Infobox PRC province
ChineseName = 甘肃省
Pinyin = Gānsù Shěng
EnglishName = Gansu Province
Name = Gansu
Abbreviation = 甘 or 陇
AbbrevPinyin = Gān or Lǒng
ISOAbbrev = 62
MapSize = 275px
OriginOfName = 甘 gān - Ganzhou (
肃 sù - Suzhou (
AdministrationType = Province
Secretary = Lu Hao
Area_km2 = 454000
AreaRank = 7th
PopYear = 2004
Pop = 26,190,000
PopRank = 22nd
PopDensity_km2 = 57.7
PopDensityRank = 27th
GDPYear = 2007
GDP = 269.9 billion
GDPRank = 26th
GDPperCapita = 10,335
GDPperCapitaRank = 30th
HDIYear = 2005
HDI = 0.675
HDIRank = 28th
HDICat = medium
Nationalities = Han - 91%
Hui - 5%
Dongxiang - 2%
Tibetan - 2%
Prefectures = 14
Counties = 86
Townships = 1344
Website = http://www.gansu.gov.cn
Audio|zh-Gansu.ogg|Gansu (zh-stpw |s=甘肃 |t=甘肅 |p=Gānsù |w=Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the
People's Republic of China. It lies between Qinghai, Inner Mongolia, and the Huangtu Plateaus, and borders Mongoliato the north and Xinjiangto the west. The Yellow Riverpasses the southern part of the province. It has a population of approximately 26 million (2004) and has a large concentration of Hui Chinese. The capital of the province is Lanzhou, located in the southeast part of Gansu. Gansu is abbreviated Gan or Long (陇/隴), and is also known as Long West or Long Right, in reference to the Long Mountain east of Gansu.
There are fourteen administrative areas in Gansu immediately below the province level: twelve
prefecture-level citiesand two autonomous prefectures:
The prefecture-level cities:
BaiyinCity (白银 Báiyín Shì)
DingxiCity (定西 Dìngxī Shì)
JiayuguanCity (嘉峪关 : Jiāyùguān Shì)
JinchangCity (金昌 : Jīnchāng Shì)
JiuquanCity (酒泉 : Jiǔquán Shì)
LanzhouCity (兰州 : Lánzhōu Shì)
LongnanCity (陇南 : Lǒngnán Shì)
PingliangCity (平凉 : Píngliàng Shì)
QingyangCity (庆阳 : Qìngyáng Shì)
TianshuiCity (天水 : Tiānshuǐ Shì)
WuweiCity (武威 : Wǔwēi Shì)
ZhangyeCity (张掖 : Zhāngyè Shì)
The autonomous prefectures:
Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture(甘南 : Gānnán Zàngzú Zìzhìzhōu)
Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture(临夏 : Línxià Huízú Zìzhìzhōu)
In prehistoric times, Gansu was host to a number of
Neolithiccultures. The Dadiwan culture, from where numerous archaeologically significant artifacts have been excavated, flourished in the eastern end of Gansu from about 6000 BC to about 3000 BC [ [http://www.china.org.cn/english/2002/Nov/48266.htm Dadiwan Relics Break Archeological Records ] ] . The Majiayao culture(馬家窯文化) and part of the Qijia culture(齊家文化) also took root in Gansu from 3100 BC to 2700 BC and 2400 BC to 1900 BC respectively.
The Qin state (秦), later to become the founding state of the
Chinese empire, grew out from the southeastern part of Gansu, specifically the Tianshui(天水) area. The Qin name itself is believed to have originated, in part, from the area [ [http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-11/19/content_5349258.htm Xinhua - English ] ] [ [http://english.people.com.cn/200602/20/eng20060220_244270.html People's Daily Online - Chinese surname history: Qin ] ] . Qin tombs and artifacts have been excavated from Fangmatannear Tianshui, including one 2200 year old map of Guixian county[ [http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2002-04/30/content_378835.htm Over 2,200-Year-old Map Discovered in NW China ] ] .
In imperial times, Gansu was an important strategic outpost and communications link for the Chinese empire, as the
Hexi corridor(河西走廊) runs along the "neck" of the province. The Han dynastyextended the Great Wall across this corridor, also building the strategic Yumenguan(Jade Gate Pass, near Dunhuang) and Yangguan(阳关) fort towns along it. Remains of the wall and the towns can be found there to this date. The Ming dynastyalso built the Jiayuguanoutpost in Gansu. To the west of Yumenguan and the Qilian mountains, at the northwestern end of the province, the Yuezhi, Wusun, and other nomadic tribes dwelt ( Shiji123), occasionally figuring in regional imperial Chinese geopolitics.
