Infobox PRC province
ChineseName = 陕西省
Pinyin = Shǎnxī Shěng
EnglishName = Shaanxi Province
Name = Shaanxi
Abbreviation = 陕 or 秦
AbbrevPinyin = Shǎn or Qín
ISOAbbrev = 61
MapSize = 275px
OriginOfName = 陕 shǎn - Shanzhou (now
Shan County, Henan)
西 xī - west
"west of Shanzhou"
AdministrationType = Province
Area_km2 = 205800
AreaRank = 11th
PopYear = 2004
Pop = 37,050,000
PopRank = 17th
PopDensity_km2 = 180
PopDensityRank = 21st
GDPYear = 2007
GDP = 537 billion
GDPRank = 20th
GDPperCapita = 14,350
GDPperCapitaRank = 22nd
HDIYear = 2005
HDI = 0.729
HDIRank = 23rd
HDICat = medium
Nationalities = Han - 99.5%
Hui - 0.4%
Prefectures = 10
Counties = 107
Townships = 1745
Website = [http://www.shaanxi.gov.cn www.shaanxi.gov.cn] (
Audio|zh-Shaanxi.ogg|Shaanxi (zh-stpw |s= |t= |p=Shǎnxī |w=Shan-hsi; Postal map spelling: "Shensi") is a north-central province of the
People's Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateauon the middle reaches of the Yellow Riveras well as the QinlingMountains across the southern part of the province.
Hanyu Pinyinrules, if tone marks are not written, both Shaanxi and the neighbouring province of Shanxishould be spelled "Shanxi"; the difference is in tone: Shānxī and Shǎnxī. To make the difference clear without tonal marks, the spelling "Shaanxi" was contrived (following the romanization system of Yuen Ren Chao) for the province of Shǎnxī, while "Shanxi" is used for the province of Shānxī. It is also the official spelling on [http://english.gov.cn/ Chinese Government's official web portal] .
Shaanxi is considered one of the cradles of Chinese civilization. Thirteen feudal dynasties established their capitals in the province during a span of more than 1,100 years, from the Zhou Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty.
The province's principal city and current capital,
Xi'an, is one of the four great ancient capitals of China and is the eastern terminus of the Silk Road, which leads to Europe, Arabiaand Africa.
Under the Han Dynasty, the
Northern Silk Roadwas expanded to advance exploration and military purposes to the west. This Northern Silk Road is the northernmost of the Silk Roads and is about 2600 kilometres in length. It connected the ancient Chinese capital of Xi'an to the west over the Wushao Ling Passto Wuweiand emerging in Kashgarbefore linking to ancient Parthia. [ [http://www.megalithic.co.uk/article.php?sid=18006 "Silk Road, North China", C.Michael Hogan, the Megalithic Portal, ed. A. Burnham] ]
Ming dynasty, Shaanxi was incorporated into Gansubut was again separated in the Qing dynasty.
One of the most devastating
earthquakesin history occurred near Hua Shan, in south-eastern part of Shaanxi Province on January 23, 1556, killing an estimated 830,000 people (see 1556 Shaanxi earthquake).
The end of the short-lived
Jiangxi Sovietsignalled the beginning of the Long Marchby Mao Zedongand the Chinese Communiststo the Shaanxi Sovietat Yan'an.
Desertin the north along the border with Inner Mongolia, the Loess Plateau in the central part of the province, the Qinling mountains running east to west in the south central part, and subtropical climate south of the Qinling mountains.
The northern part of Shaanxi is cold in the winter and very hot in summer with dry winter and spring. Its southern portion generally receives more rain. Annual mean temperature is roughly between 9°C and 16°C with January temperature ranging from −11°C to 3.5°C and July temperature ranging from 21°C to 28°C.
Other cities include:
Baoji, Hanzhong, Lintong, Tongchuan, Xianyang, Yan'an, Ankang.
Shaanxi consists of nine prefecture-level cities and one sub-provincial city:
The prefecture-level cities:
Ankang(安康 | "Ānkāng Shì")
Baoji(宝鸡 | "Baoji Shì")
Hanzhong(汉中 | "Hànzhōng Shì")
Shangluo(商洛 | "Shāngluò Shì")
* Tongchuan (铜川 | "Tóngchuān Shì")
Weinan(渭南 | "Wèinán Shì")
Xianyang(咸阳 | "Xiányáng Shì")
Yan'an(延安 | "Yán'ān Shì")
* Yulin (榆林 | "Yúlín Shì")
The sub-province-level city:
Xi'an(西安 | "Xī'ān Shì")
List of administrative divisions of Shaanxifor a complete list of county-level divisions.
The politics of Shaanxi is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China.
Governor of Shaanxiis the highest ranking official in the People's Government of Shaanxi. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor is considered to have less power than the Shaanxi Communist Party of ChinaProvincial Committee Secretary (中共陕西省委书记), colloquially termed the "Shaanxi CPC Party Chief"; since the Governor is always ranked as the First-Deputy Secretary in the Shaanxi Communist Party of China Provincial Committee.
Shaanxi was established as a provincial government since
Qing Dynasty. In 10 January 1950, the People's Government of Shaanxi was established in Xi'an. Ma Minfangwas then appointed as the first Governor of Shaanxi.
Shaanxi's nominal GDP for 2007 was 536.985 billion RMB (70.6 billion USD) and GDP Per Capita was 14,350 RMB (1,887 USD). It ranked 22nd in the PRC.
Nearly all the people in Shaanxi are ethnic
Han Chinese, with pockets of Hui population in the north western region (adjacent to Ningxia). The southern part of Shaanxi, known as Guanzhong, where the provincial capital Xi'an is located, is more populated compared to the northern part.
Qinqiang, the representative folk opera of Shaanxi.
BanpoNeolithic village, near Xi'an
* Imperial mausoleums
Huashan(Mount Hua), one of the five most famous mountains in China.
Taibaishan(Mount Taibai), the highest peak of the QinlingRange.
* Mausoleum and Terracotta Army Museum of the First Qin Emperor in Xi'an (
World Heritage Site)
* The city of Xi'an: City Walls, Great Mosque, Bell Tower and Drum Tower, Forest of Stone Steles Museum,
Shaanxi History Museum, Wild Goose Pagoda
Yan'an, the destination of the Long Marchand the center of Chinese Communist revolution from 1935 to 1948
Biang Biang Noodles, one of the "ten strange wonders of Shaanxi" (陝西十大怪)
Shaanxi Radioserves Xi'an and the surrounding Shaanxi province area with music, and news.
*The Story of Yue Fei, a 17 – 18th century
wuxiafiction novel about the life of Song Dynastygeneral Yue Fei, says his military arts teacher, Zhou Tong, was from Shaanxi. [Qian, Cai. "General Yue Fei". Trans. Honorable Sir T.L. Yang. Joint Publishing (H.K.) Co., Ltd., 1995 (ISBN 978-962-04-1279-0)]
Universities and colleges
Xi'an Jiaotong University
Xi'an Highway University
Xi'an Institute of Posts and Telecommunications
Northwestern Polytechnical University
Xi'an University of Technology
Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology
Xi'an Medical University
Shaanxi Education and Research Network
Xi'an Petroleum Institute
Xi'an Institute of Technology
Fouth Military Medical University
Shaanxi Normal University
Shaanxi Institute of Finance and Economics
Northwest Institute of Textile Science and Technology
NorthWest Agriculture University
Professional sports teams based in Shaanxi include:
Chinese Basketball Association
Chinese Football AssociationJia League
* [http://www.shaanxi.gov.cn/ Shaanxi Government website]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
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