Nazism


Nazism

Nazism, the common short form name of National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus) was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany.[1][2][3][4] It is a unique variety of fascism that incorporates biological racism and antisemitism.[5]

Nazism was founded out of elements of the far-right racist völkisch German nationalist movement and the violent anti-communist Freikorps paramilitary culture that fought against the uprisings of communist revolutionaries in post-World War I Germany.[6] The ideology was developed first by Anton Drexler and then Adolf Hitler as a means to draw workers away from communism and into völkisch nationalism.[7] Initially Nazi political strategy focused on anti-big business, anti-bourgeois, and anti-capitalist rhetoric, though such aspects were later downplayed in the 1930s to gain the support from industrial owners for the Nazis, focus was shifted to anti-Semitic and anti-Marxist themes.[8]

Nazism advocated the supremacy of an Aryan master race over all other races.[9] Nazis viewed the progress of humanity as depending on the Aryans and believed that it could maintain its dominance only if it retained its purity and instinct for self-preservation.[10] They claimed that Jews were the greatest threat to the Aryan race.[11] They considered Jews a parasitic race that attached itself to various ideologies and movements to secure its self-preservation, such as capitalism, democracy, the Enlightenment, industrialisation, liberalism, Marxism, parliamentary politics, and trade unionism.[12] To maintain the purity and strength of the Aryan race, the Nazis sought to exterminate or impose exclusionary segregation upon "degenerate" and "asocial" groups that included: Jews, homosexuals, Romani, blacks, the physically and mentally disabled, Jehovah's Witnesses and political opponents.[13]

Nazism promoted an economic system that supported a stratified economy with classes based on merit and talent while rejecting egalitarianism, retaining private property, freedom of contract, and promoted the creation of national solidarity that would transcend class distinction.[14][15] It promoted the creation of a community of common interest between managers and employees in industry where a factory leader would be selected to act in coordination with a council of factory members, though these members would have to obey the Führerprinzip of the factory leader.[16] The economy was to be subordinate to the goals of the political leadership of the state.[17]

Nazism was officially presented by Hitler and other proponents as being neither left-wing nor right-wing but a politically syncretic ideology.[18][19] Hitler in Mein Kampf directly attacked both left-wing and right-wing politics in Germany, such as saying: "Today our left-wing politicians in particular are constantly insisting that their craven-hearted and obsequious foreign policy necessarily results from the disarmament of Germany, whereas the truth is that this is the policy of traitors [...] But the politicians of the Right deserve exactly the same reproach. It was through their miserable cowardice that those ruffians of Jews who came into power in 1918 were able to rob the nation of its arms."[20] However a majority of scholars identify Nazism in practice as being a far right form of politics.[21]

Contents

Etymology

The full title of Adolf Hitler's party was Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei. The term nazi was in use long before the rise of the party as a shortened version of Ignatius, a common name in Bavaria—the area from which the Nazis emerged.[dubious ] The term was also used as derogatory reference to a backwards peasant or, more generally, a foolish, clumsy or awkward person.[dubious ] Opponents seized on this derogatory usage and shortened the party's title to the dismissive Nazi.[22][23][dubious ]

Position in the political spectrum

A majority of scholars identify Nazism in practice as being a far right form of politics.[24] However Nazism was officially presented by Hitler and other proponents as being neither left-wing nor right-wing but syncretic.[25][26] Hitler in Mein Kampf directly attacked both left-wing and right-wing politics in Germany, saying: "Today our left-wing politicians in particular are constantly insisting that their craven-hearted and obsequious foreign policy necessarily results from the disarmament of Germany, whereas the truth is that this is the policy of traitors [...] But the politicians of the Right deserve exactly the same reproach. It was through their miserable cowardice that those ruffians of Jews who came into power in 1918 were able to rob the nation of its arms."[27]

There were factions in the Nazi Party, including a conservative faction and a radical faction.[28] The conservative Nazi Hermann Göring urged Hitler to conciliate with capitalists and reactionaries.[29] Other prominent conservative Nazis included Heinrich Himmler, who was more conservative than Göring; and Reinhard Heydrich.[30] The radical Nazi Joseph Goebbels hated capitalism, viewing it has having Jews at its core and stressed the need for the party to emphasize a both a proletarian and national character, these views were shared by Otto Strasser who later left the Nazi Party in the belief that Hitler had betrayed the party's socialist goals by endorsing capitalism.[31] Large segments of the Party staunchly supported its official socialist, revolutionary, and anti-capitalist positions and expected both a social and economic revolution upon the Party gaining power in Germany in 1933.[32] The leader of the Party's paramilitary organization the SA, Ernst Röhm supported a "second revolution" (the "first revolution" being the Nazis' seizure of power) that would entrench the Party's official socialist program and demanded the replacement of the nonpolitical German army with a Nazi-led army.[33] Of the million members of the SA, many were committed to the Party's official socialist program.[34] Hitler himself took an in-between position in that he allowed capitalist private enterprise to exist as long as it obeyed the goals of the Nazi state but if a capitalist private enterprise resisted Nazi goals, he smashed it; he accepted private property; and Nazis engaged in street fighting with various socialist groups.[35]

Ideological origins

The ideological origins of Nazism derive from Romanticism, nineteenth-century idealism, and a eugenic interpretation of Friedrich Nietzsche’s concepts of “breeding upwards” — towards the Übermensch (“Superman”). Such ideas, as espoused by the Ariosophical Germanenorden (German Order) and the Thule Society much influenced Adolf Hitler’s world-view.

Phillip Wayne Powell writes that "in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, a powerful surge of German patriotism was stimulated by the disdain of Italians for German cultural inferiority and barbarism, which led to a counter-attempt, by German humanists, to laud German qualities."[36] M.W. Fodor wrote in The Nation in 1936, "No race has suffered so much from an inferiority complex as has the German. National Socialism was a kind of Coué method of converting the inferiority complex, at least temporarily, into a feeling of superiority".[37]

Among the most significant ideological influence on the Nazis came from German nationalist Johann Gottlieb Fichte, whose works Hitler read, and who was recognized by other Nazi members including Dietrich Eckart and Arnold Fanck.[38] In Speeches to the German Nation (1808), written amid Napoleonic France's occupation of Berlin, Fichte called for a German national revolution against the French occupiers, making passionate public speeches, arming his students for battle against the French, and stressing the need of the deed of action by the German nation to free itself.[39]

Fichte's nationalism was populist and opposed to traditional elites, and spoke of the need of a "People's War" (Volkskrieg), putting forward concepts much like those the Nazis adopted.[39] Fichte promoted German exceptionalism and stressed the need for the German nation to be purified. This priority included purging the German language of French words, a policy that the Nazis undertook upon rising to power.[39] Fichte was anti-Semitic and accused Jews in Germany of having been, and inevitably continuing to be a "state within a state" in Germany that was a threat to German national unity.[39] Fichte promoted two options to address this: the first was the creation of a Jewish state in Palestine to impel the Jews to leave Europe.[40] The other option was violence against Jews, saying that the goal would be "To cut off all their heads in one night, and set new ones on their shoulders, which should not contain a single Jewish idea".[41]

The concept of the Aryan race that the Nazis used stems from racial theories asserting that Europeans are the descendants of Indo-Iranian settlers, people of ancient India and ancient Persia.[42] Proponents of this theory based their assertion on the similarity of European words and their meaning to those of Indo-Iranian languages.[42] Johann Gottfried Herder argued that the Germanic peoples held close racial connections with the ancient Indians and ancient Persians, who he claimed were advanced peoples possessing a great capacity for wisdom, nobility, restraint, and science.[42] Contemporaries of Herder utilized the concept of the Aryan race to draw a distinction between what they deemed "high and noble" Aryan culture versus that of "parasitic" Semitic culture.[42]

Notions of white supremacy and Aryan racial superiority combined in the nineteenth century, with white supremacists maintaining that white people were members of an Aryan "master race" that is superior to all other races, and particularly superior to the Semitic race, which they associated with "cultural sterility".[42] Arthur de Gobineau, a French racial theorist and aristocrat, blamed the fall of the ancien régime in France on racial degeneracy caused by racial intermixing, which he argued destroyed the purity of the Aryan race.[43] Gobineau's theories, which attracted a strong following in Germany,[43] emphasized the existence of an irreconcilable polarity between Aryan and Jewish cultures.[42]

Aryan mysticism claimed that Christianity originated in Aryan religious tradition and that Jews had usurped the legend from Aryans.[42] Houston Stewart Chamberlain, an English proponent of racial theory, supported notions of Germanic supremacy and anti-Semitism in Germany.[44] Chamberlain's work, Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (1899) praised Germanic peoples for their creativity and idealism while asserting that the Germanic spirit was threatened by a "Jewish" spirit of selfishness and materialism.[44] Chamberlain used his thesis to promote monarchical conservatism while denouncing democracy, liberalism, and socialism.[43] The book became popular, especially in Germany.[43] Chamberlain stressed the need of a nation to maintain racial purity in order to prevent degeneration, and argued that racial intermingling with Jews should never be permitted.[43] In 1923, Chamberlain met Hitler, whom he admired as a leader of the rebirth of the free spirit.[45]

Nazism's racial policy positions were also developed from the views of important biologists of the 19th century, including French biologist Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and the founder of genetics, German botanist Gregor Mendel. Lamarckism, an evolutionary theory related to Darwinism, was an important influence on Nazism.[46] In particular the variant developed by Ernst Haeckel, was utilized by the Nazis.[47] Unlike Darwinian theory, Lamarckian theory officially ranked races in a hierarchy of evolution from apes while original Darwinian theory did not grade races in a hierarchy of higher or lower evolution from apes, simply categorizing humans as a whole of all as having progressed in evolution from apes.[48] Many Lamarckians viewed "lower" races as having been exposed to debilitating conditions for too long for any significant "improvement" of their condition in the near future.[49] Haeckel utilized Lamarckian theory to describe the existence of interracial struggle and put races on a hierarchy of evolution, ranging from being wholly human to subhuman.[50]

Mendelism was supported by the Nazis and also mainstream eugenics proponents at the time were Mendelian.[51] Mendelian theory of inheritance declared that genetic traits and attributes were passed from one generation to another.[52] Proponents of eugenics used Mendelian inheritance theory to demonstrate the transfer of biological illness and impairments from parents to children, including mental disability; others also utilized Mendelian theory to demonstrate the inheritance of social traits, with racialists claiming a racial nature of certain general traits such as inventiveness or criminal behaviour.[53]

