do become rich from literary pursuits, the sources of their wealth are shameful." Other early works, "Amator" (ca. 1429), "Ecatonfilea" (ca. 1429), and "Deiphira" (ca. 1429-1434), dealt with love, virtues, and failed relationships.
Alberti received his doctorate in canon law in 1428. In the early 1430s he went to Rome where he worked as an abbreviator at the Papal
curia, drafting papal briefs. A master of Latin and Italian, Alberti also rewrote in Latin traditional lives of saints and martyrs. After taking holy orders, he was deemed to hold the priorate of San Martino a Gangalandi at Lastra a Signa. In 1448 he was appointed rector of the parish of San Lorenzo in Mugello. Alberti served also as a papal inspector of monuments, and advised Pope Nicholas V, a former fellow student from Bologna, on the ambitious building projects in the city of Rome.
In the mid-1430s, Alberti moved to Florence with
Pope Eugenius IV, who had been driven out of the Holy City. Alberti was appointed canon of the Florentine Cathedral. He admired greatly its dome, designed by Filippo Brunelleschi. At that time it was the largest in the world other than the Roman Pantheon, a unique manifestation of the integration of art, science, and technology, the spiritual symbol of the Florentine Rinascita. "Who could be hard or envious enough to fail to praise Pippo [Filippo] ," wrote Alberti, "the architect on seeing here such a large structure, rising above the skies, ample to cover with its shadow all the Tuscan people."
In 1450, Alberti was commissioned to transform the Gothic church of S. Francesco, Rimini, into a memorial to the local warlord
Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, his wife Isotta, and courtiers. The church is usually known as the Tempio Malatestiano. Its dominating form is the classical triumphal arch, Alberti's favorite structure, but the severe, restrained façade was never quite finished. Alberti himself did not live in Rimini. He corresponded with his assistants, who were responsible for most of the actual rebuilding. Like the Tempio Malatestiano, the façade of Santa Maria Novella in Florence is considered to be a landmark in the formation of Renaissance architecture. The only buildings Alberti designed entirely himself, were S. Sebastiano (1460), still under work during Alberti's lifetime, and S. Andrea (1470), completed in the 18th century. Its triumphal arch was even grander than in the Tempio Malatestiano.
"De pictura" (1435), the first version of "On Painting," Alberti wrote in Latin. He then translated it into Italian under the title "Della pittura" (1436). Alberti dedicated the book to Filippo Brunelleschi, among others. He also credited Donatello (ca. 1386-1466), Lorenzo Ghiberti, Masaccio, and Filippo with "a genius for every laudable enterprise in no way inferior to any of the ancients." Brunelleschi was a self-learned architect—originally he was trained as a goldsmith. Brunelleschi's early achievements included his formulation of the laws of linear perspective, which he presented in two panels. The creation of a pictorial space and perspective was fundamental to Renaissance art. In his own work, Alberti codified the basic geometry so that the linear perspective became mathematically coherent and related to the spectator. However, the technical first part of the book did not have any illustrations. After Alberti, Piero della Francesca presented his own theory of perspective in "De prospectiva pingendi."
Alberti regarded mathematics as the common ground of art and the sciences. "To make clear my exposition in writing this brief commentary on
painting," Alberti began his treatise, "Della pittura" (On Painting), "I will take first from the mathematicians those things with which my subject is concerned." [Leone Battista Alberti, On Painting, editor John Richard Spencer, 1956, p. 43.]
This treatise ("Della pittura" ) was also known in Latin as "De Pictura", and it relied in its scientific content on classical
opticsin determining perspectiveas a geometric instrument of artistic and architectural representation. Alberti was well-versed in the sciences of his age. His knowledge of opticswas connected to the handed-down long-standing tradition of the "Kitab al-manazir" ("The Optics"; "De aspectibus") of the Arab polymath Alhazen( Ibn al-Haytham, d. ca. 1041), which was mediated by Franciscan optical workshops of the 13th-century "Perspectivae" traditions of scholars such as Roger Bacon, John Peckhamand Witelo(similar influences are also traceable in the third commentary of Lorenzo Ghiberti, "Commentario terzo"). [ Nader El-Bizri, "A Philosophical Perspective on Alhazen’s Optics," "Arabic Sciences and Philosophy", vol. 15, issue 2 (2005), pp. 189-218 (Cambridge University Press).]