After the fall of the
Uyghur Empire, a Uyghurstate was established in Gansu that lasted from 848 to 1036 AD. During that time, many of Gansu's residents converted to Islam.
Situated along the
Silk Road, Gansu was an economically important province, and a cultural transmission path as well. Temples and Buddhist grottoes [http://english.people.com.cn/200201/03/eng20020103_87985.shtml] such as those at Mogao Caves('Caves of the Thousand Buddhas') and Maijishan Cavescontain artistically and historically revealing murals. ["Artistic treasures of Maiji Mountain caves" by Alok Shrotriya and Zhou Xue-ying. [http://www.asianart.com/articles/alok/index.html] ] An early form of paperinscribed with Chinese characters and dating to about 8 BC was discovered at the site of a Western Han garrisonnear the Yumen pass in August 2006 [ [http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2006-08/08/content_4937457.htm Xinhua - English ] ] .
The province was also the origin of the
Muslim Rebellionof 1862-77, which later spread to much of China and resulted in the deaths of upwards of twelve million Chinese Muslims [Gernet, Jacques. A History of Chinese Civilization. 2. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-521-49712-4] in addition to the decimation of Chinese Muslim culture in Yunnanprovince, where over one million Muslims were killed by Qingforces [Damsan Harper, Steve Fallon, Katja Gaskell, Julie Grundvig, Carolyn Heller, Thomas Huhti, Bradley Maynew, Christopher Pitts. Lonely Planet China. 9. 2005. ISBN 1-74059-687-0] . Gansu's Muslim community was almost entirely exterminated during this period, and only a small minority of Chinese Muslims still remain, many of whom work and own Muslim restaurants, which are extremely popular amongst the HanChinese majority.
Its frequent earthquakes, droughts and famines have tended to slow its economic progress, until recently when based on its abundant mineral resources it has begun developing into a vital industrial center. An
earthquakein Gansu at 8.6 on the Richter scale killed around 180,000 people in 1920, and another with a magnitude of 7.6 killed 70,000 in 1932.
Gansu province has an area of 454,000 km², and the majority of its land is more than 1 km above
sea level. It lies between the Tibetan Plateau, Inner Mongolia, and the LoessPlateau, and borders Mongoliato the north-west. The Yellow Riverpasses through the southern part of the province. The province contains the geographical centerof China, marked by the Center of the County Monument at coord|35|50|40.9|N|103|27|7.5|E|region:CN_type:landmark|name=Geographical centre of China [http://english.people.com.cn/english/200009/13/eng20000913_50419.html] .
Part of the
Gobi Desertis located in Gansu.
The Yellow River gets most of its water from Gansu province. The Yellow River also flows straight through Lanzhou.
The landscape in Gansu is very mountainous in the south and flat in the north. The mountains in the south are part of the
Qilianmountain range. At 5,547 meters high, Qilian Shan Mountain is Gansu’s highest elevation. It is located at latitude 39°N and longitude 99°E.
Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang, Qinghai, Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Ningxia.
Other cities include:
Asian Development Bankis working with the State Forestry Administration of Chinaon the Silk Road Ecosystem Restoration project, designed to prevent degradation and desertification in Gansu. It is estimated to cost up to US$150 million.
Secretaries of the CPC Gansu Committee: The Secretary of the CPC Gansu Committee is the highest ranking office within Gansu Province.
Zhang Desheng(张德生): 1949-1954
Zhang Zhongliang(张仲良): 1954-1961
Wang Feng(汪锋): 1961-1966
Hu Jizong(胡继宗): 1966-1967
Xian Henghan(冼恒汉): 1970-1977
Song Ping(宋平): 1977-1981
Feng Jixin(冯纪新): 1981-1983
Li Ziqi(李子奇): 1983-1990
Gu Jinchi(顾金池): 1990-1993
Yan Haiwang(阎海旺): 1993-1998
Sun Ying(孙英): 1998-2001
Song Zhaosu(宋照肃): 2001-2003
Su Rong(苏荣): 2003-2007
#Lu Hao (陆浩): April 2007 - incumbent
Governors of Gansu: The Governorship of Gansu is the second highest ranking official within Gansu, behind the Secretary of the CPC Gansu Committee. The governor is responsible for all issues related to
economics, personnel, political initiatives, the environment and the foreign affairsof the province. The Governor is appointed by the Gansu Provincial People's Congress, which is the province's legislativebody.