Beginning in the 1870s, German völkisch nationalism began to adopt anti-Semitic and racist themes and was adopted by a number of radical right political movements.[54] Völkisch nationalism denounced soulless materialism, individualism, and secularized urban industrial society, while advocating a "superior" society based on ethnic German "folk" culture and way of life, based upon German "blood".[55] It also denounced foreigners, foreign ideas and declared that Jews, national minorities, Catholics, and Freemasons were "traitors to the nation" and unworthy of inclusion in the German Volk.[56] Völkisch nationalism saw the world in terms of natural law and romanticism, viewed societies as organic, it extolled the virtues of rural life, condemned the neglect of tradition and decay of morals, denounced the destruction of the natural environment, and condemned "cosmopolitan" cultures such as Jews and Romani.[57]

Prominent historical figures of such völkisch nationalism include Eugen Diederichs, Paul de Lagarde, and Julius Langbehn.[58] Radical anti-Semitism was promoted by these figures. De Lagarde called the Jews a "bacillus, the carrier of decay...who pollute every national culture...and destroy all faith with their materialistic liberalism" and he called for the extermination of the Jews.[59] Langbehn called for a war of annihilation of the Jews and Langbehn's genocidal policies were published by the Nazis and given to soldiers on the front during World War II.[60]

However during the era of Imperial Germany, völkisch nationalism was overshadowed by both Prussian patriotism and the federalist tradition of various states within Imperial Germany.[61] The events of World War I including the end of the Prussian monarchy in Germany, resulted in a surge of revolutionary völkisch nationalism.[62] The Nazis supported such revolutionary völkisch nationalist policies.[63]

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion (1912) was an anti-Semitic forgery created by police of the Russian Empire. Anti-Semites believed it was real and the Protocol surged in popularity after World War I.[64] The Protocols claimed that there was an international Jewish conspiracy to take over the world.[65] Hitler had been introduced to The Protocols by Alfred Rosenberg, and from 1920 onward Hitler focused his attacks on claiming that Judaism and Marxism were directly connected and that Jews and Bolsheviks were one and the same and that Marxism was a Jewish ideology.[66] Hitler believed that The Protocols were authentic.[67]

The Nazis claimed that their ideology was influenced by the leadership and policies of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, the founder of the German Empire.[68] The Nazis declared that they were dedicated to continuing the process of creating a unified German nation state that Bismarck had begun and desired to achieve.[69] The Nazis claimed that Bismarck was unable to complete German national unification because of Jewish infiltration of the German parliament, and that their abolition of parliament ended the obstacle to unification.[68] While Hitler was supportive of Bismarck's creation of the German Empire, he was critical of Bismarck's moderate domestic policies.[70] On the issue of Bismarck's support of a Kleindeutschland ("Lesser Germany", excluding Austria) versus the pan-German Großdeutschland ("Greater Germany") of the Nazis, Hitler claimed that Bismarck's attainment of Kleindeutschland was the "highest achievement" that Bismarck could have achieved "within the limits possible of that time".[71] In Mein Kampf (My Struggle), Hitler presented himself as a "second Bismarck".[71]

During World War I, sociologist Johann Plenge spoke of the rise of a "National Socialism" in Germany within what he termed the "ideas of 1914" that were a declaration of war against the "ideas of 1789"—the French Revolution.[72] According to Plenge, the "ideas of 1789" that included rights of man, democracy, individualism and liberalism were being rejected in favour of "the ideas of 1914" that included "German values" of duty, discipline, law, and order.[73] Plenge believed that ethnic solidarity (volksgemeinschaft) would replace class division and that "racial comrades" would unite to create a socialist society in the struggle of "proletarian" Germany against "capitalist" Britain.[74] He believed that the "Spirit of 1914" manifested itself in the concept of the "People's League of National Socialism".[75] This National Socialism was a form of state socialism that rejected the "idea of boundless freedom" and promoted an economy that would serve the whole of Germany under the leadership of the state.[76] This National Socialism was opposed to capitalism due to the components that were against "the national interest" of Germany, but insisted that National Socialism would strive for greater efficiency in the economy.[77] Plenge advocated an authoritarian rational ruling elite to develop National Socialism through a hierarchical technocratic state.[78]

Plenge's arguments at the time were recognized by a diverse group of people as an important argument in favour of social justice promoted within a strong state, including: right-wing Social Democrats Konrad Haenisch, Heinrich Cunow, Paul Lench and Kurt Schumacher; Conservative Revolutionaries including Arthur Moeller van den Bruck and Max Hildebert Boehm; and Nazis including Ernst Krieck, Gottfried Feder and Eduard Stadtler.[79] Plenge's ideas formed the basis of Nazism.[80]

Oswald Spengler, a German cultural philosopher, was a major influence on Nazism, although after 1933 Spengler became alienated from Nazism and later condemned by the Nazis for criticizing Hitler.[81] Spengler's views were also popular amongst Italian Fascists, including Benito Mussolini.[82] Spengler's book The Decline of the West (1918) written during the final months of World War I in which he addressed the claim of decadence of modern European civilization that he claimed was caused by atomizing and irreligious individualization and cosmopolitanism.[81] In Decline of the West, Spengler's major thesis was that a law of historical development of cultures existed involving a cycle of birth, maturity, aging, and death when it reaches its final form of civilization.[83] Upon reaching the point of civilization, a culture will lose its creative capacity and succumb to decadence until the emergence of "barbarians" create a new epoch.[83] Spengler considered the Western world as having succumbed to decadence of intellect, money, cosmopolitan urban life, irreligious life, atomized individualization, and the end of biological fertility as well as "spiritual" fertility.[83] He believed that the "young" German nation as an imperial power would inherit the legacy of Ancient Rome and lead a restoration of value in "blood" and instinct, while the ideals of rationalism would be revealed as absurd.[83]

In Preussentum und Sozialismus ("Prussiandom and Socialism", 1919), Spengler described socialism outside of a class conflict perspective and said "The meaning of socialism is that life is controlled not by the opposition between rich and poor, but by the rank that achievement and talent bestow. That is our freedom, freedom from the economic despotism of the individual."[84] Spengler utilized the anti-English ideas addressed by Plenge and Sombart during World War I that condemned English liberalism and English parliamentarianism while advocating a national socialism that was free from Marxism that would connect the individual to the state through corporative organization.[85] Spengler claimed that socialistic Prussian characteristics existed across Germany that included creativity, discipline, concern for the greater good, productivity, and self-sacrifice.[86] Spengler's definition of socialism did not advocate change in property relations.[84]

Spengler denounced Marxism for seeking to train the proletariat to "expropriate the expropriator", the capitalist, and then to let them live a life of leisure on this expropriation.[87] He claimed that "Marxism is the capitalism of the working class" and not true socialism.[87] True socialism according to Spengler would be in the form of corporatism, stating that "local corporate bodies organized according to the importance of each occupation to the people as a whole; higher representation in stages up to a supreme council of the state; mandates revocable at any time; no organized parties, no professional politicians, no periodic elections."[88] In Preussentum und Sozialismus Spengler prescribed war as a necessity, saying "War is the eternal form of higher human existence and states exist for war: they are the expression of the will to war."[89] Spengler's conception of socialism and a number of his political views were shared by the Nazis as well as the Conservative Revolutionary movement.[84]

History

A 1919 Austrian postcard depicting the "stab-in-the-back" legend, which blamed Jews for Germany's defeat in World War I.

On 5 January 1919, the locksmith Anton Drexler, and five other men, founded the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (DAP — German Workers' Party), the predecessor of the Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP — National Socialist German Workers’ Party).[90][91] In July 1919, the Reichswehr intelligence department despatched Corporal Adolf Hitler, as a Verbindungsmann (police spy) to infiltrate and subvert the DAP. His oratory so impressed the DAP members, they asked him join the party, and, in September 1919, the police spy Hitler became the party's propagandist.[90][92] On 24 February 1920, the DAP was renamed the National Socialist German Workers’ Party, against Hitler’s preferred “Social Revolutionary Party” name.[90] Later, in consolidating his control of the NSDAP, Hitler ousted Drexler from the party and assumed leadership on 29 July 1921.[90]

The post-war crises of Weimar Germany (1919–33) consolidated Nazism as an ideology: military defeat in the First World War (1914–18), capitulation with the Treaty of Versailles, economic depression, and the consequent societal instability. In exploiting, and excusing, the military defeat, Nazism proffered the political Dolchstosslegende (“Legend of the Dagger-stab in the Back”) [93] claiming that the Imperial German war effort was internally sabotaged, by Jews, socialists, and Bolsheviks. Proposing that, because the Reichwehr’s defeat did not occur in Germany, the sabotage included a lack of patriotism among their political antagonists, specifically the Social Democrats and the Ebert Government, whom the Nazis accused of treason.

Using the “stab in the back” legend, the Nazis accused German Jews, and other populaces it considered non-German, of possessing extra-national loyalties, thereby exacerbating German anti-semitism about the Judenfrage (the Jewish Question), the perennial far right political canard popular when the ethnic Völkisch movement and their politics of Romantic nationalism for establishing a Großdeutschland were strong.[94][95] The seminal ideas of Nazism originated in the German cultural past of the Völkisch (folk) movement and the superstitions of Ariosophy, an occultism that proposed the Germanic peoples as the purest examples of the Aryan race, whose cultures feature runic symbols and the swastika. From among the Ariosophs, only the Thule-Gesellschaft (Thule Society) in Munich, features in the origin of Nazism; they sponsored the DAP.[90]

Fascism was a major influence on Nazism. The seizure of power by Italian Fascist leader Benito Mussolini in the March on Rome in 1922 drew admiration by Hitler who less than a month after the March had begun to model himself and the Nazi Party upon Mussolini and the Fascists.[96] After the March on Rome, Hitler presented the Nazis as a German fascism.[97][98] The Nazis attempted a "March on Berlin" modelled upon the March on Rome that resulted in the failed Beer Hall Putsch in Munich in November 1923.[99] Although Hitler strongly admired Mussolini and fascism, other Nazis — especially more radical Nazis such as Gregor Strasser, Joseph Goebbels and Heinrich Himmler — rejected Italian Fascism, accusing it of being too conservative or capitalist.[100] Alfred Rosenberg condemned Italian Fascism for being racially confused and having influences from philo-Semitism.[101] Strasser criticized the policy of Führerprinzip as being created by Mussolini, and considered its presence in Nazism as a foreign import.[102] Throughout the relationship between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, a number of lower-ranking Nazis scornfully viewed fascism as a conservative movement that lacked a full revolutionary potential.[102]

Ideology

Greater Germany in 1943, including annexed or occupied territories of other countries

The Nazis advocated a strong, central government under the Führer, for defending Germany and the Volksdeutsche (ethnic Germans), against communism and Jewish subversion. To the end of establishing Großdeutschland (Greater Germany), the German peoples must acquire Lebensraum (living space) from Russia.[103]

Hitler, the Führer of Nazi Germany

The original National Socialists, the 1919 German Workers’ Party (DAP) said there would be no program binding upon them, thus rejecting any Weltanschauung. Nonetheless, when Adolf Hitler assumed command of its successor, the Nazi Party, political substance of Nazism concorded with his political beliefs — man and idea as political entity, the Führer.

