List of political parties in the Netherlands


List of political parties in the Netherlands
Members of the four parties with parliamentary representation since 1980 and participation in government: PvdA, D66, CDA and VVD (from the left). Ulft, shortly before the municipal elections of 2010.

This article lists political parties in the Netherlands. The Netherlands has a multi-party system with numerous political parties, in which any one party has little chance of gaining power alone, and parties often work with each other to form coalition governments.

The lower house of the legislature, the Second Chamber (House of Representatives), is elected by a national party-list system of proportional representation. There is no threshold for getting a seat, making it possible for a party to get a seat with only two-thirds percent of the vote--roughly one seat for every 50,000 votes. Since this system was implemented in 1918, no party has even approached the seats needed for an outright majority. However, there is a broad consensus on the basic principles of the political system, and all parties must adjust their goals to some extent in order to have a realistic chance at being part of the government.

Contents

Parties

Parliamentary parties

Parties with representation in the First Chamber (Senate), Second Chamber (House of Representatives) or European Parliament, as of July 2010:

Name Abbr. Political Leader International Affiliation Votes (2010) House
of Rep.
seats
Senate
seats
European
Parliament
seats
People's Party for Freedom and Democracy VVD Mark Rutte* Liberal International, ELDR 1,929,575 31 16 3
Labour Party PvdA Job Cohen Socialist International, PES 1,848,805 30 14 3
Party for Freedom PVV Geert Wilders none, future International Freedom Alliance 1,454,493 24 10 5
Christian Democratic Appeal CDA Maxime Verhagen* (ad int) Centrist Democrat International, EPP 1,281,886 21 11 5
Socialist Party SP Emile Roemer UEL/NGL 924,696 15 8 2
Democrats 66 D66 Alexander Pechtold Liberal International, ELDR 654,167 10 5 3
GreenLeft GL Jolande Sap Global Greens, EGP 628,096 10 5 3
ChristianUnion CU Arie Slob ECPM, ECR 305,094 5 2 1
Reformed Political Party SGP Kees van der Staaij EFD 163,581 2 1 1
Party for Animals PvdD Marianne Thieme none 122,317 2 1 0
50Plus 50+ Jan Nagel* none 0 did not compete 0 1 0
Independents Senate Fraction OSF Kees de Lange* none 0 did not compete 0 1 0
Total (includes Others; turnout 75.4%) 9,442,977 150 75 25

*: These political leaders are not President of the parliamentary parties in the House of Representatives.

  • The Labour Party (PvdA), a social-democratic party, and centre-left in orientation. Its program is based on more social, political, and economic equality for all citizens. Former PvdA-prime minister Joop den Uyl has called it an "equal distribution of knowledge, income and power." In recent years the PvdA has espoused a Third Way programme. The PvdA is generally supportive of European integration. Although called the Labour Party, it has no formal links to the trade unions. In practice, however, strong links exist, with PvdA politicians often beginning their careers in the FNV trade union. The party is led by Job Cohen. The PvdA is a member of the Socialist International.
  • GreenLeft combines environmentalist green politics with left-wing ideals. It operates to the left of the PvdA. The party was founded in 1989 as a merger of left-radical, pacifist, communist and Christian left parties. In 2004, the party leader Femke Halsema announced she saw her own party as a left-wing liberal party, possibly breaking with its socialist roots. GreenLeft is a member of the Global Greens.
  • The ChristianUnion is a socially conservative Christian party, which mostly concentrates on ethical issues, such as a resistance against abortion, euthanasia and gay marriage. In other areas (e.g. immigration and the environment), the party often is closer to the left-wing parties. It is sceptical about European integration. The CU operates within the European Conservatives and Reformists group within the European Parliament and is a founding member of the European Christian Political Movement. Arie Slob leads the party.
  • Democrats 66 (D66) has had widely fluctuating electoral fortunes since the party's founding in 1966. It is a centrist social liberal party, generally portrayed as between the VVD and GreenLeft. It professes a pro-European platform of ethnic and religious tolerance. Alexander Pechtold leads the party. D66 is a member of the Liberal International.
  • The Reformed Political Party (SGP) is a party of the Christian right, with stronger ethical points of view than the ChristianUnion. Although a small party on a national level, it is an important political power in some orthodox reformed municipalities. The party sees governments (local, regional, national and international) as unconditional servants of God. The party bases all of its views directly on the Bible. The party opposes European integration and operates within the Europe of Freedom and Democracy group. Kees van der Staaij leads the SGP.
  • 50Plus (50+) is a one issue pensioners' interest party. It is led by political entrepeneur Jan Nagel.
  • The Independent Senate Group (Dutch: Onafhankelijke Senaatsfractie, OSF) is a parliamentary party in the Dutch Senate with one senator, representing several provincial parties.

