- Turkish folk music
Turkish folk music ("Türk Halk Müziği") has combined the distinct cultural values of all those civilisations which have lived in
Anatoliaand the Ottoman territories in Europeand Asia. It is a unique structure which includes regional differences under one umbrella, giving rise to a wealth and variety the like of which can seldom be seen anywhere else in the world.
Varieties of style, scales, and rhythm
Music accompanied by words can be classified under the following headings: "
Türkü" (folksongs), "Koşma" (free-form folk songs about love or nature), "Semai" (folk song ın Semai poetic form), "Mani" (a traditional Turkish quatrain form), " Destan" (epic), "Deyiş" (speech), "Uzun Hava" (long melody), "Bozlak" (a folk song form), "Ağıt" (a lament), "Hoyrat", "Maya" (a variety of Turkish folksong), "Boğaz Havası" (throat tune), "Teke Zorlatması", "Ninni" (lullaby), "Tekerleme" (a playful form in folk narrative), etc. These are divided into free-forms or improvisations with no obligatory metrical or rhythmic form, known as "Uzun Hava", and those which have a set metrical or rhythmic structure, known as "Kırık Havalar" (broken melodies). Both can also be employed at the same time.
Music generally played without words, and dance tunes, go by the names "Halay", "Bengi", "Karşılama", "
Zeybek", "Horon", "Bar", etc. Each region in Turkey has its own special folk dances and costumes. Here are some of the most popular.
Hora) - This Black Seadance is performed by men only, dressed in black with silver trimmings. The dancers link arms and quiver to the vibrations of the kemenche(an instrument similar to violin). Kaşık Oyunu- The Spoon Danceis performed from Konyato Silifkeand consists of gaily dressed male and female dancers 'clicking' out the dance rhythm with a pair of wooden spoons in each hand. Kılıç Kalkan- The Sword and Shield Dance of Bursarepresents the Ottoman conquest of the city. It is performed by men only, in Ottoman battle-dress, who dance to the sound of clashing swords and shields, without music. Zeybek- In this Aegean dance, dancers, called "efe", symbolize courage and heroism.
Although Turkish folk music melodies possess the same note and scale modules as traditional Ottoman Classical Music, the melodies known as "makam" (similar to the medieval concept of mode) in Turkish folk music can be known by different names depending on the region, such as: Beşiri, Garip, Kerem, Misket, and Müstezad.
A wide variety of time signatures are used in Turkish folk music. In addition to simple ones such as 2/4, 4/4 and 3/4, others such as 5/8, 7/8, 9/8, 7/4, and 5/4 are common. Combinations of several basic rhythms often results in longer, complex rhythms that fit into time signatures such as 8/8, 10/8, and 12/8.
stringed instruments include the lute-like saz, bağlama, and tar, and the dulcimer-like Qanún (also sometimes hammered). Bowed stringed instruments include the kabak kemaneand karadeniz kemençesi.
Woodwind instruments include the double-reed, shawm-like zurna,Mey( Duduk), the single reed, clarinet-like sipsi, the single-reed twin-piped çifte, the end-blown flutes kavaland ney, and the droneless bagpipe, the tulum. An old shepherd's instrument, made from an eagle's wing bone, was the çığırtma.
Percussion instruments include drumsndash davuland nağarandash the tambourine-like tef, and the spoons-like kaşık.
Uses of music
Melodies of differing types and styles have been created by the people in various spheres and stages of life, joyful or sad, from birth to death. Minstrels, accompanying themselves on the saz, played a most important role in the development and spread of Turkish folk music.
Turkish folk musicians(by alphabetic ordre)
List of Turkish folk musicians.
Ali Ekber Çiçek
ources and external links
* [http://www.kultur.gov.tr/EN/BelgeGoster.aspx?17A16AE30572D3138FE9074FF19B0005EB63B1F6541B1AB6 Folk/Local Music] at the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism website
* [http://www.allaboutturkey.com/muzikalet.htm Musical instruments of Turkey] — from All about Turkey
* [http://www.tika.gov.tr/muzikler.asp TIKA music]
* [http://www.arasinda.hu TURKISH FOLK MUSIC played by Hungarian musicians]
* [http://www.umutradyo.net Listen to Turkish Folk Music]
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