Hitler had concluded that ethnic and linguistic diversity had weakened the Austro–Hungarian Empire, and had resulted in contemporary political dissent. He disliked democracy because it allowed political power to ethnic minorities and to liberal political parties, who “weakened and destabilized” the empire with internal division. Hitler’s cultural, historical, and political beliefs were tempered in combat during World War I; by Germany’s loss of the war, and by the Bolsheviks’ successful October Revolution of 1917 that installed Marxist communism in Russia. From 1920 to 1923, Hitler formulated his ideology, then published it in 1925–26, as Mein Kampf , a two-volume, biography and political letter-of-intent.[104]

During the 1920s and 1930s, Nazism was ideologically heterogeneous, comprising two sub-ideologies, those of Otto Strasser and of Hitler. As leftists, the Strasserites fell afoul of Hitler, who expelled Otto Strasser from the Nazi Party when he failed to establish the Black Front, an oppositional, anti-capitalist bloc, in 1930. Though Hitler for "tactical" reasons had rhetorically declared a 1920 party platform with socialist platitudes "unshakable," actually "many paragraphs of the party program were obviously merely a demagogic appeal to the mood of the lower classes at a time when they were in bad straits and were sympathetic to radical and even socialist slogans...Point 11, for example...Point 12...nationalization...Point 16...communalization.... put in at the insistence of Drexler and Feder, who apparently really believed in the 'socialism' of National Socialism."[105] In actual practice, such points were mere slogans, "most of them forgotten by the time the party came to power.... the Nazi leader himself was later to be embarrassed when reminded of some of them."[106] Historian Conan Fischer argues that the Nazis were sincere in their use of the adjective socialist, which the saw as inseparable from the adjective national, and meant it as a socialism of the master race, rather than the socialism of the "underprivileged and oppressed seeking justice and equal rights."[107]

The conflicting philosophies of leading Nazis of the early years were visible at times: in 1930 "Strasser, Feder and Frick introduced a bill in the Reichstag on behalf of the Nazi Party calling for (interest rate limits, expropriation of large bank-holdings)... and the nationalization of the big banks.... Hitler was horrified; this was not only Bolshevism, it was financial suicide for the party."[108] Many Strasserites who remained in the Nazi Party, mostly in the Sturmabteilung (SA), were assassinated in the Night of the Long Knives purge.

Militarism

Nazi militarism was based upon the belief that great nations grow from military power, and maintain order in the world. The Nazi Party exploited irredentist and revanchist sentiments, and cultural aversions to aspects of Modernism, (despite the Reich embracing modernism by their admiration for engine power), thus conflating (fusing) nationalism and militarism into the ultra-nationalism necessary to establishing Großdeutschland (Greater Germany).

Social class

In 1922, Adolf Hitler discredited other nationalist and racialist political parties as disconnected from the mass populace, especially lower- and working-class young people:

The racialists were not capable of drawing the practical conclusions from correct theoretical judgements, especially in the Jewish Question. In this way, the German racialist movement developed a similar pattern to that of the 1880s and 1890s. As in those days, its leadership gradually fell into the hands of highly honourable, but fantastically naïve men of learning, professors, district counsellors, schoolmasters, and lawyers — in short a bourgeois, idealistic, and refined class. It lacked the warm breath of the nation’s youthful vigour.[109]

Despite many working-class supporters and members, the appeal of the Nazi Party to the working class was neither true nor effective, because its politics mostly appealed to the middle class, as a stabilizing, pro-business political party, not a revolutionary workers’ party.[110][110] Moreover, the financial collapse of the white collar middle-class of the 1920s figures much in their strong support of Nazism, thus the great percentage of declared middle-class support for the Nazis.[110] In the poor country that was the Weimar Republic of the early 1930s, the Nazi Party realised their socialist policies with food and shelter for the unemployed and the homeless — later recruited to the Brownshirt Sturmabteilung (SA — Storm Detachment).[110]

Sex and gender

Nazi ideology advocated excluding women from political involvement and confining them to the spheres of "Kinder, Küche, Kirche" (Children, Kitchen, Church). Many women voted in favour of the Nazi Party, but once in power, the party introduced legislation that limited women's legal rights. Women's organizations and associations that had been permitted before the Nazi regime were banned, and the Nazi Party set up its own women's organizations.

Some women were active participants in Nazi war crimes, including the operation of concentration camps, and were convicted after World War II. Gertrud Scholtz-Klink had much influence as the head of the NS-Frauenschaft, the women's wing of the Nazi Party. Magda Goebbels, the wife of Minister of Propaganda Josef Goebbels, was on friendly terms with Adolf Hitler and was known as "the First Lady of the Reich". She often attended Nazi Party events, providing a feminine face to the regime.

Opposition to homosexuality

Homophobia: Berlin Memorial to Homosexual Victims of the Holocaust; Totgeschlagen—Totgeschwiegen (Struck Dead—Hushed Up)

Initially, Adolf Hitler had protected Ernst Röhm — the homosexual leader of the Sturmabteilung (SA) — from Nazis who considered his homosexuality a violation of the Party’s anti-homosexual policy. In late February 1933, as the influence of Röhm diminished, the Nazi Party purged the homophile clubs, where gay, lesbian and bisexual Berliners congregated. It also outlawed academic and pornographic sexual publications.

In March 1933, Kurt Hiller, organizer of the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft (Institute of Sex Research), was imprisoned to a concentration camp. On 6 May 1933, Hitler Youth members attacked the institute and publicly burned its books, journals and other documents. They also seized the institute’s rosters of gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender patients.

When Röhm proved to be a politically viable challenger to Hitler's leadership of the Nazi Party, Hitler ordered that he be assassinated in 1934, along with other Nazi political opponents. This purge became known as the Night of the Long Knives. To suppress outrage in the SA ranks, the Nazi leaders justified Röhm’s killing on the basis that he was homosexual.

Schutzstaffel (SS) Chief Heinrich Himmler, initially a supporter of Röhm, defended him against charges of homosexuality, arguing that they were the fabrications of a Jewish character assassination conspiracy. After the Night of the Long Knives, Hitler promoted Himmler, who then zealously suppressed homosexuality, saying: "We must exterminate these people root and branch ... the homosexual must be eliminated.”[111] In 1936, Himmler established the "Reichszentrale zur Bekämpfung der Homosexualität und Abtreibung" ("Reich Central Office for the Combating of Homosexuality and Abortion").[112] The Nazis officially declared that homosexuality was contrary to "wholesome popular sentiment", identifying gay men as "defilers of German blood". The Nazi régime incarcerated some 100,000 homosexuals during the 1930s.[113] As concentration camp prisoners, homosexual men were forced to wear pink triangle badges.[114][115]

Nazi anti-homosexual laws did not persecute lesbians as much because the Nazis considered female homosexuals easier to persuade or to compel to conformity with the heterosexual mores of patriarchy. Nonetheless, the Nazis considered lesbians to be a cultural threat to family values, and officially identified them as anti-social. Concentration camp prisoners who were lesbian were forced to wear black triangle badges.

Racism

The Master Race: the Meyers Blitz-Lexikon (Leipzig, 1932) depicts German war hero Karl von Müller as an exemplar Nordic type of the Herrenvolk.

Hitler viewed race as being in a hierarchy, and spoke of the "aristocratic idea of nature" in which there existed an inequality of races where the superior and higher values of the Aryan race was the basis of all civilization.[116] Through struggle and proper "breeding", the "strong" would subdue the "weak" and rise to dominance.[117] Nazi policy since 1920 emphasized that only people of "German blood" could be considered German citizens while no one of Jewish descent could be a German citizen.[118]

The racist subject of Nazism is Das Volk, the German people living under continual cultural attack by Judeo-Bolshevism, who must unite under Nazi Party leadership, and, per the spartan nationalist tenets of Nazism: be stoic, self-disciplined and self-sacrificing until victory.[119] Adolf Hitler’s political biography, Mein Kampf formulates the Weltanschauung of Nazism with the ideologic trinity of: history as a struggle for world supremacy among the human races, conquered only by a master race, the Herrenvolk; the decisive, autocratic Führerprinzip (leader principle); and anti-Semitism targeting the Jews as the universal source of socio-cultural and economic discord.

The Jewish–Bolshevism conspiracy theory derives from anti-Semitism and anti-communism; Adolf Hitler claimed to have first developed his worldview from living and observing Viennese life from 1907 to 1913, concluding that the Austro–Hungarian Empire comprised racial, religious, and cultural hierarchies; per his interpretations, atop were the “Aryans”, the ultimate, white master race, whilst Jews and Gypsies were at bottom.[103]

However, recent research strongly suggests that Hitler’s virulent antisemitism was mostly a post war development, product of influences from the Russian civil war and that in his Vienna years it played little part in his thinking.[120] The idea of the Russian roots of Nazism has been explored by Walter Laqueur[121] and more recently filled out in much more detail by Michael Kellogg[122] from archive material only available since the fall of communism. Aufbau Vereinigung was a organisation of White Russian émigrés and early National Socialists which exerted a critical influence upon Hitler and Nazi ideology in the years before the Hitler Ludendorff putsch in 1923.

Fundamental to Nazism is the unification of every German tribe that was “unjustly” divided among different nation states The racialist philosophy of Nazism derived from the seminal white supremacist works of: the French Arthur de Gobineau (An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races); the Briton Houston Stewart Chamberlain (The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century); and of the American Madison Grant (The Passing of The Great Race: or, The Racial Basis of European History).

Their ideas were synthesized by the Reichstag Secretary, Alfred Rosenberg, in The Myth of the Twentieth Century, a pseudoscientific treatise proposing that: “[F]rom a northern centre of creation which, without postulating an actual submerged Atlantic continent, we may call Atlantis, swarms of warriors once fanned out, in obedience to the ever-renewed and incarnate Nordic longing for distance to conquer and space to shape”.[123] According to Terrence Ball and Richard Bellamy, The Myth of the Twentieth Century is the second-most important book to Nazism, after Mein Kampf.[124]

Sketch plan of Treblinka extermination camp. Between the years 1942 and 1943, more than 850,000 Jews were murdered there and only 54 survived.

