Bence Jones protein

A Bence Jones protein is a monoclonal globulin protein found in the blood or urine. Finding this protein in the context of end-organ manifestations such as malignant bone marrow cancer, renal failure, lytic bone disease, or anemia, or large numbers of plasma cells in the bone marrow of patients can be diagnostic of multiple myeloma, in which it is present in 2/3 of cases.cite book |author=Hoffbrand V, Moss P, Pettit J |title=Essential Haematology (Essential) |edition=5th edition |publisher=Blackwell Publishing Professional |location= |year=2006 |pages=218 |isbn=1405136499 |oclc= |doi=]

The proteins are antibody immunoglobulin free light chains (paraproteins) and are produced by neoplastic plasma cells. They can be kappa (most of the time) or lambda. The light chains can be immunoglobulin fragments or single homogenous immunoglobulins. They are found in urine as they are small and hence easily cleared by the kidneys. The light chains can be detected by heating or electrophoresis of concentrated urine. Light chains precipitate when heated to 50 - 60 degrees C and redisolve at 90 -100 degrees C. These tests are essential in patients suspected of having Bence Jones proteins in their urine as these proteins don't react with the reagents normally utilized in urinalysis dipsticks. This leads to false negative results in people with Bence Jones proteins in their urine undergoing standard urinalysis. There are various rarer conditions which can produce Bence Jones proteins, such as Waldenström's macroglobulinemia and other malignanices.

The Bence Jones protein was described by the English physician Henry Bence Jones in 1847 and published in 1848. [cite journal |author=Jones HB |title=On a new substance occurring in the urine of a patient with mollities ossium |journal=Phil Trans R Soc Lond |year=1848 |volume=138 |pages=55–62 |doi=10.1098/rstl.1848.0003] The protein was later sequenced by Frank Putnam at the laboratory of Fred Sanger in Cambridge, who was the first to report the entire sequence.

References


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  • Bence-Jones protein — ben(t)s .jōnz n a polypeptide composed of one or two antibody light chains that is found esp. in the urine of persons affected with multiple myeloma Bence Jones Henry (1814 1873) British physician. In 1848 Bence Jones published an article announc …   Medical dictionary

  • Bence-Jones protein — Bence Jones protein. См. белок Бен Джонса. (Источник: «Англо русский толковый словарь генетических терминов». Арефьев В.А., Лисовенко Л.А., Москва: Изд во ВНИРО, 1995 г.) …   Молекулярная биология и генетика. Толковый словарь.

  • Bence-Jones-Protein — Kristall des Bence Jones Proteins Bence Jones Proteine sind Proteine, welche bei der gleichnamigen Bence Jones Proteinurie im Urin auftauchen. Es handelt sich dabei um niedermolekulare, nephrotoxische (für die Nieren giftige) Paraproteine im Urin …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • bence-jones protein — ˈben(t)sˌjōnz noun Usage: usually capitalized B&J Etymology: after Henry Bence Jones died 1873 English physician and chemist : a globulin or a group of globulins found in the blood serum and urine in multiple myeloma and occasionally in other… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Bence-Jones-Protein — Bence Jones Pro|te|in [ bɛns dʒəʊnz ; nach dem brit. Arzt H. Bence Jones (1813–1873)]: bei bestimmten Myelomen mit dem Harn ausgeschiedene ↑ Paraproteine …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Bence-Jones protein — a protein of low molecular weight found in the urine of patients with multiple myeloma and rarely in patients with lymphoma, leukaemia, and Hodgkin s disease. [Bence Jones (1814–73), British physician] …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • Bence-Jones protein — noun Etymology: Henry Bence Jones died 1873 English physician and chemist Date: circa 1923 a polypeptide composed of one or two antibody light chains that is found especially in the urine of persons affected with multiple myeloma …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Bence-Jones protein — Dimers of immunoglobulin light chains, normally produced by myelomas. Bence Jones proteins are sufficiently small to be excreted by the kidney …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • Bence Jones protein — an abnormal plasma or urinary protein, consisting of monoclonal immunoglobulin light chains, excreted in some plasma cell dyscrasias and characterized by its unusual solubility properties: on heating it precipitates at 50°â€“60°C and redissolves… …   Medical dictionary

  • Bence Jones protein — A small protein made by plasma cells (white blood cells that produce antibodies). It is found in the urine of most people with multiple myeloma (cancer that begins in plasma cells) …   English dictionary of cancer terms


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