In both "Della pittura" and "De statua", a short treatise on
sculpture, Alberti stressed that "all steps of learning should be sought from nature."Books and Writing website - http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/alberti.htm] The ultimate aim of an artist is to imitate nature. Painters and sculptors strive "through by different skills, at the same goal, namely that as nearly as possible the work they have undertaken shall appear to the observer to be similar to the real objects of nature." However, Alberti did not mean that artists should imitate nature objectively, as it is, but the artist should be especially attentive to beauty, "for in painting beauty is as pleasing as it is necessary." The work of art is, according to Alberti, so constructed that it is impossible to take anything away from it or add anything to it, without impairing the beauty of the whole. Beauty was for Alberti "the harmony of all parts in relation to one another," and subsequently "this concord is realized in a particular number, proportion, and arrangement demanded by harmony." Alberti's thoughts on harmony were not new—they could be traced back to Pythagoras—but he set them in a fresh context, which fit in well with the contemporary aesthetic discourse.
Alberti wrote "I Libri della famiglia"—which discussed of education, marriage, household management, and money—in the Tuscan dialect. The work was not printed until 1843. Like
Erasmusdecades later, Alberti stressed the need for a reform in education. He noted that "the care of very young children is women's work, for nurses or the mother," and that at the earliest possible age children should be taught the alphabet. With great hopes, he gave the work to his family to read, but in his autobiography Alberti confesses that "he could hardly avoid feeling rage, moreover, when he saw some of his relatives openly ridiculing both the whole work and the author's futile enterprise along it." "Momus," written between 1443 and 1450, was a misogynist comedy about the Olympian gods. It has been considered as a roman à clef—Jupiter has been identified in some sources as Pope Eugenius IV and Pope Nicholas V. Alberti borrowed many of its characters from Lucian, one of his favorite Greek writers. The name of its hero, Momus, refers to the Greek word for blame or criticism. After being expelled from heaven, Momus, the god of mockery, is eventually castrated. Jupiter and the other gods come down to earth also, but they return to heaven after Jupiter breaks his nose in a great storm.
In Rome, Alberti had plenty of time to study its ancient sites, ruins, and objects. His detailed observations, included in "
De Re Aedificatoria" (1452, "Ten Books of Architecture"), were patterned after the "De architectura" by the Roman architect and engineer Vitruvius(fl. 46-30 B.C.). The work was the first architectural treatise of the Renaissance. It covered a wide range of subjects, from history to town planning, and engineering to the philosophy of beauty. "De re aedificatoria," a large and expensive book, was not fully published until 1485, after which it became a major guide to architects. However, the book was written "not only for craftsmen but also for anyone interested in the noble arts," as Alberti put it.Fact|date=September 2007 The first Italian edition came out in 1546. The standard Italian edition by Cosimo Bartoliwas published in 1550. Pope Nicholas V, to whom Alberti dedicated the whole work, dreamed of rebuilding the city of Rome, but he managed to realize only a fragment of his visionary plans. Through his book, Alberti spread his theories and ideals of the Florentine Renaissance to the rest of Italy.
Other works and legacy
Among Alberti's smaller studies, pioneering in their field, were a treatise in
cryptography, "De componendis cifris", and the first Italian grammar. With the Florentine cosmographer Paolo Toscanellihe collaborated in astronomy, a close science to geography at that time, and produced a small Latin work on geography, "Descriptio urbis Romae" ("The Panorama of the City of Rome"). Just a few years before his death, Alberti completed "De iciarchia" ("On Ruling the Household"), a dialogue about Florence during the Medicirule. Alberti died on April 25, 1472in Rome.