In establishing Nazi German racial superiority, Adolf Hitler defined “the Nation” as the highest creation of a race, and that that great nations were the creations of homogeneous populations of great races working together. These nations developed cultures that naturally grew from races with “natural good health, and aggressive, intelligent, courageous traits”. Whereas the weakest nations were those of “impure” or “mongrel races”, because they were disunited. Hitler claimed that lowest races were the parasitic Untermenschen (subhumans), principally the Jews, who were living lebensunwertes Leben (“life-unworthy life”) owing to racial inferiority, and their wandering, nationless invasions of greater nations, such as Germany — thus, either permitting or encouraging national plurality is an obvious mistake.

Hitler declared that racial conflict against Jews was necessary to save Germany from suffering under them and dispensed concerns about such conflict being inhumane or an injustice, saying:

We may be inhumane, but if we rescue Germany we have achieved the greatest deed in the world. We may work injustice, but if we rescue Germany then we have removed the greatest injustice in the world. We may be immoral, but if our people is rescued we have opened the way for morality.[125]

During World War II, when faced with occupying too much territory with too-few German soldiers, Nazism expanded the Master Race definition to include Dutch and Scandinavian men as superior, German-stock Herrenvolk, in order to recruit them into the Schutzstaffel (SS).

Nazi eugenics: “We Do Not Stand Alone” (1936).

Hitler argued that nations who could not defend their territories did not deserve a country. He said that “slave races”, such as the Slavic peoples, had less of a right to life than did the master races — especially concerning Lebensraum. He claimed that the Herrenvolk had the right to vanquish inferior indigenous races from their countries.[126]

Hitler argued that “races without homelands” were “parasitic races”, and that the richer the parasite race, the more virulent their parasitism. A master race could, therefore, easily strengthen themselves by killing the parasite races in the Heimat. The Herrenvolk philosophic tenet of Nazism rationalized Die Endlösung (the Final Solution), extermination of Jews, Gypsies, Czechs, Poles and other Slavs (Generalplan Ost), the mentally retarded, the crippled, the handicapped, homosexuals and others deemed undesirable. During the Holocaust, the Waffen-SS, Wehrmacht soldiers, and right-wing paramilitary civilian militias killed some 11 million people in Nazi-occupied lands via concentration camps, prisoner-of-war camps, labor camps, and death camps, such as the Auschwitz concentration camp and the Treblinka extermination camp.

Schutzstaffel insignia: white Sig Runes on a black background

In Germany, the master-race populace was realised by purifying the Deutsche Volk via (see: eugenics; the culmination was involuntary euthanasia of disabled people, and the compulsory sterilization of the mentally retarded. The ideologic justification was Adolf Hitler’s consideration of Sparta(11th c.–195 BC) as the original Völkisch state; he praised their dispassionate destruction of congenitally deformed infants in maintaining racial purity:[127][128] "Sparta must be regarded as the first Völkisch State. The exposure of the sick, weak, deformed children, in short, their destruction, was more decent, and, in truth, a thousand times more humane, than the wretched insanity of our day, which preserves the most pathological subject."

Nazi cultural perception of the Jews, based upon the anti-Semitic The Protocols of the Elders of Zion, emphasized that Jews throve on fomenting division among Germans, and among nation-states. Yet Nazi anti-Semitism was also physical and racial. Nazi propagandist Joseph Goebbels said: “The Jew is the enemy and destroyer of the purity of blood, the conscious destroyer of our race ... As socialists, we are opponents of the Jews, because we see, in the Hebrews, the incarnation of capitalism, of the misuse of the nation’s goods.”[129]

Nazi Germany was ideologically based upon the racially defined Deutsche Volk (German People), which denied the limitations of nationalism.[130] The Nazi Party and the German people were consolidated in the Volksgemeinschaft (People’s Community), a late-nineteenth-century neologism defining the citizens’ communal duty is to the Reich, rather than to civil society, the citizen-nation basis of Nazism; the socialism would be realized via common duty to the volk, by service to the Third Reich in establishing Großdeutschland, the embodying locus of the peoples’ will. Hence, Nazism encouraged ultra-nationalism, to establish a world-dominating, Aryan Volksgemeinschaft. The précis of this central tenet of Mein Kampf is the motto Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer (One People, One Empire, One Leader).

Church and state

'On the Jews and Their Lies, by Martin Luther, Wittenberg, 1543

Hitler extended his rationalizations into a religious doctrine supported by his criticism of traditional Roman Catholicism. In particular, and closely related to Positive Christianity, he objected to Catholicism because it was not the religion of an exclusive race and its culture. Simultaneously, the Nazis integrated to Nazism the community elements of Lutheranism, from its organic pagan past. Hitlerian theology integrated militarism by proposing that his was a true, master-religion, because it would create mastery by avoiding comforting lies. About religions that preached love, tolerance, and equality “in contravention to the facts”, Hitler said they were false, slave religions, and that the man who recognized said “truths” was a “natural leader”, whilst deniers were “natural slaves”; hence, slaves, especially the intelligent, continually hindered their masters with false religions.[citation needed]

Although the “National Socialist leaders and dogmas were basically, uncompromisingly antireligious”, Nazi Germany usually did not directly attack the Churches, the exceptions being clerics who refused accommodation with the Nazi régime. Martin Bormann, a prominent Nazi official, said: "Priests will be paid by us and, as a result, they will preach what we want. If we find a priest acting otherwise, short work is to be made of him. The task of the priest consists in keeping the Poles quiet, stupid, and dull-witted."[131][132] To demoralize Poland, the Nazis killed almost 16 per cent of the Polish Catholic clergy; 13 of 38 Bishops were sent to concentration camps.[133][134] These actions, and the closing of churches, seminaries and other religious institutions, almost succeeded in exterminating the Polish clergy.[135]

In pro-Nazi countries, fascist anti-clericalism was unofficial, and was usually manifested in the arrests of select clergy via false charges of immorality,[136][137] and secret harassment by Gestapo and SD agents provocateur. A notable case was that of Dietrich Bonhoeffer, the Lutheran Pastor and theologian who fought Nazism in the German Resistance.[138][139] Nonetheless, the Nazis often used the Church to justify their politics, by using Christian symbols as Reich symbols, and, in other cases, replacing Christian symbols with Reich symbols, Nazism thus conflated Church and State as an ultra-nationalist political entity — the Nazi Germany embodied in the motto Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer (“One People, One Empire, One Leader”).[140][141]

Julius Streicher

Several of the founders and leaders of the Nazi Party were members of the Thule-Gesellschaft (Thule Society), who romanticized Aryan race superstitions with ritual and theology.[142] Originally, derived from the Germanenorden, the Thule Society shared the racist superstitions of Ariosophy that were common to such pan-German groups; Rudolf von Sebottendorf, and a man named Wilde, lectured the Thule Society on occultism.[143] Generally, the society’s lectures and excursions comprised anti-Semitism and Germanic antiquity, yet it is historically notable for having fought as a paramilitary militia against the Bavarian Soviet Republic.[144] Dietrich Eckart, an associate of the Thule Society, coached Adolf Hitler as a public speaker, and Hitler later dedicated Mein Kampf to Eckart.[145] The DAP was initially supported by the Thule Society — but Hitler quickly excluded them in favour of a mass movement political party, by denigrating their superstitious approach to politics.[146] In contrast, SS Chief Heinrich Himmler was much interested in the occult.[140]

Regarding the persecution of Jews, the contemporary, historical perspective is that in the period between the Protestant Reformation and the Holocaust, Martin Luther's treatise On the Jews and their Lies (1543), exercised a major and persistent intellectual influence upon the German practice of anti-Semitism against Jewish citizens. The Nazis publicly displayed an original of On the Jews and their Lies during the annual Nuremberg rallies, and the city also presented a first edition of it to Julius Streicher, the editor of Der Stürmer, which described Luther’s treatise as the most radically anti-Semitic tract ever published.[147][148]

Protestant Bishop Martin Sasse published a compendium of Martin Luther’s writings shortly after Kristallnacht; in the introduction, he approved of the burning of synagogues and mentioned the coincidental date: “On November 10, 1938, on Luther’s birthday, the synagogues are burning in Germany.” He urged Germans to heed the words “of the greatest antisemite of his time, the warner of his people against the Jews.”[149] Theologian Johannes Wallmann, however, said Luther’s anti-Semitic tract exercised no continual influence in Germany, that it was mostly ignored during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.[150] Nonetheless, Prof. Diarmaid MacCulloch said that On the Jews and Their Lies was the blueprint for Kristallnacht.[151]

Totalitarianism

Nazism like other totalitarian mass movements was based on a pursuit of the clear ideological goal. Hitler, like Stalin and to a lesser degree Mussolini, wanted to establish a new kind of society.[152] In such society self-sacrifice is expected in order to defeat an absolute enemy to which all of societies problems and injustices are attributed.[153] In The Origins of Totalitarianism Hannah Arendt argued that providing a comforting, single answer to the mysteries of the past, present, and future was the main source of the mass appeal of totalitarian regimes. According to Arendt, for Nazism all history is the history of race struggle and for Marxism all history is the history of class struggle. Once that premise is accepted, all actions of the state can be justified by appeal to nature or the law of history, justifying their establishment of authoritarian state apparatus.[154] Similarly, Friedrich Hayek finds the roots of totalitarianism in socialist desire for equality and unanimity. According to him, in order to achieve that goal it is necessary for state to take over control over every aspect of society. Role of the individual is to be "a mere means, to be used by the authority in the service of such abstractions as the 'social welfare' or the 'good of the community'".[152][155]

Economics

Anti-communism

Historians Ian Kershaw and Joachim Fest argue that in post-World War I Germany, the Nazis were one of many nationalist and fascist political parties contending for the leadership of Germany’s anti-communist movement. The Nazis claimed that communism was dangerous to the well-being of nations because of its intention to dissolve private property, its support of class conflict, its aggression against the middle class, its hostility to small businessmen, and its atheism.[156] Nazism rejected class conflict-based socialism and economic egalitarianism, favouring instead a stratified economy with social classes based on merit and talent, retaining private property, and the creation of national solidarity that transcends class distinction.[14]

During the 1920s, Hitler urged disparate Nazi factions to unite in opposition to "Jewish Marxism."[157] Hitler asserted that the "three vices" of "Jewish Marxism" were democracy, pacifism and internationalism.[158]

Hitler believed that private ownership was useful in that it encouraged creative competition and technical innovation, but insisted that it had to conform to national interests and be "productive" rather than "parasitical".[159] In 1930, Hitler said: "Our adopted term ‘Socialist’ has nothing to do with Marxian Socialism. Marxism is anti-property; true Socialism is not."[160] In 1931, during a confidential interview with influential editor Richard Breiting of the Leipziger Neueste Nachrichten, a pro-business newspaper, Hitler said:

I want everyone to keep what he has earned, subject to the principle that the good of the community takes priority over that of the individual. But the State should retain control; every owner should feel himself to be an agent of the State ... The Third Reich will always retain the right to control property owners.[161]

During the late 1930s and the 1940s, anti-communist regimes and groups that supported Nazism included the Falange in Spain; the Vichy regime and the 33rd Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Charlemagne (1st French) in France; and the Cliveden Set, Lord Halifax, and associates of Neville Chamberlain in Britain.[162]

Anti-capitalism

The Nazis argued that capitalism damages nations due to international finance, the economic dominance of big business, and Jewish influences.[156] They argued that there was an international Jewish conspiracy headed by a cabal of financiers who economically controlled the United States and Europe, and were responsible for the Great Depression. The Nazis believed that the cabal was integral to a greater, long-term Jewish conspiracy, wherein Jews would establish global domination via a New World Order. They argued that the banks that the cabal allegedly controlled exerted political influence upon nation-states by granting or withholding credit. Nazi propaganda posters in working-class districts emphasized anti-capitalism, such as one that said: "The maintenance of a rotten industrial system has nothing to do with nationalism. I can love Germany and hate capitalism."[163]

In 1920, the Nazi Party published the National Socialist Program, a manifesto that in 25 points demanded:

that the State shall make it its primary duty to provide a livelihood for its citizens . . . the abolition of all incomes unearned by work . . . the ruthless confiscation of all war profits ... the nationalization of all businesses that have been formed into corporations ... profit-sharing in large enterprises ... extensive development of insurance for old-age ... land reform suitable to our national requirements.[164]

During the 1920s, Nazi Party officials variously attempted either to change or to replace the National Socialist Program. In 1924, the Nazi Party economist theoretician Gottfried Feder proposed a new, 39-point program, retaining some old and introducing some new ideas.[165] Adolf Hitler did not directly mention the program in Mein Kampf; he only mentioned "the so-called programme of the movement".[166]

Hitler, both in public and in private, expressed strong disdain for capitalism, accusing modern capitalism of holding nations ransom in the interests of a parasitic cosmopolitan rentier class.[167] He opposed free-market capitalism's profit-seeking impulses and desired an economy in which community interests would be upheld.[159] He distrusted capitalism for being unreliable, due to its egotistic nature, and he preferred a state-directed economy that is subordinated to the interests of the Volk.[168] Hitler told a party leader in 1934, "The economic system of our day is the creation of the Jews."[168] Hitler said to Benito Mussolini that "Capitalism had run its course".[168] Hitler also said that that business bourgeoisie "know nothing except their profit. 'Fatherland' is only a word for them."[169] Hitler admired Napoleon as a role model for his anti-conservative, anti-capitalist and anti-bourgeois attitudes.[170]

In Mein Kampf, Hitler effectively supported mercantilism, in the belief that economic resources from their respective territories should be seized by force; he believed that the policy of lebensraum would provide Germany with such economically valuable territories.[171] He believed that the only means to maintain economic security was to have direct control over resources rather than being forced to rely on world trade.[172] He claimed that war to gain such resources was the only means to surpass the failing capitalist economic system.[171]

In 1927, Hitler said:

We are socialists, we are enemies of today’s capitalistic economic system for the exploitation of the economically weak, with its unfair salaries, with its unseemly evaluation of a human being according to wealth and property instead of responsibility and performance, and we are determined to destroy this system under all conditions.[173]

Historian Henry A. Turner reports Hitler’s regret at having including the word socialism in the Nazi Party name.[174] In 1929, Hitler said that socialism was "an unfortunate word altogether" and that "if people have something to eat, and their pleasures, then they have their socialism."

A number of other Nazis held strong revolutionary socialist and anti-capitalist beliefs, most prominently Ernst Röhm, the leader of the Sturmabteilung (SA).[175] Röhm claimed that the Nazis' rise to power constituted a national revolution, but insisted that a socialist "second revolution" was required for Nazi ideology to be fulfilled.[176] Röhm's SA began attacks against individuals deemed to be associated with conservative reaction.[177] Hitler saw Röhm's independent actions as violating and possibly threatening his leadership, as well as jeopardizing the regime by alienating the conservative President Paul von Hindenburg and the conservative-oriented German army.[178] This resulted in Hitler purging Röhm and other radical members of the SA.[178]

Joseph Goebbels adamantly stressed the socialist character of Nazism, and claimed in his diary that if he were to pick between Bolshevism and capitalism, he said "in final analysis", "it would be better for us to go down with Bolshevism than live in eternal slavery under capitalism."[179] In 1932, Goebbels said that the Nazi Party was a "workers’ party", "on the side of labour, and against finance."[129] However, Hitler had little tolerance for Goebbels insistence upon adherence to socialist ideas and alliance with leftist and socialist parties as Hitler had abandoned them by the time the party rose to power. In correspondence Goebbels tried to convince Hitler the Nazis and the left share a common enemy in capitalists, however, Hitler disagreed and adamantly stated that capitalists are not the enemy of Nazis.[citation needed]

Strasserism

Gregor Strasser, founder of Strasserism.

Before Hitler orchestrated the operation known as the Night of the Long Knives in 1934, whereby a substantial base of the Nazi Party's left-wing block such as the Sturmabteilung was purged of radical and disruptive elements, two former Freikorps and Social Democratic Party activists named Otto and Gregor Strasser united their left-leaning ideals to form a distinctly socialist strand of Nazism known as Strasserism.

Strasserist ideology engaged in overt critique of Hitler's Führerprinzip, his affinities to the conservative establishment, and began attacking his policies through the National Socialist Newsletters and later ideological literature like Cabinet Seat or Revolution, while upholding aggressive anti-capitalist ideals. The Strasser brothers considered capitalism stained by Jewish finance, and called for a working-class, genuinely socialist and ultra-nationalist revolution following Hitler's rise to power (which they called a half-revolution), emphasizing the socialist component of National Socialism and proposing a cooperative economic ministry to direct Germany's economy in a more left-wing and guild-based direction.[180][181]

Economy of Nazi Germany

Deutsches Volk–Deutsche Arbeit: German People, German Work, the alliance of worker and work. (1934)

Nazi economic practice first concerned the immediate domestic economy of Germany, then international trade. To eliminate Germany’s poverty, domestic policy was narrowly concerned with four major goals: (i) elimination of unemployment, (ii) rapid and substantial re-armament, (iii) fiscal protection against resurgent hyper-inflation, and (iv) expansion of consumer-goods production, to raise middle- and lower- class living standards. The intent was correcting the Nazi-perceived short-comings of the Weimar Republic, and to solidify domestic support for the Nazi Party; between 1933 and 1936, the German (Gross National Product) annually increased 9.5 per cent, and the industrial rate increased 17.2 per cent.

The expansion propelled the German economy from depression to full employment in less than four years. Public consumption increased 18.7 per cent, and private consumption increased 3.6 per cent annually. Historian Richard Evans reports that before the outbreak of World War II in 1939, the German economy "had recovered from the Depression faster than its counterparts in other countries. Germany’s foreign debt had been stabilized, interest rates had fallen to half their 1932 level, the stock exchange had recovered from the Depression, the gross national product had risen by 81 per cent over the same period ... Inflation and unemployment had been conquered."[182]

Private property

Private property rights were conditional upon the economic mode of use; if it did not advance Nazi economic goals, the state could nationalize it.[183] Nazi government corporate takeovers, and threatened takeovers, encouraged compliance with government production plans, even if unprofitable for the firm. For example, the owner of the Junkers aeroplane factory refused the government’s directives, whereupon the Nazis occupied the factory and arrested Hugo Junkers, but paid him for his nationalized business. Although the Nazis privatised public properties and public services, they also increased economic state control.[184] Under Nazi economics, free competition and self-regulating markets diminished; nevertheless, Adolf Hitler’s social Darwinist beliefs made him reluctant to entirely disregard business competition and private property as economic engines.[185][186] In 1942, Hitler privately said: “I absolutely insist on protecting private property ... we must encourage private initiative”.[187]

To the proposition that businesses were private property in name but not in substance, in The Journal of Economic History article "The Role of Private Property in the Nazi Economy: The Case of Industry", Christoph Buchheim and Jonas Scherner counter that despite state control, business had much production and investment planning freedom — while the economy was still to a larger degree politically controlled it "does not necessarily mean that private property of enterprises was not of any significance [...] For despite extensive regulatory activity by an interventionist public administration, firms preserved a good deal of their autonomy even under the Nazi regime", a system which they term "command-capitalism".[188]

Centralization

Agricultural and industrial central planning was a prominent feature of Nazi economics. To tie farmers to the land, selling agricultural land was prohibited; farm ownership was nominally private, but discretion over operations and residual income were proscribed. That was achieved by granting business monopoly rights to marketing boards, to control production and prices with a quota system. Quotas also were established for industrial goods, such as pig iron, steel, aluminium, magnesium, gunpowder, explosives, synthetic rubber, fuels, and electricity. A compulsory cartel law was enacted in 1936, allowing the minister of economics to make existing cartels compulsory and permanent, and compel industries to form cartels, where none existed, although disestablished by decree, by 1943, they were replaced with more authoritarian economic agencies.[189]

Finance

In place of ordinary profit-incentive determining the economy, financial investment was regulated per the needs of the state. The profit incentive for businessmen remained, but was greatly modified: “Fixing of profits, not their suppression, was the official policy of the Nazi party”; however, Nazi agencies replaced the profit-motive that automatically allocated investment, and the course of the economy.[190] Nazi government financing eventually dominated private financial investment, which the proportion of private securities issued falling from over half of the total in 1933–34 to approximately 10 per cent in 1935–38. Heavy business-profit taxes limited self-financing of firms. The largest firms were mostly exempt from taxes on profits, however, government control of these were extensive enough to leave “only the shell of private ownership”. Taxes and financial subsidies also directed the economy; the underlying economic policy — terror — was incentive to agree and comply. Nazi language indicated death or concentration camp for any business owner who pursued his own self-interest, instead of the ends of the State. The official decree was stamped into the rim of the silver Reichsmark coins between 1933 through the end of WWII "Gemeinnutz geht vor Eigennutz" or "The common good before self-interest.".[183]

