T-12 antitank gun

2A19 or T-12 is a Soviet smoothbore 100 mm anti-tank gun. It entered service in 1955 replacing the M-1944 BS-3 (D-10) 100 mm field gun. In 1970 it was replaced in production by the 2A29/MT-12 "Rapira" which features a new gun, the 100 mm smoothbore 2A29, as well as a redesigned carriage and gun-shield to protect the crew.

History

The gun was typically deployed in anti-tank units of armoured and motor rifle regiments to protect flanks against counter-attacks during rapid advances.

The weapon has been superseded by the 2A45 Sprut-B 125 mm smoothbore anti-tank gun. Modern western tanks' frontal armour protection is far in excess of what can be penetrated by a 100 mm gun — even using the most modern APFSDS round. For a tank that can maneouvre to take advantage of the enemy's weaknesses this is less of a problem — but for a weapon that is primarily defensive this is a serious problem. Today the T-12 is applied mostly in the role of ordinary artillery, using FRAG-HE shells.

Description

The gun requires a crew of six: commander, driver of the towing vehicle, gun layer, loader, and two ammunition crewmen. When the MT-LB is used as the transporter (as with the T-12A and MT-12) twenty rounds are typically carried (10 APFSDS, 4 HE-Frag, 6 HEAT). Since the weapon is a smoothbore, all the ammunition is finned for accuracy during flight.

The gun can be fitted with the LO-7 ski for travel across snow or swampy ground.

A new version, the MT-12R, has become available which has a radar sight for engaging targets in poor visibility.

T-12 general characteristics

* Length: 9.48 m (31.10 ft)
* Width: 1.795 m (5.88 ft)
* Height: 1.565 m (5.13 ft)
* Combat weight: 2,750 kg (6,063 lbs)
* Towing vehicle: Ural-375D (6x6)
* Road towing speed: 60 km/h (37 mph)
* Cross-country towing speed: 15 km/h (9.31 mph)
* Traverse: 27° left or right
* Elevation: -6°/+20°
* Gun: 2A19 Smoothbore 100 mm (3.93 in)
* Rate of fire: 14 rounds per minute (maximum possible), 10 rounds per minute (maximum likely in the field), 4 to 6 rounds per minute (typical aimed fire)

Ammunition

"Note: penetration numbers for RHA at 90 degrees."

APFSDS

;3BM-2APFSDS-T Tungsten
* Round weight: 19.34 kg (42.63 lbs)
* Projectile weight: 5.65 kg (12.45 lbs)
* Muzzle velocity: 1,575 m/s (5,167 ft/s)
* Maximum range: 3,000 m (5,468 yds)
* Penetration:
**230 mm at 500 m (9 in at 547 yds)
**180 mm at 2,000m (7 in at 2187 yds)
**140 mm at 3,000 m (5.51 in at 3,281 yds)

;3BM23/3UBM10APFSDS
* Round weight: 19.9 kg (43.87 lbs)
* Projectile weight: 4.55 kg (10 lbs)
* Muzzle velocity: 1,548 m/s (1,693 yds)

HEAT

;3BK16M/3UBK8HEAT
* Round weight: 23.1 kg (51 lbs)
* Projectile weight: 9.5 kg (21 lbs)
* Muzzle velocity: 975 m/s (3,199 ft/s)
* Penetration: 350 mm (13.77 in)

HE-FRAG

;3OF12/3OF35
* Round weight: 28.9 kg (63.71 lbs)
* Projectile weight: 16.7 kg (36.81 lbs)
* Muzzle velocity: 700 m/s (2,296 ft/s)
* Maximum range (indirect): 8,200 m (8,968 yds)

Guided projectile

;3UBK-12 Kastet 9K117/3UBK10MBeam riding laser guided projectile.
* Round weight: 24.5 kg (54 lbs)
* Projectile weight: 18.4 kg (40.56 lbs)
* Average speed: 300 m/s (984 ft/s)
* Range: 100 - 5,000 m (109 - 5,468 yds)
* Penetration: 550 - 600 mm (21.65 - 23.62 in)

Models

* T-12 - Original version with 2A19 gun.
* T-12A - Improved version - Towing vehicle changed to the MT-LBu. Road tow speed: 60 km/h, cross country: 25 km/h. Entered service in 1972.
* MT-12 "Rapira" - Features a shield for protecting the crew from machine gun fire and shell splinters. Gun changed to the 2A29 100 mm smoothbore gun. Entered service in 1970.
* MT-12R - Radar sight for engaging targets in a poor visibility environment (smoke/fog).

Users

*
*
* - 126 MT-12
* - 12
*
*
*
* - MT-12 Rapira
* (passed on to successor states)

See also

* List of artillery
* List of military equipment of Croatia

References

* Hull, A.W. , Markov, D.R. , Zaloga, S.J. (1999). "Soviet/Russian Armor and Artillery Design Practices 1945 to Present". Darlington Productions. ISBN 1-892848-01-5.
* Foss, F. , Christopher, "Artillery of the World"
* USA Today article - http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq/2003-03-25-war-zone_x.htm
* 100 mm Ammunition http://www.milparade.com/catalog/pdf/698.pdf
* 100 mm Ammunition http://www.milparade.com/catalog/pdf/697.pdf
* 100 mm Ammunition http://www.milparade.com/catalog/pdf/696.pdf
* MT-12 http://www.milparade.com/catalog/pdf/99.pdf
* "Jane's Armour and Artillery 2005-2006"

External links

* http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/russia/t-12.htm
* http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/www/280c.htm
* http://www.milparade.com/catalog/part5/tank_rounds.shtml


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