Artillery Guidance Bureau

Artillery Guidance Bureau /
Missile Guidance Bureau
Active 1999 -
Country  North Korea
Branch Independent
Type Strategic missile force
Role Strategic deterrence
Size Unknown
Garrison/HQ Sŏngch'ŏn-kun, South Pyongan province (near Pyongyang)
Equipment 1,000 or more ballistic missiles[1]

The Artillery Guidance Bureau[2] (AGB), also known as Missile Guidance Bureau (Hangul: 미사일지도국, Hanja: 미사일指導局) is the strategic missile forces of North Korea. The AGB is a major division of the Korean People's Army that controls North Korea's nuclear and conventional strategic missiles. It is mainly equipped with surface-to-surface missiles of Soviet and Chinese design, as well as locally developed long-range missiles.

Contents

History

Shortly after Kim Il-Sung's October 5, 1966 instructions to develop the military and economy jointly, the Second Machine Industry Ministry, under the KWP secretary in charge of military industries, was established to manage the procurement and production of weapons.[3] Some sources assert that North Korea had begun the production of multiple rocket launchers in the early 1960s[4], but by 1965 Kim Il-sŏng had probably made the political decision to establish an indigenous missile production capability after the Soviets rebuffed his request for ballistic missiles. Nevertheless, during the 1960s the Soviet Union began to provide free rockets over ground (FROGs), surface to- air missiles (SAMs), and coastal defense antiship missiles, which exposed North Korean engineers to basic technologies for rocket propulsion, guidance, and related missile systems. And in 1965, North Korea founded the Hamhŭng Military Academy, which began to train North Korean personnel in rocket and missile development.[5] By 1970, North Korea had had received surface-toship missiles and surface-to-air missiles from China, but Pyongyang was also seeking assistance to establish its own missile development program.[6]

In September 1971, North Korea signed an agreement with China to acquire, develop, and produce ballistic missiles, but significant bilateral cooperation did not begin until about 1977 when North Korean engineers participated in a joint development program for the DF-61, which was supposed to be a liquid-fueled ballistic missile with a range of about 600km and a 1,000kg warhead. The program was cancelled in 1978 because of Chinese domestic political reasons.[7]

Around this same time, Pyongyang was also seeking Soviet missiles and technology. The DPRK did receive Soviet-made Scud-B ballistic missiles, but the timing of the acquisition is unclear. One North Korean defector has asserted that the Soviet Union provided about 20 Scud-Bs in 1972, but this claim has not been substantiated and is probably not credible.

By 1984, the DPRK had produced and flight-tested it's Hwasŏng-5, which reportedly has a range of 320km compared to the Scud-B’s 300km; the extra 20km is attributed to improvements in the missile’s propulsion system and not a reduction in the mass of the warhead. Just as North Korea was beginning to manufacture the Hwasŏng-5, Tehran approached Pyongyang in 1985 to purchase the missile for use in the “war of the cities” with Iraq.[8] North Korea began to construct missile bases for the Hwasŏng-5 around 1985-86, just before the missile went into serial production around 1987. North Korea’s ballistic missile development then accelerated at a fast pace; as soon as mass production of the Hwasŏng-5 began, North Korea began developing the Hwasŏng-6 (火星-6 or Scud-C), the “Rodong”,49 the Paektusan-1 (白頭山-1; commonly known as the Taepodong-1), the Paektusan-2 (白頭山-2; commonly known as the Taepodong-2), and the “Musudan”[9]

Despite the difficulties of missile development and the fact that other countries had tried and failed to develop medium- and intermediate-range missiles, North Korea began to produce Nodong prototypes around the same time it was beginning mass production of the Hwasŏng-6 (Scud-C). The first Nodong deployments were in February 1995, even though the system only had two flight tests--one catastrophic failure and one successful flight at a reduced range.[10] In 1999 different missile units, which were subordinate to the KPA Ground Force Artillery Command, were re-organized into a single missile force - the Missile Guidance Bureau.

Organization

The Artillery Guidance Bureau is a branch of the KPA, but is subordinate directly to the supreme commander of the armed forces.