See also

References

Bibliography

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Notes

  1. ^ Walter John Raymond. Dictionary of Politics. (1992). ISBN 1-55618-008-X p. 327.
  2. ^ Fritzsche, Peter. 1998. Germans into Nazis. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
  3. ^ Kele, Max H. (1972). Nazis and Workers: National Socialist Appeals to German Labor, 1919–1933. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.
  4. ^ Payne, Stanley G. 1995. A History of Fascism, 1914–45. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
  5. ^ Neocleous, Mark. Fascism. Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA: University of Minnesota Press, 1997 p. 23.
  6. ^ Thomas D. Grant. Stormtroopers and Crisis in the Nazi Movement: activism, ideology and dissolution. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Routledge, 2004. Pp. 30-34, 44.
  7. ^ Otis C. Mitchell. Hitler's stormtroopers and the attack on the German Republic, 1919-1933. Jefferson, North Carolina, USA: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2008. Pp. 47.
  8. ^ Frank McDonough. Hitler and the rise of the Nazi Party. Pearson/Longman, 2003. Pp. 64.
  9. ^ Blamires, Cyprian; Jackson, Paul. World fascism: a historical encyclopedia, Volume 1. Santa Barbara, California, USA: ABC-CLIO, Inc, 2006. p. 61.
  10. ^ Bendersky, Joseph W. A history of Nazi Germany: 1919-1945. 2nd ed. Burnham Publishers, 2000. p. 24. p. 30
  11. ^ Bendersky, Joseph W. A history of Nazi Germany: 1919-1945. 2nd ed. Burnham Publishers, 2000. p. 24.
  12. ^ Bendersky, Joseph W. A history of Nazi Germany: 1919-1945. 2nd ed. Burnham Publishers, 2000. p. 24.
  13. ^ Simone Gigliotti, Berel Lang. The Holocaust: a reader. Malden, Massachusetts, USA; Oxford, England, UK; Carlton, Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing, 2005. Pp. 14.
  14. ^ a b Bendersky, Joseph W. A history of Nazi Germany: 1919-1945. 2nd ed. Burnham Publishers, 2000. p. 40.
  15. ^ European Journal of Political Economy, vol. 21, issue 4, pp. 1015.
  16. ^ Richard Grunberger. The 12-year Reich: a social history of Nazi Germany, 1933-1945. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: De Capo Press, 1995. Pp. 193.
  17. ^ Alexander J. De Grand. Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany: the 'fascist' style of rule. 2nd edition. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Routledge, 1997. Pp. 40.
  18. ^ Adolf Hitler, Max Domarus, Patrick Romane (ed). The essential Hitler: speeches and commentary. Waulconda, Illinois, USA: Bolchazi-Carducci Publishers, Inc., 2007 Pp. 170.
  19. ^ Rudy Koshar. Social life, local politics, and Nazism: Marburg, 1880-1935. University of North Carolina Press, 1986. Pp. 190.
  20. ^ Adolf Hitler. Mein Kampf. Bottom of the Hill Publishing, 2010. Pp. 287.
  21. ^ Fritzsche, Peter. 1998. Germans into Nazis. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press; Eatwell, Roger, Fascism, A History, Viking/Penguin, 1996, pp. xvii-xxiv, 21, 26–31, 114–140, 352. Griffin, Roger. 2000. "Revolution from the Right: Fascism," chapter in David Parker (ed.) Revolutions and the Revolutionary Tradition in the West 1560-1991, Routledge, London.
  22. ^ "Why Hitler hated being called a Nazi and what's really in humble pie". The Telegraph]. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/8843158/Why-Hitler-hated-being-called-a-Nazi-and-whats-really-in-humble-pie-origins-of-words-and-phrases-revealed.html. 
  23. ^ "Nazi". The Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=Nazi. 
  24. ^ Fritzsche, Peter. 1998. Germans into Nazis. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press; Eatwell, Roger, Fascism, A History, Viking/Penguin, 1996, pp. xvii-xxiv, 21, 26–31, 114–140, 352. Griffin, Roger. 2000. "Revolution from the Right: Fascism," chapter in David Parker (ed.) Revolutions and the Revolutionary Tradition in the West 1560-1991, Routledge, London.
  25. ^ Adolf Hitler, Max Domarus, Patrick Romane (ed). The essential Hitler: speeches and commentary. Waulconda, Illinois, USA: Bolchazi-Carducci Publishers, Inc., 2007 Pp. 170.
  26. ^ Rudy Koshar. Social life, local politics, and Nazism: Marburg, 1880-1935. University of North Carolina Press, 1986. Pp. 190.
  27. ^ Adolf Hitler. Mein Kampf. Bottom of the Hill Publishing, 2010. Pp. 287.
  28. ^ Michael Mann. Fascists. New York, New York, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Pp. 183.
  29. ^ Michael Mann. Fascists. New York, New York, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Pp. 183.
  30. ^ George C. Browder. Foundations of the Nazi Police State: The Formation of Sipo and SD. 2004 Paperback edition. Lexington, Kentucky, USA: Kentucky University Press, 2004. Pp. 202.
  31. ^ Michael Mann. Fascists. New York, New York, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Pp. 183.
  32. ^ Joseph W. Bendersky. A concise history of Nazi Germany. Lanham, Maryland, USA; Plymouth, England, UK: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc, 2007. Pp. 96.
  33. ^ Joseph W. Bendersky. A concise history of Nazi Germany. Lanham, Maryland, USA; Plymouth, England, UK: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc, 2007. Pp. 96.
  34. ^ Joseph W. Bendersky. A concise history of Nazi Germany. Lanham, Maryland, USA; Plymouth, England, UK: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc, 2007. Pp. 96.
  35. ^ Michael Mann. Fascists. New York, New York, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2004. Pp. 183.
  36. ^ Powell, Phillip Wayne (1985). Tree of Hate. Vallecito, Calif.: Ross House Books. p. 48. ISBN 0465087507. 
  37. ^ Fodor, M.W. (1936-02-05). "The Spread of Hitlerism". The Nation. New Deal Network. p. 156. http://newdeal.feri.org/nation/na3656.htm. Retrieved 2008-04-05. 
  38. ^ Ryback, Timothy W. Hitler's Private Library: The Books That Shaped His Life (New York; Toronto: Vintage Books, 2010) pp. 129-130.
  39. ^ a b c d Ryback, Timothy W. Hitler's Private Library: The Books That Shaped His Life (New York; Toronto: Vintage Books) 2010. p. 129
  40. ^ Ryback, Timothy W. Hitler's Private Library: The Books That Shaped His Life. New York; Toronto: Vintage Books, 2010. p. 130.
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  54. ^ Nina Witoszek, Lars Trägårdh. Culture and crisis: the case of Germany and Sweden. Berghahn Books, 2002. Pp. 89.
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  62. ^ Nina Witoszek, Lars Trägårdh. Culture and crisis: the case of Germany and Sweden. Berghahn Books, 2002. Pp. 90.
  63. ^ Nina Witoszek, Lars Trägårdh. Culture and crisis: the case of Germany and Sweden. Berghahn Books, 2002. Pp. 89-90.
  64. ^ Roderick Stackelberg, Sally Anne Winkle. The Nazi Germany sourcebook: an anthology of texts. New York, New York, USA: Routledge, 2002. Pp. 45.
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  68. ^ a b Gerwarth, Robert, The Bismarck Myth: Weimar Germany and the Legacy of the Iron Chancellor (Oxford, England; New York, New York: Oxford University Press) p. 150.
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  72. ^ Martin Kitchen. A history of modern Germany, 1800-2000. Malden, Massaschussetts, USA; Oxford, England, UK; Carlton, Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing, Inc., 2006. Pp. 205.
  73. ^ Martin Kitchen. A history of modern Germany, 1800-2000. Malden, Massaschussetts, USA; Oxford, England, UK; Carlton, Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing, Inc., 2006. Pp. 205.
  74. ^ Martin Kitchen. A history of modern Germany, 1800-2000. Malden, Massaschussetts, USA; Oxford, England, UK; Carlton, Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing, Inc., 2006. Pp. 205.
  75. ^ Bernd-Rüdiger Hüppauf. War, violence, and the modern condition. Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter & Co., 1997. Pp. 92.
  76. ^ Bernd-Rüdiger Hüppauf. War, violence, and the modern condition. Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter & Co., 1997. Pp. 92.
  77. ^ Bernd-Rüdiger Hüppauf. War, violence, and the modern condition. Berlin, Germany: Walter de Gruyter & Co., 1997. Pp. 92.
  78. ^ Thomas Rohkrämer. "A single communal faith?: the German Right from Conservatism to National Socialism", Monographs in German History. Volume 20. Berghahn Books, 2007. Pp. 130.
  79. ^ Thomas Rohkrämer. "A single communal faith?: the German Right from Conservatism to National Socialism", Monographs in German History. Volume 20. Berghahn Books, 2007. Pp. 130.
  80. ^ Martin Kitchen. A history of modern Germany, 1800-2000. Malden, Massaschussetts, USA; Oxford, England, UK; Carlton, Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing, Inc., 2006. Pp. 205.
  81. ^ a b Blamires, Cyprian; Jackson, Paul. World fascism: a historical encyclopedia, Volume 1. Santa Barbara, California, USA: ABC-CLIO, Inc, 2006. p. 628.
  82. ^ Blamires, Cyprian; Jackson, Paul. World fascism: a historical encyclopedia, Volume 1. Santa Barbara, California, USA: ABC-CLIO, Inc, 2006. p. 629.
  83. ^ a b c d Cyprian Blamires, Paul Jackson. World fascism: a historical encyclopedia, Volume 1. Santa Barbara, California, USA: ABC-CLIO, Inc., 2006. Pp. 628.
  84. ^ a b c Heinrich August Winkler, Alexander Sager. Germany: The Long Road West. English edition. Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press, 2006. Pp. 414.
  85. ^ Blamires, Cyprian; Jackson, Paul. World fascism: a historical encyclopedia, Volume 1. Santa Barbara, California, USA: ABC-CLIO, Inc, 2006. p. 628.
  86. ^ Eric D. Weitz. Weimar Germany: promise and tragedy. Princeton, New Jersey, USA: Princeton University Press, 2007. Pp. 336-337.
  87. ^ a b H. Stuart Hughes. Oswald Spengler. New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA: Transaction Publishers, 1992. Pp. 108.
  88. ^ H. Stuart Hughes. Oswald Spengler. New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA: Transaction Publishers, 1992. Pp. 109.
  89. ^ Eric D. Weitz. Weimar Germany: promise and tragedy. Princeton, New Jersey, USA: Princeton University Press, 2007. Pp. 336.
  90. ^ a b c d e “February 24, 1920: Nazi Party Established” (history), Yad Vashem, The Holocaust Martyrs’ and Heroes’ Remembrance Authority, 2004, webpage: YV-Party.
  91. ^ “Nazi Party” (overview), Encyclopædia Britannica, 2006, Britannica.com webpage: Britannica-NaziParty.
  92. ^ “Australian Memories of the Holocaust” (history), Glossary, definition of Nazi (party), N.S.W. Board of Jewish Education, New South Wales, Australia,HolocaustComAu-Glossary
  93. ^ “Lexicon: Dolchstosslegende” (definition), www.icons-multimedia.com, 2005, webpage: DolchSL.
  94. ^ “Florida Holocaust Museum - Antisemitism - Post World War 1” (history), www.flholocaustmuseum.org, 2003, webpage: Post-WWI Antisemitism.
  95. ^ “THHP Short Essay: What Was the Final Solution?”. Holocaust-History.org, July 2004, webpage: HoloHist-Final: notes that Hermann Göering used the term in his order of July 31, 1941 to Reinhard Heydrich of Reich Main Security.
  96. ^ Ian Kershaw. Hitler, 1889–1936: hubris. New York, New York, USA; London, England, UK: W. W. Norton & Company, 2000. Pp. 182.
  97. ^ Fulda, Bernhard. Press and Politics in the Weimar Republic. Oxford University Press, 2009. p. 65.
  98. ^ Carlsten, F.L. The Rise of Fascism. 2nd ed. University of California Press, 1982. p. 80.
  99. ^ David Jablonsky. The Nazi Party in dissolution: Hitler and the Verbotzeit, 1923–1925. London, England, UK; Totowa, New Jersey, USA: Frank Cass and Company Ltd., 1989. Pp. 20–26, 30
  100. ^ Stanley G. Payne. A history of fascism, 1914-1945. Madison, Wisconsin, USA: Wisconsin University Press, 1995. pp. 463-464.
  101. ^ Stanley G. Payne. A history of fascism, 1914-1945. Madison, Wisconsin, USA: Wisconsin University Press, 1995. p. 463.
  102. ^ a b Stanley G. Payne. A history of fascism, 1914-1945. Madison, Wisconsin, USA: Wisconsin University Press, 1995. p. 464.
  103. ^ a b Ian Kershaw, Hitler: A Profile in Power, (London, 1991, rev. 2001), first chapter.
  104. ^ Ian Kershaw, 1991, chapter I.
  105. ^ William L. Shirer (1990). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany (3 ed.,1960). Simon and Schuster. p. 41. ISBN 0671728687. http://books.google.com/books?id=sY8svb-MNUwC&pg=PA41&dq=socialist+AND+communalization+AND+embarrassing+AND+%22These+demands+had+been+put+in+at+the+insistence+of+Drexler+and+Feder,+who+apparently+really+believed+in+the+socialism%22+AND+%22rise+and+fall+of+the+third+reich%22&hl=en&ei=HvVcTrXxKIaCgAfVoPT2AQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  106. ^ William L. Shirer (1990). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany (3 ed.,1960). Simon and Schuster. p. 41. ISBN 0671728687. http://books.google.com/books?id=sY8svb-MNUwC&pg=PA41&dq=socialist+AND+communalization+AND+embarrassing+AND+%22These+demands+had+been+put+in+at+the+insistence+of+Drexler+and+Feder,+who+apparently+really+believed+in+the+socialism%22+AND+%22rise+and+fall+of+the+third+reich%22&hl=en&ei=HvVcTrXxKIaCgAfVoPT2AQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  107. ^ The Rise of the Nazis, Conan Fischer, Manchester University Press (2002), ISBN 0-7190-6067-2, p. 53
  108. ^ William L. Shirer (1990). The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany (3 ed.,1960). Simon and Schuster. p. 144. ISBN 0671728687. http://books.google.com/books?id=sY8svb-MNUwC&pg=PA144&dq=industrialists+AND+%22nationalization+of+the+big+banks%22+AND+%22Hitler+was+horrified%22+AND+%22rise+and+fall+of+the+third+reich%22&hl=en&ei=nfhcTvLOLpDqgQfAwJyEAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved August 30, 2011. 
  109. ^ Burleigh, Michael. 2000. The Third Reich: A New History. New York, USA: Hill and Wang. pp. 76-77.
  110. ^ a b c d Burleigh, 2000. p. 77.
  111. ^ Plant, 1986, p. 99.
  112. ^ Pretzel, Andreas (2005). "Vom Staatsfeind zum Volksfeind. Zur Radikalisierung der Homosexuellenverfolgung im Zusammenwirken von Polizei und Justiz". In Zur Nieden, Susanne. Homosexualität und Staatsräson. Männlichkeit, Homophobie und Politik in Deutschland 1900-1945. Frankfurt/M.: Campus Verlag. p. 236. ISBN 9783593377490. http://books.google.de/books?id=HaZwHeBm2lkC&pg=PA236&lpg=PA236#v=onepage&q=&f=false. 
  113. ^ Bennetto, Jason (1997-11-01). "Holocaust: Gay activists press for German apology". The Independent. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_/ai_n14142669. Retrieved 2008-12-26. [dead link]