As an artist, Alberti distinguished himself from the ordinary craftsman, educated in workshops. He was a humanist, and part of the rapidly expanding entourage of intellectuals and artisans supported by the courts of the princes and lords of the time. Alberti, as a member of noble family and as part of the Roman
curia, had special status. He was a welcomed guest at the Estecourt in Ferrara, and in Urbinohe spent part of the hot-weather season with the soldier-prince Federigo da Montefeltro.Fact|date=September 2007 The Duke of Urbinowas a shrewd military commander, who generously spent money on the patronageof art. Alberti planned to dedicate his treatiseon architecture to his friend.Fact|date=September 2007
In "1434", Gavin Menzies argues, citing author James Beck, that Alberti was responsible for an astronomical fresco in a little dome above the alter in the sacristy at San Lorenzo. The fresco includes the astronomical positions of the sun and moon on 6 July 1438, the date of the union of the Eastern and Western Churches. Menzies further argues that it would not have been possible for the painting to be a simple depiction of the heavens at the time of the signing of the accord since it would have been at noon but rather based on elaborate astronomical tables. Further making the case that the tables that would have been used were given to Pope Eugenius IV by Chinese sailors who had visited Venice. [pp. 90-92, 1434: The Year a Magnificent Chinese Fleet Sailed to Italy and Ignited the Renaissance, Gavin Menzies]
For the Rucellai [http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rucellai] family in Florence Alberti designed several buildings, the façade of
Palazzo Rucellai, executed by Bernardo Rosselino, the façade of Santa Maria Novella, the marble-clad shrine of the Holy Sepulchre, and perhaps also the Capella Rucellai. Giorgio Vasari, who argued that historical progress in art reached its peak in Michelangelo, emphasized Alberti's scholarly achievements, not his artistic talents: "He spent his time finding out about the world and studying the proportions of antiquities; but above all, following his natural genius, he concentrated on writing rather than on applied work." (from " Lives of the Artists").Fact|date=September 2007 Leonardo, who ironically called himself "an uneducated person" ("omo senza lettere"), followed Alberti in the view that painting is science. However, as a scientist Leonardo was more empirical than Alberti, who was a theorist and did not have similar interest in practice. Alberti believed in ideal beauty, but Leonardo filled his notebooks with observations on human proportions, page after page, ending with the famous drawing on the Vitruvian man, a human figure related to a square and a circle.
"We painters," said Alberti in "On Painting", but as a painter, or sculptor, Alberti was a
dilettante. "In painting Alberti achieved nothing of any great importance or beauty," wrote Vasari.Fact|date=September 2007 "The very few paintings of his that are extant are far from perfect, but this is not surprising since he devoted himself more to his studies than to draughtsmanship." Jacob Burckhardtportrayed Alberti in "The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy" as a truly universal genius. "And Leonardo da Vinci was to Alberti as the finisher to the beginner, as the master to the dilettante. Would only that Vasari's work were here supplemented by a description like that of Alberti! The colossal outlines of Leonardo's nature can never be more than dimly and distantly conceived."Fact|date=September 2007 Burckhardt also mentions Alberti's love for animals. He had a pet dog, a mongrel, for whom he wrote a panegyric, "Canis").Fact|date=September 2007
Alberti is said to be in Mantegna's great frescoes in the
Camera degli Sposi, the older man dressed in dark red clothes, who whispers in the ear of Ludovico Gonzaga, the ruler of Mantua.Fact|date=September 2007 In Alberti's self-portrait, a large plaquette, he is clothed as a Roman. To the left of his profile is a winged eye. On the reverse side is the question, Quid tum? (what then), taken from Virgil's "Eclogues": "So what, if Amyntas is dark? ("quid tum si fuscus Amyntas?") Violets are black, and hyacinths are black."Fact|date=September 2007
Some dates vary from source to source; these come from Franco Borsi. "Leon Battista Alberti". (New York: Harper & Row,1977)
Tempio Malatestiano, Rimini(1447,1453-50)
*Completion of the facade of
Santa Maria Novella, Florence (1448-1470).
*San Sebastiano, Mantua (begun 1458)
Pienza, as consultant (1459-62)
*Sepolcro Rucellai in San Pancrazio (1467)
*Tribune for Santissima Annunziata, Florence (1470, completed with alterations, 1477).
Alberti made a variety of contributions to several fields:
*Alberti was the creator of a theory called istoria. In his treatise, 'On Painting', he explains the theory, of the accumulation of people, animals, and buildings, which create harmony amongst each other, and "hold the eye of the learned and unlearned spectator for a long while with a certain sense of pleasure and emotion".
art, he is best known for his treatise "De pictura" (On painting) (1435) which contained the first scientific study of perspective. An Italian translation of "De pictura" ("Della pittura") was published in 1436, one year after the original Latin version and addressed Filippo Brunelleschiin the preface. The Latin version had been dedicated to Alberti's humanist patron, Gianfrancesco Gonzaga of Mantua. He also wrote works on sculpture, "De Statua".
