Natabhairavi

Carnatic Music
Concepts

SrutiSwaraRagaTalaMelakartaAsampurna Melakarta

Compositions

VarnamKritiGeethamSwarajatiRagam Thanam Pallavi • Thillana

Instruments

melody: Vocals • Saraswati veenaVenu • Violin • Chitra veena • NadaswaramMandolin

rhythm: MridangamGhatamMorsingKanjiraThavil

drone: TamburaShruti box

Composers

List of Carnatic composers

Natabhairavi (Sanskrit नठभैरवि, Tamil நடபைரவி) is a rāgam in Carnatic music (musical scale of South Indian classical music). It is the 20th melakarta rāgam in the 72 melakarta rāgam system. It corresponds to the minor scale of western music system.

Natabhairavi corresponds to the Asavari thaat of Hindustani music.[1][2] In the Muthuswami Dikshitar school this rāgam is called Nārīrītigowla.[3] Natabhairavi is known to be a rāgam that incites feelings of grandeur and devotion in the listeners.

Contents

Structure and Lakshana

Natabhairavi scale with shadjam at C

It is the 2nd rāgam in the 4th chakra Veda. The mnemonic name is Veda-Sri. The mnemonic phrase is sa ri gi ma pa dha ni.[1] Its ārohaṇa-avarohaṇa structure is as follows (see swaras in Carnatic music for details on the notations used):

(this scale uses the notes chathusruthi rishabham, sadharana gandharam, shuddha madhyamam, shuddha dhaivatham, kaisiki nishadham)

It is a sampoorna rāgam - rāgam having all 7 swarams. It is the shuddha madhyamam equivalent of Shanmukhapriya, which is the 56th melakarta.

Asampurna Melakarta

Nārīrītigowla is the 20th Melakarta in the original list compiled by Venkatamakhin. The notes used in the scale are the same, but the scales have vakra prayoga (zig-zag usage of notes in the ascending and descending scale).[3]

Janya rāgams

Natabhairavi has a number of popular janya rāgams (derived scales) such as Bhairavi, Anandabhairavi, Saramati, Jaunpuri, Hindolam (sometimes Hindolam is also associated as a Janya of Hanumatodi) and Jayanthasree. See List of janya rāgams for a full list of Natabhairavi's janya rāgams.

Popular compositions

Sri Valli Devasena pathe is a popular composition in Natabhairavi, composed by Papanasam Sivan. Parulaseva by Poochi Srinivasa Iyengar is another well known composition in this rāgam.

Muthuswami Dikshitar's composition Neelotpalaambaam is set to Nārīrītigowla.

Related rāgams

This section covers the theoretical and scientific aspect of this rāgam.

Natabhairavi's notes when shifted using Graha bedham, yields 5 other major melakarta rāgams, namely, Kalyani, Sankarabharanam, Hanumatodi, Kharaharapriya and Harikambhoji. For further details and an illustration of Graha bedham of this rāgam refer Graha bedham on Sankarabharanam.

Even though Natabhairavi has quite evenly spaced swara sthanas (pitch positions, notes) like the other 5 in this group, it has not found as much importance in concerts. One is likely to find Kalyani, Todi, Sankarabharanam and Karaharapriya as the main ragam in concerts, more often than Natabhairavi by a big count.

References

  1. ^ a b Ragas in Carnatic music by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications
  2. ^ Raganidhi by P. Subba Rao, Pub. 1964, The Music Academy of Madras
  3. ^ a b Sri Muthuswami Dikshitar Keertanaigal by Vidwan A Sundaram Iyer, Pub. 1989, Music Book Publishers, Mylapore, Chennai

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