  114. ^ The Holocaust Chronicle, Publications International Ltd., p. 108.
  115. ^ Plant, Richard, The Pink Triangle: The Nazi War Against Homosexuals, Owl Books, 1988, ISBN 0-8050-0600-1.
  116. ^ Joseph W. Bendersky. A concise history of Nazi Germany. Plymouth, England, UK: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2007. Pp. 32.
  117. ^ Joseph W. Bendersky. A concise history of Nazi Germany. Plymouth, England, UK: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2007. Pp. 32.
  118. ^ Joseph W. Bendersky. A concise history of Nazi Germany. Plymouth, England, UK: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2007. Pp. 33.
  119. ^ Ian Kershaw, Hitler: A Profile in Power, first chapter “The power of the idea” (London, 1991, rev. 2001).
  120. ^ Hitler's Vienna: A Dictator's Apprenticeship by Brigitte Hamann New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. pp. 347-359.)
  121. ^ Russia and Germany, A Century of Conflict by Walter Laqueur London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson 1965.) p76
  122. ^ The Russian Roots of Nazism White Émigrés and the Making of National Socialism, 1917–1945 * Michael Kellogg, Cambridge 2005
  123. ^ Alfred Rosenberg: Der Mythus des 20. Jahrhunderts. Eine Wertung der seelisch-geistigen Gestaltenkämpfe unserer Zeit, 1-34. Aufl., München 1934
  124. ^ Ball, Terence and Bellamy, Richard (2003). The Cambridge History of Twentieth-Century Political Thought, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56354-2
  125. ^ Richard A. Koenigsberg. Nations have the right to kill: Hitler, the Holocaust, and war. New York, New York, USA: Library of Social Science, 2009. Pp. 2.
  126. ^ “BBC - History - Hitler and 'Lebensraum' in the East” (history), www.bbc.co.uk, 2004, webpage: Lebensraum.
  127. ^ Hitler, Adolf (1961). Hitler's Secret Book. New York: Grove Press. pp. 8–9, 17–18. ISBN 0394620038. OCLC 9830111. "Sparta must be regarded as the first Völkisch State. The exposure of the sick, weak, deformed children, in short, their destruction, was more decent and in truth a thousand times more humane than the wretched insanity of our day which preserves the most pathological subject." 
  128. ^ Mike Hawkins (1997). Social Darwinism in European and American Thought, 1860–1945: nature as model and nature as threat. Cambridge University Press. p. 276. ISBN 052157434X. OCLC 34705047. http://books.google.com/?id=SszNCxSKmgkC&pg=PA276&dq=Hitler%27s+Secret+Book+sparta. 
  129. ^ a b Goebbels, Joseph; Mjölnir (1932). Die verfluchten Hakenkreuzler. Etwas zum Nachdenken. Munich: Franz Eher Nachfolger. English translation: Those Damned Nazis.
  130. ^ Called “transnational” Michael Mann, see references.
  131. ^ Davidson, Eugene. The Trial of the Germans Originally published: New York : Macmillan, 1966. Republished by University of Missouri Press, 1997. p. 527. <googlebooks.com>
  132. ^ "Nuremberg Trial Proceedings Vol. 7" (Feb 8, 1946) The Avalon Project Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy Accessed: 2008-10-25. Avalon.law.yale.edu
  133. ^ Piotrowski, Tadeusz. Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918-1947 McFarland, 1998. NC. p. 28. <googlebooks.com>
  134. ^ Bergen, Doris L. War and Genocide: A Concise History of the Holocaust p. 105. Published by Rowman & Littlefield, 2003 <googlebooks.com>
  135. ^ "The Trial of German Major War Criminals, Sitting at Nuremberg, Germany" (January 8, 1946) The Nizkor Project Nizkor.org: For example, "Entire 'Kreise' (districts) remained thus completely deprived of clergy. In the city of Poznan itself the spiritual care of some 200,000 Catholics remained in the hands of not more than four priests."
  136. ^ Holy War "TIME" May 31, 1937 Time.com: '[Hitler] had long been lining up "evidence" to prove that German Catholic monasteries were hotbeds of immorality. In a climactic, triumphant effort to squelch Catholicism on Aryan soil he threw all the immorality trials into the courts at the same time. He hoped that wholesale convictions would destroy the prestige of the Catholic Church for good, that the Reich's 2,000,000 or so Catholic children would be transformed without a hitch into little Brown Shirts.'
  137. ^ Trial of German Major War Criminals (Volume 3) Dec. 17, 1945. The Nizkor Project Nizkor.org "The struggle against the Church did, in fact, become ever more bitter, there was the dissolution of Catholic organisations; ...the systematic defamation, by means of a clever, closely organised propaganda, of the Church, the clergy . . . in the summer of 1942, 480 German-speaking ministers of religion were known to be gathered there; of these, 45 were Protestants, all the others Catholic priests. In spite of the continuous inflow of new internees, especially from dioceses of Bavaria, Rhenania and Westphalia, their number, as a result of the high rate of mortality, at the beginning of this year did not surpass 350. Nor should we pass over in silence those belonging to occupied territories (esp. in predominantly Catholic Poland), Holland, Belgium, France (among whom the Bishop of Clermont), Luxembourg, Slovenia, Italy and Hungary. Many of those priests and laymen endured indescribable sufferings for their faith and for their vocation".
  138. ^ The Trial of German Major War Criminals (Volume 1) Nov. 21, 1945 The Nizkor Project Nizkor.org: "A most intense drive was directed against the Roman Catholic Church. After a strategic Concordat with the Holy See, signed in July, 1933, in Rome, which never was observed by the Nazi Party, a long and persistent persecution of the Catholic Church, its priesthood and its members, was carried out...Priests and bishops were laid upon, riots were stimulated to harass them, and many were sent to concentration camps."
  139. ^ Nizkor Nazi Conspiracy & Aggression Volume II, Criminality of Groups and Organizations, The Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo) & Sicherheitsdienst The Nizkor Project Nizkor.org: '(2) The GESTAPO and the SD were primary agencies for the persecution of the churches. The fight against the churches was never brought out into the open by the GESTAPO and the SD as in the case of the persecution of the Jews. The struggle was designed to weaken the churches and to lay a foundation for the ultimate destruction of the confessional churches after the end of the war. (1815-PS) [. . . .] The notes on the speeches delivered at this conference indicate that the GESTAPO considered the church as an enemy to be attacked with determination and "true fanaticism."...'
  140. ^ a b Steigmann-Gall 2003.
  141. ^ Johnson, Eric A. Nazi Terror: The Gestapo, Jews, and Ordinary Germans Basic Books, 2000. NY pp. 234-235 <googlebooks.com>
  142. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 1985: 149 and 2003: 114.
  143. ^ per the diary of Johannes Hering; Goodrick-Clarke (2002), Black Sun, pp. 116-17.
  144. ^ Goodrick-Clarke (2002), pp. 114, 117.
  145. ^ Goodrick-Clarke 2002: 117.
  146. ^ Goodrick-Clarke (1985), pp. 150–51.
  147. ^ Scholarship for Martin Luther’s 1543 treatise, On the Jews and their Lies, exercising influence on Germany’s attitude:
    • Wallmann, Johannes. “The Reception of Luther’s Writings on the Jews from the Reformation to the End of the 19th Century”, Lutheran Quarterly, n.s. 1 (Spring 1987) 1:72–97. Wallmann writes: “The assertion that Luther’s expressions of anti-Jewish sentiment have been of major and persistent influence in the centuries after the Reformation, and that there exists a continuity between Protestant anti-Judaism and modern racially oriented anti-Semitism, is at present wide-spread in the literature; since the Second World War it has understandably become the prevailing opinion.”
    • Michael, Robert. Holy Hatred: Christianity, Antisemitism, and the Holocaust. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006; see chapter 4 “The Germanies from Luther to Hitler,” pp. 105–151.
    • Hillerbrand, Hans J. “Martin Luther,” Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007. Hillerbrand writes: “[H]is strident pronouncements against the Jews, especially toward the end of his life, have raised the question of whether Luther significantly encouraged the development of German anti-Semitism. Although many scholars have taken this view, this perspective puts far too much emphasis on Luther and not enough on the larger peculiarities of German history.”
  148. ^ Ellis, Marc H. “Hitler and the Holocaust, Christian Anti-Semitism”, Baylor University Center for American and Jewish Studies, Spring 2004, slide 14. Also see Nuremberg Trial Proceedings, Vol. 12, p. 318, Avalon Project, Yale Law School, April 19, 1946.
  149. ^ Bernd Nellessen, “Die schweigende Kirche: Katholiken und Judenverfolgung,” in Büttner (ed), Die Deutchschen und die Jugendverfolg im Dritten Reich, p. 265, cited in Daniel Goldhagen, Hitler’s Willing Executioners (Vintage, 1997)
  150. ^ Wallmann, Johannes. “The Reception of Luther’s Writings on the Jews from the Reformation to the End of the 19th Century”, Lutheran Quarterly, n.s. 1, Spring 1987, 1:72-97
  151. ^ Diarmaid MacCulloch, Reformation: Europe's House Divided, 1490–1700. New York: Penguin Books Ltd, 2004, pp. 666–667.
  152. ^ a b Simon Tormey (1995), Making sense of tyranny:interpretations of totalitarianism. Manchester University Press, p.1-15. ISBN 0719036410
  153. ^ Thomas M. Magstadt (2010), Understanding Politics:Ideas, Institutions, and Issues. Cengage Learning, p.142-143. ISBN 0495797766
  154. ^ Dana Richard Villa (2000), The Cambridge Companion to Hannah Arendt. Cambridge University Press, p.2-3. ISBN 0521645719
  155. ^ Friedrich Hayek (1994), The Road to Serfdom p. 106}}
  156. ^ a b Bendersky, Joseph W. A history of Nazi Germany: 1919-1945. 2nd ed. Burnham Publishers, 2000. p. 72.
  157. ^ "They must unite, [Hitler] said, to defeat the common enemy, Jewish Marxism." A New Beginning, Adolf Hitler, Völkischer Beobachter. February 1925. Cited in: Toland, John (1992). Adolf Hitler. Anchor Books. p. 207. ISBN 0385037244. 
  158. ^ Kershaw, Ian (2008). Hitler, the Germans, and the Final Solution. Yale University Press. p. 53. ISBN 0300124279. 
  159. ^ a b Overy, R.J., The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia (W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2004) p. 403.
  160. ^ Carsten, Francis Ludwig The Rise of Fascism, 2nd ed. (University of California Press, 1982) p. 137. Quoting: Hitler, A., Sunday Express, September 28, 1930.
  161. ^ Calic, Edouard, Ohne Maske (Without a Mask) (Frankfurter Societäts-Druckerei, 1968) pp. 11, 32–33. Translated by R.H. Barry as Unmasked: Two Confidential Interviews with Hitler in 1931, (London: Chatto & Windus, 1971) ISBN 0-7011-1642-0. Hitler’s confidential 1931 interviews were with Richard Breiting, editor of the Leipziger Neueste Nachrichten. Cited in: Bel, Germà (2006). Against The Mainstream: Nazi Privatization In 1930s Germany, Research Institute of Applied Economics 2006 Working Papers 2006/7, p. 14. Also cited in Richard Pipes, Property and Freedom, 1998, p. 416; which is cited in Epstein, Richard Allen, Principles for a Free Society (De Capo Press) p. 168. ISBN 0-7382-0829-9.
  162. ^ Carroll Quigley, Tragedy and Hope, 1966, p. 619.
  163. ^ Bendersky, Joseph W. A History of Nazi Germany: 1919-1945. 2nd ed. (Burnham Publishers, 2000) pp. 58-59.
  164. ^ Lee, Stephen J., Weimar and Nazi Germany, (Harcourt Heinemann, 1996) p. 28.
  165. ^ Turner, Henry A., German Big Business and the Rise of Hitler, (Oxford University Press, 1985) p. 62.
  166. ^ Turner, Henry A. German Big Business and the Rise of Hitler (Oxford University Press, 1985) p. 77. ISBN 0-19-503492-9.
  167. ^ Overy, R.J., The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia (W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2004) p. 399
  168. ^ a b c Overy, R.J., The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia (W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2004) p. 399
  169. ^ Overy, R.J., The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia (W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2004) p. 230.
  170. ^ Hitler's Piano Player: The Rise and Fall of Ernst Hanfstaengl: Confidant of Hitler, Ally of FDR (New York, New York: Carroll and Graf Publishers, 2004) p. 284.
  171. ^ a b ROvery, R.J., The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia (W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2004) p. 402.
  172. ^ Overy, R.J., The Dictators: Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Russia (W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2004) p. 402
  173. ^ Hitler’s speech on May 1, 1927. Cited in: Toland, John (1992). Adolf Hitler. Anchor Books. pp. 224–225. ISBN 0385037244. 
  174. ^ Turner, Henry A., German Big Business and the Rise of Hitler (Oxford University Press, 1985) p. 77.
  175. ^ Nyomarkay, Joseph, Charisma and Factionalism in the Nazi Party (Minnesota University Press, 1967) p. 132
  176. ^ Nyomarkay, Joseph, Charisma and Factionalism in the Nazi Party (Minnesota University Press, 1967) p. 130
  177. ^ Nyomarkay, Joseph, Charisma and Factionalism in the Nazi Party (Minnesota University Press, 1967) p. 130
  178. ^ a b Nyomarkay, Joseph, Charisma and Factionalism in the Nazi Party (Minnesota University Press, 1967) p. 133
  179. ^ Read, Anthony The Devil's Disciples: Hitler's Inner Circle, 1st American ed. (New York, New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2004) p. 142
  180. ^ Karl Dietrich Bracher, The German Dictatorship, 1973, pp. 230-1
  181. ^ Ernst Nolte, Three Faces of Fascism, 1969, pp. 425-426
  182. ^ Evans, The Third Reich in Power, 1933–1939, Penguin Press, 2005, p. 409)
  183. ^ a b Peter Temin (November 1991>). Economic History Review, New Series 44 (4): 573–593. 
  184. ^ Guillebaud, Claude W. 1939. The Economic Recovery of Germany 1933-1938. London: MacMillan and Co. Limited.
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  • nazism — NAZÍSM s.n. Naţional socialism. – Din fr. nazisme, germ. Nazismus. Trimis de LauraGellner, 04.06.2004. Sursa: DEX 98  NAZÍSM s. v. naţional socialism. Trimis de siveco, 05.08.2004. Sursa: Sinonime  nazísm s. n …   Dicționar Român