Facilities

Location of the Musudan-ri launch facility
  • Musudan-ri is a rocket launching site in North Korea at 40°51′N, 129°40′E. It lies in southern North Hamgyong province, near the northern tip of the East Korea Bay. The area was formerly known as Taep'o-dong (대포동), from which the Taepodong rockets take their name.
  • Kittaeryŏng site is located in Kangwon province, which borders South Korea. It is used for launches of short to medium-range missiles and has a pad for mobile launchers.
  • Kalgol-dong site is located in Chagang province and houses Hwasong-5/6 missiles, targeting South Korea.
  • Kusŏng site is located in North P'yongan province and houses Rodong missiles. It targets US forces in Japan.
  • Okp’yŏng-dong site is located in Kangwon province and houses Hwasong and Nodong missiles.
  • Pongdong-ri is a new larger missile launch site under construction, located on North Korea's west coast, about 50 km south of the North Korean-Chinese border. As of September 2008 it is 80% complete, being much more advanced and modern than the older Musudan-ru site.[11] Even though not completed, it can currently be used to launch missiles.[12]

There are other numerous smaller sites, scattered around the country, serving for mobile launcher pads. Some larger sites are under construction.

Launching capabilities

  • Silo-based launch:
DPRK is not known to have built missile silos. Such facilities are only useful if the country operates missiles with a long range, which can be deployed fueled for significant periods of time, although simple silos can be built for short-range missiles such as the Hwasong-6. The only such missile in the North Korean inventory is the BM25/Musudan-1.
  • Launch pads:
Launching pads are required for the more sophisticated Taepodong-1/2, as their liquid propellant is difficult to store and the missile must be fueled immediately before launch. This launching method poses a great risk, as the site itself is extremely vulnerable to airstrikes. Launching pads can be used to test different types of SRBM, IRBM and ICBMs, and to launch space satellites, but they are of little value if any of these missiles is to be deployed as a strategic weapon.
  • Mobile launcher vehicles:
North Korea extensively uses mobile launchers for its missiles, including the Rodong-1 and the BM25. These are hard to detect and significantly improve survivability.
  • Submarine/ship-based launch:
The Korean People's Navy is not known to have any ballistic missile submarines in its inventory, but has acquired 2 Foxtrot class and 10 Golf-II class submarines for scrapping in 1993. The latter are capable of firing three SLBM. It is possible that North Korea has refurbished some of those with the help of more than 20 Russian experts or upgraded them to accommodate the larger Musudan-1.[13] Another option is that their launch tubes have been studied, and either externally fitted to Romeo/Whiskey class submarines, or simply deployed on a cargo ship.[14] In both cases, the DPRK has vessels capable of striking US bases in Japan, Guam, Hawaii, or even targets on the West Coast.[13]

Active Missiles

Estimated ranges of North Korean ballistic missiles

Detailed listings of the equipment holdings of the Korean People's Army [KPA] are rather scarce in unclassified literature. North Korea operates the FROG-7, Scud-B, Hwasong 5 (NK built Scud-B), Hwasong-6 (NK built Scud -C), Rodong-1, SCUD-ER.[15]

Missile Type Origin Range Inventory
FROG-7 artillery rocket  Soviet Union 70 km 24 launchers
KN-1 anti-ship cruise missile  North Korea 110[16] - 160 km[17][18][19]  ?
KN-2 Toksa Advanced SRBM  North Korea 120 – 140 km[20] 30 launchers
Hwasong-5 SRBM  North Korea 330 km ~180
Hwasong-6 SRBM  North Korea 700 km >700[21]
Scud-ER 1 SRBM  North Korea 800 km  ?
Rodong-1 MRBM  North Korea 1,300 km >200[22]
Rodong-2 MRBM  North Korea 2,000 km 50 ?[23]
Taepodong-1 MRBM  North Korea 2,500 km 10[24] or 25-30[25]
Taepodong-2 ICBM  North Korea up to 10,000 km; 6,700 km average[26][27][28]  ?
BM25 IRBM, R-27 copy  North Korea +2,500 km  ?
Musudan-1 SLBM, R-27 copy  North Korea 4,000 km  ?

Additionally, there are two space booster variants:

  • North Korea Paektusan - a Taepodong-1 missile with a third stage and satellite added. Launched in 1998 with a small satellite on board (see Kwangmyŏngsŏng-1). The satellite failed to reach orbit due to a malfunction in the additional third stage.
  • North Korea Unha - a Taepodong-2 missile with a third stage and satellite added. Launched in 2009, but once again, the satellite failed to reach orbit (see Kwangmyŏngsŏng-2).