Other parties (not represented in parliament)

Netherlands

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Regional parties

Defunct parties

  • Algemeen Ouderen Verbond (AOV) (General Elderly Alliance)
  • Algemeene Bond van RK-kiesverenigingen (General League of Roman Catholic Caucuses) {became the RKSP}
  • Alliantie voor Vernieuwing en Democratie (Alliance for Renewal and Democracy)
  • Algemeene Nederlandsche Fascisten Bond (General Dutch Fascist League)
  • Anti-Revolutionaire Partij (ARP) (Anti-Revolutionary Party) {1879-1980} {merged into Christen Democratisch Appèl (CDA)}
  • Arabic-European League (Arabisch-Europese Liga, AEL) {initially founded in Belgium, active in the Netherlands between 2003–2005, now MDP}
  • Arbeiderspartij van Nederland (opbouworganisatie) (APN(o)) (Workers Party of the Netherlands (build-up organisation))
  • Boerenpartij (BP) (Farmers' Party)
  • Bond Christen Socialisten (BCS) (League of Christian Socialists)
  • Bond van Nederlandse Marxisten-Leninisten (BNML) (League of Dutch Marxist-Leninists) {merged into KAO(ml)}
  • Bond van Vrije Liberalen (Association of Free Liberals) {merged into Liberale Staatspartij}
  • Centrumdemocraten (CD) (Centre Democrats) {split from the Centrumpartij}
  • Centrumpartij (CP) (Centre Party) {later Centrumpartij '86}
  • Centrumpartij '86 (CP'86) (Centre Party '86)
  • Christen Democratische Partij (Christian Democratic Party)
  • Christelijk-Democratische Unie (CDU) (Christian-Democratic Union) {merged into Partij van de Arbeid (PvdA)}
  • Christelijk-Historische Unie (CHU) (Christian-Historical Union) {merged into Christen Democratisch Appèl (CDA)}
  • Christelijk Sociale Party (CSP)
  • Christelijk-Historische Kiezersbond (CHK) (Christian Historical Voters' League) {merged into the Christian Historical Party}
  • Christelijk-Historische Partij (CHP) (Christian Historical Party) {merged into the Christian Historican Union}
  • Communistische Partij Nederland (CPN) (Communist Party Netherlands) {merged into GroenLinks, some members formed the NCPN}
  • deConservatieven.nl (The Conservatives)
  • Democratisch Socialisten '70 (DS'70) (Democratic Socialists '70)
  • Duurzaam Nederland (Sustainable Netherlands)
  • Economische Bond (EB) (Economic League)
  • Europa Transparant (ET) (Europe Transparant)
  • Evangelische Volkspartij (EVP) (Evangelical Peoples Party) {merged into GroenLinks}
  • Friesche Bond (Frisian League) {merged into the Christian Historical Union}
  • Gereformeerd Politiek Verbond (GPV) (Reformed Political Union) {merged into ChristenUnie}
  • Hervormd Gereformeerde Staatspartij {dissolved in 1946}
  • Independent Socialist Party (OSP)
  • Islamitische Partij Nederland (Islamic Party Netherlands) {founded in 1998}
  • Katholieke Nationale Partij (KNP) (Catholic National Party) {merged into the KVP}
  • Katholieke Volkspartij (KVP) (Catholic People's Party) {merged into Christen Democratisch Appèl (CDA)}
  • Kommunistische Arbeidersorganisatie (marxistisch-leninistisch) (KAO(ml) (Communist Workers Organisation (Marxist-Leninist)) {dissolved around 1980}
  • Kommunistische Eenheidsbeweging Nederland (marxistisch-leninistisch) (KEN(ml)) (Communist Unity Movement of the Netherlands) {dissolved in mid-1980s}