  • Nazism — (n.) also Naziism, 1934, from NAZI (Cf. Nazi) + ISM (Cf. ism). Perhaps based on Fr. Nazisme (1930) …   Etymology dictionary

  • Nazism — noun The ideology of ’s NSDAP (National Socialist German Workers’ Party), including a Führer’s totalitarian government, racism, nationalist territorial expansion (Lebensraum) and state control of the (war) economy. See Also: Nazi, Nazification,… …   Wiktionary

  • Nazism — [[t]nɑ͟ːtsɪzəm[/t]] N UNCOUNT Nazism was the political ideas and activities of the German Nazi Party …   English dictionary

  • Nazism — Nazi ► NOUN (pl. Nazis) 1) historical a member of the National Socialist German Workers Party. 2) derogatory a person with extreme racist or authoritarian views. DERIVATIVES Nazism noun. ORIGIN German, representing the pronunciation of Nati in… …   English terms dictionary

  • Nazism — also Naziism noun Etymology: Nazi + ism Date: 1934 the body of political and economic doctrines held and put into effect by the Nazis in Germany from 1933 to 1945 including the totalitarian principle of government, predominance of especially… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Nazism — /naht siz euhm, nat /, n. the principles or methods of the Nazis. Also, Naziism /naht see iz euhm, nat /. [1930 35; NAZ(I) + ISM] * * * …   Universalium

  • Nazism — Synonyms and related words: centralism, collectivism, communism, constitutionalism, democratism, fascism, federalism, feudalism, feudality, governmentalism, imperialism, monarchism, national socialism, neofascism, parliamentarianism,… …   Moby Thesaurus

  • nazísm — s. n …   Romanian orthography

  • Nazism — Na|zism [ nat,sızəm, næt,sızəm ] noun uncount the ideas and political policies of the Nazi party …   Usage of the words and phrases in modern English


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