- Rat-bite fever
Rat-bite fever is an acute, febrile human illness caused by bacteria transmitted by
rodents, rats in most cases, which is passed from rodent to human via the rodent's urine or mucous secretions.
Two types of
gram-negativefacultatively anaerobic bacteria can cause the infection.
Rat-bite fever transmitted by the gram-negative
spirochaete" Spirillumminus" is more rare, and is found most often in Asia. In Japanthe disease is called Sodoku. Symptoms do not manifest for two to four weeks after exposure to the organism, and the wound through which it entered exhibits slow healing and marked inflammation. The fever lasts longer and is recurring, for months in some cases. Joint pain and gastrointestinal symptoms are less severe or are absent. Penicillin is the most common treatment.
The Streptobacillosis form of rat-bite fever is known by the alternative names
Haverhill Feverand epidemic arthritic erythema. It is a severe disease caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis, transmitted either by rat bite or ingestion of contaminated products (Haverhill fever). After an incubation period of around 10 days, Haverhill fever begins with high prostrating fevers, rigors, headache and polyarthralgia. Soon an exanthem appears, either maculopapular or petechial and arthritis of large joints can be seen. The organism can be cultivated in blood or articular fluid. The disease can be fatal if untreated in 10% of cases due to malignant endocarditis, meningoencephalitis or septic shock. Treatment is with penicillin or tetracycline.
penicillinantibiotics or where allergic to this erythromycinor tetracyclinesfor respectively streptobacillary or spirillary infections.
Whilst obviously preventable by staying away from rodents, otherwise hands and face should be washed after contact and any scratches both cleaned and antiseptics applied.
* [http://www.chclibrary.org/micromed/00063170.html Rat-bite fever description]
* [http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5351a2.htm Case report of fatal incidence in the USA]
* [http://www.healthatoz.com/healthatoz/Atoz/common/standard/transform.jsp?requestURI=/healthatoz/Atoz/ency/rat-bite_fever.jsp Rat-bite fever (healthAtoZ.com)]
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rat-bite fever — n either of two febrile human diseases usu. transmitted by the bite of a rat: a) a septicemia marked by irregular relapsing fever, rashes, muscular pain and arthritis, and great weakness and caused by a bacterium of the genus Streptobacillus (S.… … Medical dictionary
rat|bite fever — or rat|bite disease «RAT BYT», a disease characterized by fever, ulceration, and a purplish rash, caused by the bite of a rat or other infected animal … Useful english dictionary
rat-bite fever — ▪ pathology also called spirillary rat bite fever or sodoku relapsing type of infection caused by the bacterium Spirillum minus (also called Spirillum minor) and transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected rat. It is characterized… … Universalium
rat-bite fever — ˈ ̷ ̷ˌ ̷ ̷ noun : either of two febrile diseases of man commonly transmitted by the bite of a rat or other animal vector: a. : a septicemia marked by irregular relapsing fever, rashes, muscular pain and arthritis, and great weakness and caused by … Useful english dictionary
rat-bite fever — sodokosis a disease, contracted from the bite of a rat, due to infection by either the bacterium Spirillum minus, which causes ulceration of the skin and recurrent fever, or by the fungus Streptobacillus moniliformis, which causes inflammation of … The new mediacal dictionary
rat-bite fever — noun Date: 1910 either of two febrile bacterial diseases of humans usually transmitted by the bite of a rat … New Collegiate Dictionary
Лихорадка Укуса Крысы (Rat-Bite Fever), Содокоз (Sodo/Cosis) — заболевание, возникающее после укуса крысы при попадании в организм человека бактерий вида Spirillum minus, вызывающих изъязвление кожи и возвратную лихорадку, или грибков вида Streptobacillus moniliformis, которые вызывают воспаление кожи,… … Медицинские термины
rat|bite disease — rat|bite fever or rat|bite disease «RAT BYT», a disease characterized by fever, ulceration, and a purplish rash, caused by the bite of a rat or other infected animal … Useful english dictionary
rat-bite disease — see under fever … Medical dictionary
rat-bitefever — rat bite fever (rătʹbīt ) n. Either of two infectious diseases contractible from the bite of a rat, specifically: a. A disease caused by the bacterium Streptobacillus moniliformis and characterized by skin inflammation, back and joint pains,… … Universalium