*Alberti used his artistic treatises to propound a new humanistic theory of art. He drew on his contacts with early Quattrocento artists such as Brunelleschi and Masaccio to provide a practical handbook for the renaissance artist.
*Alberti wrote an influential work on architecture, "
De Re Aedificatoria", which by the 18th century had been translated into Italian, French, Spanish and English. An English translation was by Giacomo Leoniin the early 18th century. Newer translations are now available.
*Whilst Alberti's treatises on painting and architecture have been hailed as the founding texts of a new form of art, breaking from the gothic past, it is impossible to know the extent of their practical impact within his lifetime. His praise of the Calumny of Apelles led to several attempts to emulate it, including paintings by Botticelli and Signorelli. And we can see his stylistic ideals being put into practice in the works of
Mantegna, Piero della Francescaand Fra Angelico. But how far Alberti was responsible for these innovations and how far he was simply articulating the trends of the artistic movement, with which his practical experience had made him familiar, is impossible to ascertain.
*He was so skilled in
Latinverse that a comedyhe wrote in his twentieth year, entitled "Philodoxius," would later deceive the younger Aldus Manutius, who edited and published it as the genuine work of Lepidus.
*He has been credited with being the author, or alternatively the designer of the important
woodcutillustrations, of the " Hypnerotomachia Poliphili", a strange fantasynovel (Liane Lefaivre, "Leon Battista Alberti's Hypnerotomachia Poliphili", Cambridge: MIT Press, 1997). There is a good deal of debate about this attribution, however the attribution to Alberti of the illustrations appears to be gaining wide acceptance.Fact|date=September 2007
*He took great interest in studying the ruins of
classical architecturein Rome and elsewhere. At Romehe was employed by Pope Nicholas Vin the restoration of the papal palace and of the restoration of the Roman aqueductof Acqua Vergine, which debouched into a simple basin designed by Alberti, which was swept away later by the Baroque Trevi Fountain. At Mantuahe designed the church of Sant'Andrea, and at Riminithe church of San Francesco. On a commission from the Rucellaifamily he completed the principal facade of the church of Santa Maria Novellain Florencewhich had been begun in the previous century. He also built the facade for the family palace in the Via della Vigna Nuova, known as the Palazzo Rucellai, though it is not exactly clear what his role as designer was.
*Alberti is also now thought to have had an important role in the designing of
Pienza, a village that had been called Corsignano, but which was redesigned beginning around 1459. It was the birthplace of Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini, Pope Pius II, in whose employ Alberti served. Pius II wanted to use the village as a retreat but needed for it to reflect the dignity of his position. The design, which radically transformed the center of the town, included a palace for the pope, a church, a town hall and a building for the bishops who would accompany the Pope on his trips. Pienza is considered an early example of Renaissance urban planning.
*Some studies (D. Mazzini, S. Simone, "Villa Medici a Fiesole. Leon Battista Alberti e il prototipo di villa rinascimentale", Centro Di, Firenze 2004) propose that the
Villa Medici in Fiesolemight owe its design to Alberti, not to Michelozzo, and that it then became the prototype of the Renaissance villa. Maybe also that this hilltop dwelling, commissioned by Giovanni de' Medici, Cosimo il Vecchio's second son, with its view over the city, is the very first example of a Renaissance villa: that is to say it follows the Albertian criteria for rendering a country dwelling a "villa suburbana". Under this perspective the Villa Medici in Fiesole could therefore be considered the "muse" for numerous other buildings, not only in the Florence area, which from the end of the XV century onwards find inspiration and creative innovation here.
* Apart from his treatises on the arts, Alberti also wrote: "Philodoxus" ("Lover of Glory", 1424), "De commodis litterarum atque incommodis" ("On the Advantages and Disadvantages of Literary Studies", 1429), "Intercoenales" ("Table Talk", ca. 1429), "Della famiglia" ("On the Family", begun 1432) "Vita S. Potiti" ("Life of St. Potitus", 1433), "De iure" (On Law, 1437), "Theogenius" ("The Origin of the Gods", ca. 1440), "Profugorium ab aerumna" ("Refuge from Mental Anguish",), "Momus" (1450) and "De Iciarchia" ("On the Prince", 1468).These and other works were translated and printed in Venice by the humanist
Cosimo Bartoliin 1586.