Wang Shitai(王世泰): 1949-1950
Deng Baoshan(邓宝姗): 1950-1967
Xian Henghan(冼恒汉): 1967-1977
Song Ping(宋平): 1977-1979
Feng Jixin(冯纪新): 1979-1981
Li Dengying(李登瀛): 1981-1983
Chen Guangyi(陈光毅): 1983-1986
Jia Zhijie(贾志杰): 1986-1993
Yan Haiwang(阎海旺): 1993
Zhang Wule(张吾乐): 1993-1996
Sun Ying(孙英): 1996-1998
Song Zhaosu(宋照肃): 1998-2001
#Lu Hao (陆浩): 2001-2006
Xu Shousheng(徐守盛): January 2007 - incumbent cite news |first=|last=|title=Xu Shousheng re-elected governor of northwest China's Gansu Province |url=http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-01/27/content_7502167.htm |work= Xinhua|publisher=|date=2008-01-27 |accessdate=2008-02-23]
Agricultural production includes
cotton, linseed oil, maize, melons(such as the honeydew melon, known locally as the Bailan melonor "Wallace" due to its introduction by US vice president Henry A. Wallace) [http://www.hudong.com/wiki/%E7%99%BD%E5%85%B0%E7%93%9C This simplified Chinese page discusses how the seeds were brought to China, the connection to Wallace, dates, etc.] , millet, and wheat. Gansu is known as a source for wild medicinal herbs which are used in Chinese medicine.
However, most of Gansu's economy is based on
miningand the extraction of minerals, especially rare earth elements. The province has significant deposits of antimony, chromium, coal, cobalt, copper, fluorite, gypsum, iridium, iron, lead, limestone, mercury, mirabilite, nickel, crude oil, platinum, troilite, tungsten, and zincamong others. The oil fields at Yumen and Changqing are considered significant.
Industries other than mining include
electricity generation, petrochemicals, oil exploration machinery, and building materials.
According to some sources, the province is also a center of China's nuclear industry.
Despite recent growth in Gansu and the booming economy in the rest of China, Gansu is still considered to be one of the poorest provinces in China. Its nominal GDP for 2006 was about 269.9 billion yuan (35.5 billion USD) and per capita of 10,335 RMB (1,359 USD). Tourism has been a bright spot in contributing to Gansu's overall economy. As mentioned below, Gansu offers a wide variety of choices for national and international tourists.
Gansu province is home to 26,033,400 people. Most of the population, 73%, is still rural. Gansu is 92% Han and also has Hui, Tibetan, Dongxiang, Tu,
Manchu, Uyghur, Yugur, Bonan, Mongolian, Salar, and Kazakh minorities. Prior to the Panthay Rebellion(also Muslim Rebellion), Gansu province had a large community of Chinese HuiMuslims, which was almost completely decimated by Qingauthorities.
Most of the inhabitants of Gansu speak dialects of Northern
Mandarin Chinese. On the border areas of Gansu you may hear Tu, Amdo Tibetan, Mongolian, and Kazakh. Most of the minorities also speak Chinese.
The cuisine of Gansu is based on the staple crops grown there:
wheat, barley, millet, beans, and sweet potatoes. Within China, Gansu is known for its lamian(pulled noodles), and Muslim restaurants which feature authentic Gansu cuisine. Muslim restaurants are known as "qingzhen restaurants" ("pure truths restaurants"), and feature typical Chinese dishes, but without any pork products, and instead an emphasis on lamb and mutton.
The Jiayuguan Pass of the Great Wall
Jiayuguan Pass, in
Jiayuguancity, is the largest and most intact pass, or entrance, of the Great Wall. Jiayuguan Pass was built in the early Ming dynasty, somewhere around the year 1372. It was built near an oasis that was then on the extreme western edge of China. Jiayuguan Pass was the first pass on the west end of the great wall so it earned the name “The First And Greatest Pass Under Heaven.”
An extra brick is said to rest on a ledge over one of the gates. One legend holds that the official in charge asked the designer to calculate how many bricks would be used. The designer gave him the number and when the project was finished, only one brick was left. It was put on the top of the pass as a symbol of commemoration. Another account holds that the building project was assigned to a military manager and an architect. The architect presented the manager with a requisition for the total number of bricks that he would need. When the manager found out that the architect had not asked for any extra bricks, he demanded that the architect make some provision for unforeseen circumstances. The architect, taking this as an insult to his planning ability, added a single extra brick to the request. When the gate was finished, the single extra brick was, in fact, extra and was left on the ledge over the gate.
