Phosphate minerals

Phosphate minerals are those minerals that contain the tetrahedrally coordinated phosphate (PO43-) anion along with the freely substituting arsenate (AsO43-) and vanadate (VO43-). Chlorine (Cl-), fluorine (F-), and hydroxide (OH-) anions also fit into the crystal structure.

The phosphate class of minerals is a large and diverse group, however, only a few species are relatively common.

Examples include:
*triphylite Li(Fe,Mn)PO4
*monazite (Ce,La,Y,Th)PO4
*Apatite group Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH)
**hydroxylapatite Ca5(PO4)3OH
**fluorapatite Ca5(PO4)3F
**chlorapatite Ca5(PO4)3Cl
*pyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3Cl
*vanadinite Pb5(VO4)3Cl
*erythrite Co3(AsO4)2·8H2O
*amblygonite LiAlPO4F
*lazulite (Mg,Fe)Al2(PO4)2(OH)2
*wavellite Al3(PO4)2(OH)3·5H2O
*turquoise CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8·5H2O
*autunite Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2·10-12H2O
*carnotite K2(UO2)2(VO4)2·3H2O
*phosphophyllite Zn2(Fe,Mn)(PO4)2•4H2O

Applications

Phosphate rock is a general term that refers to rock with high concentration of phosphate minerals, most commonly of the apatite group. It is the major resource mined to produce phosphate fertilisers for the agriculture sector. Phosphate is also used in animal feed supplements, food preservatives, anti-corrosion agents, cosmetics, fungicides, ceramics, water treatment and metallurgy.

The largest use of minerals mined for their phosphate content is the production of fertilizer.

Phosphate minerals are often used for control of rust and prevention of corrosion on ferrous materials applied with electrochemical conversion coatings.

ee also

*Parkerizing

References

* Hurlbut, Cornelius S.; Klein, Cornelis, 1985, "Manual of Mineralogy", 20th ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York ISBN 0-471-80580-7
* [http://webmineral.com/strunz/VII.shtml#VII/A Webmineral - Strunz]
* [http://webmineral.com/dana/VII-38.shtml Webmineral - Dana]
* [http://www.australianminesatlas.gov.au/info/aimr/phosphate.jsp - Australian Mineral Atlas]


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