* Alberti was an accomplished cryptographer by the standard of his day, and invented the first
polyalphabetic cipherwhich is now known as the Alberti cipherand machine-assisted encryption using his Cipher Disk. The polyalphabetic cipher was, at least in principle, for it was not properly used for several hundred years, the most significant advance in cryptography since before Julius Caesar's time. Cryptography historian David Kahntitles him the "Father of Western Cryptography", pointing to three significant advances in the field which can be attributed to Alberti: "the earliest Western exposition of cryptanalysis, the invention of polyalphabetic substitution, and the invention of enciphered code" (cite book |author=David Kahn |title=The codebreakers: the story of secret writing |publisher=MacMillan |location=New York |year=1967).
* According to Alberti himself, in a short autobiography written c. 1438 in Latin and in the third person, (many but not all scholars consider this work to be an autobiography) he was capable of "standing with his feet together, and springing over a man's head." The autobiography survives thanks to an eighteenth century transcription by
Antonio Muratori. Alberti also claimed that he "excelled in all bodily exercises; could, with feet tied, leap over a standing man; could in the great cathedral, throw a coin far up to ring against the vault; amused himself by taming wild horses and climbing mountains." Needless to say, many in the Renaissance promoted themselves in various ways and Alberti's eagerness to promote his skills should be understood, to some extent, within that framework. (This advice should be followed in reading the above information, some of which originates in this so-called autobiography.)
*Alberti claimed in his "autobiography" to be an accomplished musician and organist, but there is no hard evidence to support this claim. In fact, musical posers were not uncommon in his day (see the lyrics to the song "Musica Son", by Francesco Landini, for complaints to this effect.) He held the appointment of canon in the metropolitan church of Florence, and thus - perhaps - had the leisure to devote himself to this art, but this is only speculation.
* He was also interested in the drawing of
maps and worked with the astronomer, astrologer, and cartographer Paolo Toscanelli.
*"De Pictura", 1435. [http://www.noteaccess.com/Texts/Alberti/ "On Painting", in English] , [http://www.liberliber.it/biblioteca/a/alberti/de_pictura/html/depictur.htm "De Pictura", in Latin]
*"Momus," Latin text and English translation, 2003 ISBN 0-674-00754-9
De re aedificatoria" (1452, Ten Books on Architecture)
*"De Cifris" A Treatise on Ciphers (1467), trans. A. Zaccagnini. Foreword by David Kahn, Galimberti, Torino 1997.
* cite encyclopedia
last = Gille
first = Bertrand
title = Alberti, Leone Battista
Dictionary of Scientific Biography
volume = 1
pages = 96-98
publisher = Charles Scribner's Sons
location = New York
date = 1970
isbn = 0684101149
*Wright, D.R. Edward, [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0075-4390(1984)47%3C52%3AADPILS%3E2.0.CO%3B2-X "Alberti's De Pictura: Its Literary Structure and Purpose"] , Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol. 47, 1984 (1984), pp.52-71.
Mark Jarzombek"The Structural Problematic of Leon Battista Alberti's De pictura," "Renaissance Quarterly" 4/3 (Spring, 1990): 273-285.
* [http://alberti.wordpress.com Albertian Bibliography on line]
* [http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:FHCL.HOUGH:1267672 MS Typ 422.2. Alberti, Leon Battista, 1404-1472. Ex ludis rerum mathematicarum : manuscript, [14--] .] Houghton Library, Harvard University.
*Online resources for Alberti's buildings
** [http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/S._Andrea.html S. Andrea, Mantua, Italy]
** [http://www.greatbuildings.com/buildings/S._Andrea.html Sta. Maria Novella, Florence, Italy]
*Online resources for Alberti's works
** [http://www.ilnarratore.com/show.php?type=author&language=en&aid=12&tpl=/eng/autore.tpl.html"Libri della famiglia - Libro 3 - Dignità del volgare"] on audio MP3
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