The EcoCute is an energy efficient
heat pumpthat uses both electricity and heat extracted from the air to heat water for domestic use. Instead of the more conventional ammoniaor haloalkane gases, EcoCute uses carbon dioxideas a refrigerant. The technology offers a means of energy conservationand reduces the emission of greenhouse gas.
The formal name of the nihongo| EcoCute|自然冷媒ヒートポンプ式電気給湯機|Sizen reibai hīto ponpu shiki denki kyūtō ki literally means "natural refrigerant heat pump type electricity water heating supply machine". [ [http://www.eccj.or.jp/vanguard/commende-12-05.html Fiscal year 2001, 12th Energy conservation award] by
Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry (Japan), jp icon ] Eco is a contraction of either Ecologyor Economical and nihongo|Cute also means |給湯|kyūtō; literally "supply hot water."http://criepi.denken.or.jp/koko/ecocute/page1.html Make hot water by CO2, initiative in the world jp icon]
Modern chemical refrigeration techniques developed after the proposal of the
Carnot cyclein 1824. Jacob Perkinsinvented an ice-making machine that used etherin 1843, and Edmond Carré built a refrigeratorthat used waterand sulfuric acidin 1850. In 1870, the first ice-making machine in Japan was experimentally made and installed in the Tokyo Universitylaboratory of Fukuzawa Yukichito cool him down during a period of illness. Fusanosuke Kuhara, founder of Hitachi, Ltd., made for his own home use an air conditionerusing compressed CO2 as a refrigerant.
Thomas Midgleydiscovered dichlorodifluoromethane, a chlorinated fluorocarbon (CFC) known as Freon. CFCs rapidly replaced traditional refrigerant substances, including CO2 (which proved hard to compress for domestic use [http://www.shecco.com/about/history.php The rediscovery of CO2] SHECCO] ), for use in heat pumpsand refrigerators. But from the 1980s CFCs began to lose favor as refrigerant when their damaging effects on the ozone layerwere discovered. An alternative type of refrigerant, Hydro fluoro compounds (HFC), also lost favour when they were identified as greenhouse gases. The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, the Montreal Protocoland the Kyoto Protocolcall for the complete abandonment of such refrigerants by 2030.
In 1989, amid international concern about the effects of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC and HFC) on the
ozone layer, scientist Gustav Lorentzen and SINTEFpatented a method for using CO2 as a refrigerant in heating and cooling. Further research into CO2 refrigeration was then conducted at Shecco(Sustainable Heating and Cooling with CO2) in Brussels, Belgium, leading to increasing use of CO2 refrigerant technology in Europe.
In 1993 the Japanese company
Denso, in collaboration with Gustav Lorentzen, developed an automobile air conditionerusing CO2 as a refrigerant. They demonstrated the invention at the June 1998 International Institute of Refrigeration/Gustav Lorentzen Conference. [http://www.denso.co.jp/ja/csr/report/2004/pdf/pdf/07.pdf Technology of Car air conditioner blooms as EcoCute,] Densojp icon] [ [http://www.epa.gov/cppd/Presentations/Inui%20Compact%20Vehicles.pdf Concerns and Solutions for CO2 Air Conditioning Systemsfor Compact Vehicles,] DensoCorporation, 15 April, 2004, Mobile Air Conditioning Summit 2004, Washington, D.C] [ [http://www.earthscape.org/r1/etf01/kon01.html Concerns of C02 Air Conditioning System for Compact Vehicles] , DensoCorporation, "References: at bottom": Natural working fluids ’98 (IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Working Fluids, Oslo, Norway, 1998] . After the conference Denso were approached by CRIEPI ( Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry) and TEPCO ( The Tokyo Electric Power Company) to develop a prototype air conditioner using natural refrigerant materials instead of Freon. Together they produced 30 prototypeEcoCute units for a year-long experimental installation at locations throughout Japan, from the cold climate of Hokkaidōto hotter Okinawa. After this successful feasibility study, Denso obtained a patent to compress CO2 refrigerantfor use in a heat pump from SINTEFin September 2000. [http://www.tokugikon.jp/gikonshi/236techno.pdf EcoCute] , Japan Patent OfficeSociety jp icon]
The first commercial domestic EcoCute was marketed in Japan by CORONA Corp. in
May 2001, and several manufacturers sold one million units there by 25 May, 2007. [ [http://www.fepc-atomic.jp/fepc-press/topics/others/20070928-a.html Over 1 million EcoCute units sold in Japan on 25 May, 2007] Federation of Electric Power Companiesjp icon] [ [http://www.corona.co.jp/news/news_040520.pdf Announcement,] CORONA Corp., Japanese edition: コロナ jp icon]
Features and demand
In Japan in 1998, water heating (nihongo| Kyuto |給湯|kyūtō) accounted for 33.8% of typical domestic energy consumption, with
air conditionerand kerosene heaterheating accounting for another 26.9% and cooling by air conditioner another 2.3%. Most of the remaining 37% was spent on electrical home appliances, a field where 21st century innovations in energy conservation began to make considerable energy savings. [ [http://www.eccj.or.jp/databook/2000/22-2.html 2.2 (2) Yearly home energy consumption by usage category] The Energy Conservation Center, Japan (ECCJ) jp icon] [http://www.tepco-switch.com/ecocute/what/index-j.html What is EcoCute] TEPCOjp icon] This left hot water supply as the most difficult area for energy conservation, leaving a gap in the market for the EcoCute. By January 2005, 26 Japanese companies were producing more than 450 models of EcoCute machine, and sales of domestic units increased 130-150% each year between 2001 and 2005.