North Korea test-fired a short-range missile off its eastern coast toward Japan on 1 May 2005. The missile, fired into the Sea of Japan (East Sea of Korea), appeared to have a range of between 100 to 120 kilometers. It is called by the North the KN-02 Toksa ("Viper"), an upgraded version of the Russian SS-21, with a longer range. The KN-02 nomenclature was disclosed by Kim Sung-il Kim Seong-il, chief information officer at Seoul’s Joint Chiefs of Staff, in a closed-door parliamentary session. The DPRK test-fired the same type of missile in April 2004, but the test failed. Another multiple test has taken place in 2006, and it was a success. According to most reports, the missile was deployed in 2007, and was seen on military parades.

Warheads

North Korean missiles can serve to deliver various types of warheads, including WMD. It is possible that up to 3 Rodong-1 missiles are fitted with nuclear warheads.[29] In a similar manner to the initial Chinese nuclear doctrine, nuclear weapons are being stored separately, and would only be mounted on missiles after an order of the commander-in-chief (Kim Jong-il). Despite the claims by numerous media that North Korea has not yet created nuclear warheads small enough to be fit in a missile, reports surfaced in April 2009, according to which North Korea has miniaturized warheads, capable of being mounted on its missiles.[30] The most suitable nuclear weapons delivery system is the Rodong-1, which has been successfully tested many times.

Additionally, the DPRK possesses a large chemical weapons stockpile, including powerful agents such as tabun, sarin, soman, VX gas and others. Little is known about the biological weapons stockpiles. They are probably limited, as North Koreans consider them much more dangerous to handle, therefore posing a threat to their own soldiers apart from the enemy.

Exports

Drawing of a Hwasong-6 missile

These are countries which operate North Korean ballistic missiles, allegedly bought such or received assistance for establishing local production.

 Egypt
Egypt has received technologies and assistance for making both the Hwasong-5 and Hwasong-6.
 Ethiopia
Unconfirmed information for possessing Hwasong-5 missiles.[31]
 Iran
One of the first buyers of North Korean missiles. Iran has established local production for the Hwasong-5 (Shahab-1), Hwasong-6 (Shahab-2) and the Rodong-1 (Shahab-3). Also has some 18 land-based BM25 missiles[32]
 Libya
Libya has been known to receive technological assistance, blueprints and missile parts from North Korea.[33] Libya operated the Rodong-1, but scrapped all of its missile with a range, greater than 300 km, in 2004.
 Congo
There is some (although unconfirmed) information, that the Republic of Congo has acquired Hwasong-5 missiles.[31]
 Cuba
The information on a shipment of Hwasong-6 missiles to Cuba was never confirmed.
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
The DRC is known to have received assistance from North Korea in operating and maintaining its Scud missiles; possible operator of the Hwasong-6.
 Sudan
There is information that Syria may have shipped some of its Scud missiles to Sudan in 2004, although both Syrian and Sudanese officials deny.[34]
 Syria
Uses two types of North Korean missiles - the Hwasong-6 and Rodong-1.[34]
 United Arab Emirates
25 Hwasong-5s purchased from North Korea in 1989. The UAE military were not satisfied with the quality of the missiles, and they were kept in storage.[35]
 Vietnam
Acquired 25 Hwasong-5 missiles in 1998.[36]
 Yemen
Known to have bought missiles from the DPRK in the 1990s.[37]

See also

National strategic missile forces:

References

  1. ^ "North Korea has 1,000 missiles, South says". Reuters. March 17, 2010. http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/03/17/us-korea-north-missiles-idUSTRE62G1ZC20100317. 
  2. ^ FAS.org
  3. ^ Joseph S. Bermudez, Jr, The Armed Forces of North Korea, New York: I. B. Tauris, 2001, pp. 45-46
  4. ^ Joseph S. Bermudez, Jr., “Ballistic Missile Development in the DPRK,”
  5. ^ Joseph S. Bermudez, Jr., “A History of Ballistic Missile Development in the DPRK,”
  6. ^ Joseph S. Bermudez, Jr., “The North Korean ‘Scud B’ Program,” Jane’s Soviet Intelligence Review, May 1989, pp. 203-207; Foss, p. 749; Gordon Jacobs and Tim McCarthy, “China’s Missile Sales--Few Changes for the Future,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, December 1992, p. 560.
  7. ^ Bermudez, “A History of Ballistic Missile Development” p. 3; Hua Di, “One Superpower Worse than Two,” Asia-Pacific Defense Reporter, September 1991, pp. 14-15; John Wilson Lewis and Hua Di, “Beijing’s Defense Establishment: Solving the Arms Export Enigma,” International Security, Fall 1992, pp. 5-40.
  8. ^ David C. Isby, “Iranian Commander Acknowledges Use of North Korean ‘Scuds’,” Jane’s Missiles and Rockets, January 1, 2007
  9. ^ “Musudan” is the name assigned to the North Korean road-mobile version of the Soviet R-27/SS-N-6 “Serb” submarine launched ballistic missile. See Joseph S. Bermudez, Jr., “Japan Reveals Name of North Korea’s R-27 IRBM,” Jane’s Defence Weekly, May 23, 2007.
  10. ^ Paul Beaver, “Flash Points,” Jane’s Defence Weekly, Vol. 23, No. 25, June 24, 1995, p. 22.
  11. ^ N Korea 'builds new missile site', BBC
  12. ^ Analysts: N. Korea completing missile test site, CNN
  13. ^ a b North Korea's New Missiles
  14. ^ North Korea Develops a Submarine Missile With Shooting Range 2,500km - DailyNK
  15. ^ [1]
  16. ^ KN-01 Anti-Ship Cruise Missile, globalsecurity.org
  17. ^ North Korea test-fires short-range barrage, AP, July 2, 2009
  18. ^ North Korea fires four missiles, Jerusalem Post, July 2, 2009
  19. ^ North Korea Missile Chronology 2008/9, NTI.org
  20. ^ North Korea to Deploy New Missile, U.S. Says, NTI.org, July 9, 2007
  21. ^ North Korea test-fires more missiles, says Seoul, CNN, July 4, 2009
  22. ^ In N. Korea, Missiles Herald A Defiant 4th, Washington Post, July 4, 2009
  23. ^ No-Dong The source provides information of the No-Dong (Rodong) program as a whole, although it points out, that total production of Nodong missiles amounts only to 50 units. Since it is known that the Rodong-1 only has been produced in a number, greater than 200, this source probably refers to the Rodong-2.
  24. ^ [2]
  25. ^ Взлет не разрешен, vzgliad.ru, March 27, 2009
  26. ^ FACTBOX: North Korea's Taepodong-2 long-range missile, Reuters, March 13, 2009
  27. ^ North Korea to launch 'satellite' on rocket, welt.de, February 24, 2009
  28. ^ North Korea's Missiles, Radio Free Asia, February 25, 2009
  29. ^ [3]
  30. ^ "North Korea is fully fledged nuclear power, experts agree". The Times (London). April 24, 2009. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/asia/article6155956.ece. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  31. ^ a b Hwasong-5 information
  32. ^ The Global Range of Iran's Ballistic Missile Program, Jerusalem Center for public affairs
  33. ^ IISS report
  34. ^ a b NTI Country overviews:Syria
  35. ^ Bermudez, Joseph S. (1999). "A History of Ballistic Missile Development in the DPRK: First Ballistic Missiles, 1979-1989". James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies. Retrieved on 2008-02-14.
  36. ^ SIPRI
  37. ^ [4]
  • Reuters - A look at North Korea's missile arsenal
  • Bermudez, Joseph S. (2001). Shield of the Great Leader. The Armed Forces of North Korea, The Armed Forces of Asia. Sydney: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1864485825.
  • Homer T. Hodge, North Korea’s Military Strategy, Parameters (journal), Spring 2003, pp. 68–81
  • The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) (2007). The Military Balance 2007. Abingdon: Routledge Journals. ISBN 9781857434378.
  • Bermudez, Joseph S. (1999). "A History of Ballistic Missile Development in the DPRK: First Ballistic Missiles, 1979-1989".
  • James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies.
  • Zaloga, Steven; Illustrated by Jim Laurier and Lee Ray (2006). Scud Ballistic Missile Launch Systems 1955-2005. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-947-9.
  • [5]

Further reading

External links


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