The Mogao Grottoes near
Dunhuangrepresent an astonishing collection of Buddhist art and religion. Originally there were a thousand grottoes, but now only 492 cave temples remain. Each temple has a large statue of a buddha or bodhisattvaand paintings of religious scenes. In 336 AD, a monk named Le Zun (Lo-tsun) came near Echoing Sand Mountain, when he had a vision of golden rays of light shining down on him like a thousand Buddhas. Le Zun started to carve the first grotto to memorize the incident. During the Five Dynasties period they ran out of room on the cliff and could not build anymore grottoes. Now they have started to find old paintings that were painted over in the Five Dynasties.
ilk Road and Dunhuang City
Silk Roadstarts in Chang'anand goes to Constantinople. On the way merchants would go to Dunhuang in Gansu. In Dunhuang they would get fresh camels, food and guards for the journey around the dangerous Taklamakan Desert. Before departing Dunhuang they would pray to the Mogao Grottoes for a safe journey, if they came back alive they would thank the gods at the grottoes. Across the desert they would form a train of camels to protect themselves from thieving bandits. The next stop, Kashi (Kashgar), was a welcome sight to the merchants. At Kashi most would trade and go back and the ones who stayed would eat fruit and trade their Bactrian camels for single humped ones. After Kashi they would keep going until they reached their next destination.
Located about 5 km southwest of the city, the Crescent Lake or Yueyaquan is a oasis and popular spot for tourists seeking respite from the heat of the desert. Activities includes camel and 4x4 rides.
Bingling Temple, or Bingling Grottoes, is a Buddhistcave complex in a canyon along the Yellow River. Begun in 420 AD during the Western Jin Dynasty, the site contains dozens of caves and caverns filled with outstanding examples of carvings, sculpture, and frescoes. The great Maitreya Buddha is more than 27 meters tall and is similar in style to the great Buddhas that once lined the cliffs of Bamiyan, Afghanistan. Access to the site is by boat from Yongjingin the summer or fall. There is no other access point.
LabrangTashikyil Monastery is located in Xiahe County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, located in the southern part of Gansu, and part of the traditional Tibetan province of Amdo. It is one of the six major monasteries of the Gelukpatradition of Tibetan Buddhismin Tibet, and the most important one in Amdo. Built in 1710, it is headed by the Jamyang-zhaypa. It has 6 "dratsang" (colleges), and houses over sixty thousand religious texts and other works of literature as well as other cultural artifacts.
Space launch center
Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centeris located in the Gobi desert in Gansu Province.
In August 1949, the provincial government
overprinted the nondenominated stamps "locomotive" and "airmail arrow" stamps issued by the central government. These overprints were made by handstamping in purple, and are quite rare, valued at over US$500 each. Counterfeits are known, and apparent examples should be expertized.
Colleges and universities
Gansu Agricultural University
Northwest Minority University
Lanzhou Jiaotong University
Lanzhou University of Technology
Northwest University of Nationalities
Lanzhou Railway Institute
Gansu University of Technology
Northwest Normal University
Lanzhou Commercial College
Lanzhou Polytechnic College
Tianshui Normal College(Tianshui)
*166,400 km² grassland
*46,700 km² mountain slopes suitable for livestock breeding
*46,200 km² forests (standing timber reserves of 0.2 km³)
*35,300 km² cultivated land (1,400 m² per capita)
*66,600 km² wasteland suitable for forestation
*10,000 km² wasteland suitable for farming
*454,000 km² total area
Three thousand deposits of 145 different minerals. Ninety-four minerals have been found and ascertained, including nickel, cobalt, platinum, selenium, casting clay, finishing serpentine, and five other minerals whose reserves are the largest in China.cn} Gansu has advantages in getting nickel, zinc, cobalt, platinum, iridium, copper, barite, and baudisserite.
Among Gansu’s most important sources of energy are its water resources: the Yellow River and other inland river drainage basins. Gansu is placed ninth among China’s provinces in annual hydropower potential and water discharge. Gansu produces 17.24 gigawatts of hydropower a year. Twenty-nine hydropower stations have been constructed in Gansu, each capable of generating 30 gigawatts. Gansu has an estimated coal reserve of 8.92 billion tons and petroleum reserve of 700 million tons. There is also good potential for wind and solar power development.
Flora and Fauna
Gansu has 659 species of wild animals. Among these are the
giant panda, snub-nosed monkeys, antelopes, snow leopards, deer, fawn, musk deer, and the Bactrian camel. It also has twenty-four other rare animals which are under a state protection. Gansu is home to 441 speciesof birds; especially among these, it is a center of endemismand home to many species and subspecieswhich occur nowhere else in the world.
Gansu province is second place in China for most medicinal plants and herbs, including some odd ones like
hairy asiabellroot, fritillarybulb, and Chinese caterpillar fungus.
* [http://www.gansu.gov.cn Gansu Government Website]
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