Denso first introduced the EcoCute outside Japan at the COP9
Milan, Italyon December, 9, 2003. From 2007, Denso began concentrating on marketing the EcoCute in the EU. [ [http://ehpn.fiz-karlsruhe.de/en/aktuell/kat3/akt232.html EcoCute demand surges in Europe,] European Heat pump network] [ [http://www.r744.com/article.view.php?Id=655 Heat pumps offer huge potential] , IEA Conference] . In Japan, the Japanese government incorporated the EcoCute into its CO2 reduction program under the Kyoto Protocol, mandating the installation of 5.2 million units in commercial and domestic properties by 2010. [ [http://www.kantei.go.jp/jp/singi/ondanka/kakugi/050428keikaku_betu.pdf Page 16/24, CO2 reduction plan, Popularlizing high efficiency hot water supply machine,] Kanteijp icon] .
EcoCute machine basics
An EcoCute machine or system consists of a
heat pumpand hot waterstorage unit. The components are serially concatenated with sealing refrigerant CO2 gas in circulation.
# At the first stage, a
heat exchangercollects heat from the air outside to use as energy for the refrigerant. Air flow is usually obtained using a centrifugal fan; in cold areas with ambient temperatures around -20 to -25 ℃ an fan heateris attached.
gas compressoris used to heat the gas CO2 refrigerant to around 100℃ under pressure of 10MPa via adiabatic compression. The carbon dioxide becomes a supercritical fluid. [ [http://www.denso.co.jp/ja/csr/environment/story/no3/2par.html Section2. Seeking supercritical fluid of CO2] Densojp icon] [ [http://national.jp/sumai/hp/1mech/index.html EcoCute structure] Panasonicjp icon] . Several types of compressor can be used, including dual layer cylindrical compressors, scroll compressors, and dual stage rotary compressors [ [http://www.sanyo.co.jp/giho/no76/pdf/7612.pdf Cooling System Composed with Rolling Piston Type 2-Stage CO2 Compressor] , Sanyo]
# At the second stage a
heat exchangertransfers energy from the hot refrigerant into water to produce hot water. Water temperatures around 5℃ and up are suitable at this stage.
# Finally, ejector or expansion valves reduce pressure on the refrigerant, letting it cool via
adiabatic expansionand revert to CO2 gas.
