Joel Barr, also Iozef Veniaminovich Berg and Joseph Berg (
January 1, 1916– August 1, 1998), was part of the Soviet Atomic Spy Ring
Born Joyel Barr in
New York Cityto immigrant parents of Ukrainian-Jewish origin, he attended City College of New Yorkwith Julius Rosenberg, and later worked with Rosenberg and Alfred Sarantat the United States Army Signal Corps laboratories at Fort Monmouth, New Jerseyduring World War II. Barr was recruited into espionage by Rosenberg. In turn, he recruited Sarant and the two shared an apartment and were allowed to function as a team by their KGBCase Officer, Alexandre Feklisov. Feklisov regarded the pair as the most productive members of the group.
Both Barr and Sarant were trained and employed as electrical engineers and worked on military
radar. Barr was discovered by counterintelligence to be a Communist and was fired. He and Sarant then found employment with Western Electricand worked on a highly secret radar bombsight. Barr and Sarant gave the USSRover 9,000 pages of documents detailing over 100 weapons systems.
When the war ended the two founded Sarant Laboratories, and sought defense contracts, but the company soon failed, after which the two split up. Barr worked for a while in late 1946 with Sperry Gyroscope Company on secret military radar systems, but was fired in 1947 after the
United States Air Forcerefused him a security clearance. Barr then moved to Europe, studying engineering in Swedenand music composition in Pariswith Olivier Messiaen.
Barr disappeared from his Paris apartment the day after
David Greenglasswas arrested, and fled to Czechoslovakiawithout taking his belongings. The KGB gave him a new identity; for the rest of his life Barr was known as Joseph Berg. In the summer of 1951, Barr met up with Sarant and a woman Sarant ran away with. Barr and Sarant, living under the name Philip Staros, settled in Prague, where they headed a successful effort to design the first automated anti-aircraft weapon created in the Soviet bloc, a weapon that was used with minor modifications through the 1980s.
In 1956 the two transferred to Leningrad and were put at the head of a military electronics research institute, and enjoyed the benefits of the Soviet
Nomenklatura. In May 1962, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchevtoured their institute and agreed to their plan to establish a new city dedicated entirely to microelectronics. The city, Zelenograd, was built on the outskirts of Moscow and Sarant was named deputy director, with authority over more than 20,000 engineers and scientists. Barr and Sarant lost their positions at Zelenograd when Khrushchev was deposed, but they continued to work on military projects, including the Uzel fire-control computer that was installed in Tango and Kilo class submarines.
In 1983, a Russian emigré, Mark Kuchment, working at
Harvard University's Russian Research Center, who had read "The Rosenberg File", linked Barr and Sarant to two prominent Soviet scientists, both native speakers of English.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1992, Barr returned to the United States but denied his participation in espionage. He split the next six years between the U.S. and Russia, and died in 1998 in
There are seven deciphered KGB transmissions about Joel Barr. Barr's code name in the Soviet intelligence and in deciphered
Venona projecttranscripts was originally "Meter" (also "Metre" and "Metr"); it was later changed to "Scout" (also "Skaut"). The November 14 1944Venona cable also documents the successful recruitment of Ruth Greenglass.
*Steven T. Usdin, [http://www.engineeringcommunism.com/ Engineering Communism] : How Two Americans Spied for Stalin And Founded the Soviet Silicon Valley",
Yale University Press( October 10, 2005), hardcover, ISBN 0-300-10874-5
*Steven T. Usdin, [http://www.computerhistory.org/events/index.php?id=1128992115 The Origins of Zelenograd: The Amazing Story Of Two U.S. Engineers In Cold War Russia] video lecture
*Steven T. Usdin, [https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol49no3/html_files/Rosenberg_2.htm Tracking Julius Rosenberg's Lesser Known Associates]
John Earl Haynesand Harvey Klehr, "Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America" (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1999) ISBN 0-300-08462-5
*Allen Weinstein and Alexander Vassiliev, "The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—the Stalin Era" (New York:
Random House, 1999)
*Feklisov, Alexandre, "The Man Behind the Rosenbergs: Memoirs of the KGB Spymaster Who Also Controlled Klaus Fuchs and Helped Resolve the Cuban Missile Crisis", (New York, Enigma, 2001)
* [http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/venona.htm FBI Venona file]
* [http://www.nybooks.com/articles/5894 "Making it in the USSR"] , by Mark Kuchment, The New York Review of Books, Volume 31, Number 5 ·
March 29, 1984
* [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/venona/inte_19441114.html PBS Nova Online, The
November 14, 1944 cable: Joel Barr and Alfred Sarant]
Ronald Radoshand Joyce Milton, "The Rosenberg File: A Search for the Truth", Henry Holt (1983), hardcover, ISBN 0-03-049036-7
* Podcast interview with author of "Engineering Communism: How Two Americans Spied for Stalin and Founded the Soviet Silicon Valley" [http://www.theregister.co.uk/2008/04/15/scc_15_usdin/ Part I] [http://www.theregister.co.uk/2008/05/09/scc_16_usdin_two/ Part II]
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