Water resources management in Pakistan


Water resources management in Pakistan

=Water resources=

According to the United Nations' World Water Development Report, the total actual renewable water resources decreased from 2,961 per capita in 2000 to 1,420 m³ per capita in 2005. [cite journal
last = United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
authorlink = UNESCO
title = The 2nd UN World Water Development Report: 'Water, a shared responsibility'
date = March 2006
url = http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001454/145405E.pdf
isbn = 92-3-104006-5
accessdate = 2008-05-28
, p. 134
] A more recent study indicates an available supply of water of little more than 1,000 m³ per person, which puts Pakistan in the category of a high stress country. Using data from the Pakistani federal government's Planning and Development Division, the overall water availability has decreased from 1,299 m³ per capita in 1996-97 to 1,101 m³ per capita in 2004-05. [cite journal
last = Government of Pakistan, Ministry of Economic Affairs and Statistics, Statistics Division
title = Overall Water Availability
journal = Pakistan Statistical Year Book 2007
url = http://www.statpak.gov.pk/depts/fbs/publications/yearbook2007/agriculture/1.15.pdf
accessdate = 2008-06-06
The figures were converted into m³ and then divided by the population of the respective year, using data from http://devdata.worldbank.org/query/
] In view of growing population, urbanization and increased industrialization, the situation is likely to get worse. [cite journal
last = Ministry of Finance
authorlink = Ministry of Finance (Pakistan)
title = Pakistan Economic Survey 2006-07. Chapter 16: Environment
date = June 2007
url = http://www.finance.gov.pk/survey/sur_chap_06-07/16-Environment.PDF
accessdate = 2008-05-28
, p. 248
] Nevertheless, excessive mining of groundwater goes on. Despite a lowering water table, the annual growth rate of electric tubewells has been indicated to 6.7% and for diesel tubewells to about 7.4%. [cite journal
last = Asian Development Bank (ADB)
authorlink = Asian Development Bank
title = RRP: PAK 37135. Report and recommendation of the president to the board of directors on proposed loans and technical assistance grants to the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Balochistan Resource Management Program
date = November 2004
url = http://www.adb.org/Documents/RRPs/PAK/rrp-pak-37135.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-28
, p. 11
] In addition, increasing pollution and saltwater intrusion threaten the country's water resources. About 36% of the groundwater is classified as highly saline. [cite web
last = Pakistan Water Gateway
title = The Pakistan Water Situational Analysis
url = http://waterinfo.net.pk/pdf/pwsa.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-28
, p. 4
]

In urban areas, most water is supplied from groundwater except for the cities of Karachi, Hyderabad and a part of Islamabad, where mainly surface water is used. In most rural areas, groundwater is used. In rural areas with saline groundwater, irrigation canals serve as the main source of domestic water. [cite journal
last = Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Planning and Development
title = Medium Term Development Framework 2005-10. Section 10: Water and Sanitation
location = Islamabad
date = 2004
url = http://www.pakistan.gov.pk/ministries/planninganddevelopment-ministry/mtdf/10-Water%20and%20Sanitation/10-Water%20&%20Sanitation.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-29
, section 10.2.
]

Water use

Out of the 169,384 billion m³ of water which were withdrawn in 2000, 96% were used for agricultural purposes, leaving 2% for domestic and another 2% for industrial use. [cite journal
last = Bridges
first = Geoff
coauthors = Asian Development Bank (ADB)
title = Asian Water Development Outlook 2007. Country Paper Pakistan
date = 2007
url = http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/AWDO/2007/cr08.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-28
, p. 5
] By far most water is used for irrigated agriculture, emphasizing the particular significance of agriculture in the country. The sector contributes about 25% of the Pakistan's GNP (2000-2001).cite journal
last = Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Water and Power
authorlink =
title = Pakistan Water Seector Strategy. Executive Summary. Volume 1
date = October 2002
url = http://www.waterinfo.net.pk/pdf/vol1.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-29
, p. 6] The country still has the world's largest contiguous irrigation system. [cite journal
last = Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Water and Power
authorlink =
title = Pakistan Water Seector Strategy. Executive Summary. Volume 1
date = October 2002
url = http://www.waterinfo.net.pk/pdf/vol1.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-29
, p. 3
] In 1999-2000, the total irrigated area in Pakistan was 181,000 km². [cite web
last = Pakistan Water Gateway
title = The Pakistan Water Situational Analysis
date = 2005
url = http://waterinfo.net.pk/pdf/pwsa.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-28
, p. 6
]

Water is also essential for power generation in Pakistan, since about 29% is generated through hydropower. [cite web
last = Pakistan Water Gateway
title = The Pakistan Water Situational Analysis
date = 2005
url = http://waterinfo.net.pk/pdf/pwsa.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-28
, p. 8-9
]

References

ee also

*Water supply and sanitation in Pakistan


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