  • Leefbaar Nederland (LN) (Liveable Netherlands)
  • Liberale Staatspartij (LSP) (Liberal State Party) {merged into Partij van de Vrijheid (PvdA)}
  • Liberale Partij (Liberal Party) {merged into the Vaderlandsch Verbond}
  • Liberale Unie (Liberal Union) {merged into Liberale Staatspartij}
  • Lijst Pim Fortuyn (LPF) (Pim Fortuyn List) {disbanded in 2007}
  • Lijst Ratelband (Ratelband List)
  • Lijst Veldhoen (Veldhoen List)
  • Marxistisch-Leninistische Partij Nederland (MLPN) - a fake party founded in 1970 by the Dutch Intelligence Service BVD and the CIA, to research support for Maoism and to fool the People's Republic of China.
  • Middenpartij voor Stad en Land (MPSL) (Middle Party for City and Country)
  • Middenstandspartij (MP) (Middle Class Party)
  • Moslimpartij (Muslim Party) {founded in 1993}
  • Nationaal-Socialistische Nederlandsche Arbeiderspartij (NSNAP) (National Socialist Dutch Workers Party) {1931-1941}
  • Nationale Alliantie (NA) (National Alliance)
  • Nederlands Blok (NB) (Dutch Block)
  • Neutrale Partij (Neutral Party)
  • Nieuwe Nationale Partij (NNP) (New National Party)
  • Nieuw Rechts (NR) (New Right)
  • O O Den Haag (O O The Hague) {was initially registered for 2003 elections but withdrew}.
  • Pacifistisch-Socialistische Partij (PSP) (Pacifist-Socialist Party) {merged into GroenLinks}
  • Partij van de Vrijheid (PvdV) (Freedom Party) {became Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie}
  • Partij voor Rechtvaardigheid, Daadkracht en Vooruitgang (Party for Justice, Action and Progress)
  • Plattelandersbond (Peasants' League)
  • Politieke Partij Radicalen (PPR) (Political Party of Radicals) {merged into GroenLinks}
  • Radicale Bond (RB) (Radical League) {merged into VDB}
  • Reformatorische Politieke Federatie (RPF) (Reforming Political Federation) {merged into ChristenUnie}
  • Roomsch-Katholieke Staatspartij (RKSP) (Roman Catholic Political Party) {predecessor of KVP}
  • Senioren 2000 (Seniors 2000)
  • Sociaal-Democratische Arbeiders Partij (SDAP) (Social Democratic Workers Party) {merged into Partij van de Arbeid (PvdA)}
  • Sociaal-Democratische Bond - Social Democratic League merged into the SDAP
  • Socialistische Party {Socialist Party active before the Second World War, not the current Socialist Party}.
  • Solidair '93 (Solidarity '93) {Appears not to have contested elections after 1998}.
  • Unie 55+ (General Senior Union/Union 55+)
  • Verbond tot Democratisering der Weermacht (Alliance for the Democratization of the Army)
  • Verbond van Communisten In Nederland (VCN) (League of Communists in the Netherlands) {split from the Communist Party of the Netherlands (CPN) in 1983 and merged with the remains of the CPN in 1992 to form the New Communist Party of the Netherlands (NCPN)}
  • Verbond voor Nationaal Herstel (Alliance for National Reconstruction)
  • Vrijzinnig Democratische Bond (VDB) (Freethinking Democratic League) {merged into Partij van de Arbeid (PvdA)}
  • Vrij Antirevolutionaire Partij (Free Anti Revolutionary Party) {merged in to Christian Historical Party}

See also

External links


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