The EcoCute derives two units of energy from ambient air temperature for every unit of electrical power it requires. Each of these one unit plus two cost free units produces more than three units of hot water energy, resulting in reduced CO2 emissions compared to water heating via electricity or
town gas. To produce 90℃ hot water, an EcoCute consumes 66% less energy than an electric water heater, and costs 80% less than heating water via town gas in Japan. [ [http://www.denso.co.jp/ja/csr/environment/story/no3/6par.html Section 6, Denso's assumption,] Densojp icon] . Also, by reducing use of fossil fuels, the EcoCute results in more than 50% reductions in CO2 emissions [ [http://criepi.denken.or.jp/jp/energy/substance/01.pdf Research and development of EcoCute] CRIEPIjp icon]
The EcoCute's COP is 3.8 in industrial use, while electric power
water heatingis 1.0, and gas boileris 0.88 including pilot lightloss. [ [http://www.itomic.co.jp/catalog/bre/ecocute/gaiyo/tokucho.html Feature of industrial use Ecocute] , www.itomic.co.jp jp icon]
nihongo|EcoCute|エコキュート|ekokyūto is a registered
trademark(No. 4575216 - Japan) [ [http://www.jpo.go.jp/shiryou/pdf/gidou-houkoku/natural_refrigerant.pdf Patents application on Heating and cooling by natural refrigerant] page 3/24 bottom, note No.10, May 15, 2003, Japan Patent Officejp icon] of Kansai Electric Power Company, but the term is also used generically to refer to water heaters designed for energy conservationor greenhouse gasemission reduction.
Gustav Lorentzen (scientist)
The Cool War
* [http://www.r744.com/ Everything R744] R744.com
* [http://www.shecco.com/ Sustainable Heating and Cooling with CO2] SHECCO.com
* [http://www.r744.com/article.view.php?Id=46 High-efficient EcoCute models launched] , R744.com - 2008-02-01
* [http://criepi.denken.or.jp/en/e_publication/energy.pdf Research on Performance Evaluation of Heat Pump Water Heaters] , EcoCute 24/31 page;Prize List:(4), Mar.2002, EPA Climate Protection Award & 25/31 page Ecocute history,
* cite web
title=DENSO Earns 2002 Climate Protection Award From U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
* [http://www.japancorp.net/Article.Asp?Art_ID=448 TEPCO'S 'Eco Cute' the World's First CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater for Residential Use]
* [http://www.heatpumpcentre.org/Workshops/Workshop_Tokyo_May_2006/Sum_HP_Water_Heaters_Hashimoto.pdf Technology and Market Development of Heat Pump Water Heaters in Japan] , IEA, Heat Pump Centre (HPC)
* [http://www.e8.org/index.jsp?numPage=142 Demand-side management] , e8.com.org
*cite news | url =http://www.theautochannel.com/news/2002/12/04/151245.html | title = DENSO Develops World's First CO2 Car Air Conditioner | publisher = The Auto Channel | date =
2002-12-04| accessdate = 2008-07-19
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Supercritical fluid — A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its thermodynamic critical point. It can diffuse through solids like a gas, and dissolve materials like a liquid. Additionally, close to the critical point, small changes… … Wikipedia
Gustav Lorentzen (scientist) — Gustav Lorentzen (1915 1995) was a thermodynamic scientist from Norway. He was professor at Norwegian Institute of Technology then Norwegian University of Science and Technology. In late end of the 1980s, Gustav Lorentzen came to idea again use… … Wikipedia
Air conditioner — For general aspects of air conditioning, see Air conditioning. A typical home air conditioning unit. An air conditioner (often referred to as AC) is a home appliance, system, or mechanism designed to dehumidify and extract heat from an area. The… … Wikipedia
Carbon dioxide — Carbon dioxide … Wikipedia
The Tokyo Electric Power Company — Infobox Company name = The Tokyo Electric Power Company type = Public KK (tyo|9501) foundation = May 1, 1951 location city = Tokyo location country = JPN origins = The Tokyo Electric Light Company, Incorporated (founded in 1889) key people =… … Wikipedia
Mitsubishi Electric — Corporation 三菱電機株式会社 Type Corporation Traded as TYO … Wikipedia
SINTEF — Infobox Company company name = SINTEF company type = Private foundation = 1950 location = Trondheim, Oslo and Bergen, Norway area served = industry = Research products = Research projects num employees = 1900 (2006) parent = NTNU (NTH) subsid =… … Wikipedia
Supercritical carbon dioxide — Carbon dioxide pressure temperature phase diagram Supercritical carbon dioxide is a fluid state of carbon dioxide where it is held at or above its critical temperature and critical pressure. Carbon dioxide usually behaves as a gas in air at STP… … Wikipedia
Denso — Corporation Type Public TYO: 6902 Industry automotive components Fo … Wikipedia
List of Japan-related articles (E) — TOCleftThis page lists Japan related articles with romanized titles beginning with the letter E. For names of people, please list by surname (i.e., Tarō Yamada should be listed under Y , not T ). Please also ignore particles (e.g. a , an , the )… … Wikipedia