Beechcraft 1900

infobox Aircraft
name = Beechcraft 1900
type = Regional airliner, cargo, and corporate aircraft
manufacturer = Beechcraft



caption = An Air Labrador Beechcraft 1900D
designer =
first flight = September 3, 1982Jackson, 2003.]
introduced = February 1983
retired =
status =
primary user =
more users =
produced = 1982-2002
number built = 695
unit cost = US$ 4.995 million (2001)
developed from = Beechcraft Super King Air
variants with their own articles = C-12J

The Beechcraft 1900 is a 19-passenger, pressurized twin-engine turboprop airplane manufactured by the Beechcraft Division of the Raytheon Company (now Hawker Beechcraft). It was designed as and is primarily used as a regional airliner. It is also used as a freight aircraft, corporate transport, and by the United States military and other governments.

The aircraft is designed to carry passengers in all weather conditions from airports with relatively short runways. It is capable of flying well in excess of 600 miles, although few operators use its full fuel range. In terms of the number of aircraft built and its continued use by many passenger airlines and other users, it is the most successful 19-passenger airliner in history. [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/c-12j.htm C-12J overview, GlobalSecurity.org] ]

Development

The 1900 is Beechcraft's third regional airliner. The Beechcraft Model 18 was a 6 to 11 passenger utility aircraft produced from 1937 to 1970, used by the military, airlines, charter operations, corporations for executive transport, and freight carriers. The Beech 18, or "Twin Beech" as it was often called, was hugely successful, with a production run of over 30 years, more than 9,000 built and more approved modifications than any other airplane in history. It remains in common use in numerous roles including freight aircraft and skydivers' jump plane. The 15-passenger Beechcraft Model 99 Airliner was designed to replace the Beech 18, and was produced from 1966 to 1986. It was also commercially successful and remains in common use with freight airlines such as Ameriflight.

The Beechcraft 1900's design lineage began in 1949 with the Beechcraft Model 50 "Twin Bonanza", a 5 passenger, reciprocating engine utility aircraft designed for the U.S. Army. A larger passenger cabin was added to the Twin Bonanza's airframe, and called the Model 65 "Queen Air." This aircraft was, in turn, further modified by adding turboprop engines and cabin pressurization, and named the Model 90 "King Air." A stretched version of the King Air was later developed and designated the Model 200 "Super King Air". Beechcraft developed the Beechcraft 1900 directly from the Beechcraft Super King Air.

The 1900 first flew on September 3, 1982, with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification awarded in November 1983 under Special Federal Aviation Regulation (SFAR) 41C airworthiness standards. Like the 1900, the 1900C was certified under SFAR 41C, but the later 1900D version was certified to FAR Part 23 "Commuter Category" standards. [http://airliner.raytheonaircraft.com 1900 Airliner model information from Raytheon Aircraft Services' web site] ]

The 1900 entered service in February 1984, with the first ExecLiner corporate version delivered in 1985. A total of 695 Beechcraft 1900 aircraft were built, making the airliner the best-selling 19-passenger airliner in history. [The Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner series outsold the 1900 series, but many were built as corporate Merlins and purpose-built Expediter freighters. The 19-seat de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter outsold both types, but it is typically used in different operations.] With market trends favoring larger 50- to 90-seat regional jets, Raytheon ended production of the Beechcraft 1900 in October 2002. Many airlines continue to fly the 1900.

Design

Since the 1900 is derived from the King Air, all 1900s share certain characteristics with that aircraft. Cockpit controls and operations are similar to those of the King Air. While Federal Aviation Regulations require two pilots for airline operations, the 1900 is designed and certificated for single-pilot operation in corporate or cargo settings, as is the King Air.

Propulsion

The 1900 is powered by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A turboprop engines. The 1900 and 1900C use two PT6A-65B engines, each flat rated at 1,100 shaft horsepower. The 1900D uses two PT6A-67D engines, each rated at 1,279 shaft horsepower.

The propellers are manufactured by Hartzell, with four blades on each propeller. The blades are made from composite materials.

Jet A is the recommended fuel; however the engines are also approved for limited operations on other types of jet fuel or aviation-grade gasoline."Beechcraft 1900D Aircraft Flight Manual", Raytheon Aircraft Corporation]

Performance

The 1900D cruises at about 285 knots true airspeed (328 mph or 528 km/h). Ordinary trip lengths range from 100 to 600 miles (20 minutes to two hours), but with full fuel tanks, the aircraft is capable of flying well in excess of 1,000 nautical miles. Airlines often prefer the 1900 over jet aircraft for shorter routes due to its fuel efficiency, and because trip times are not significantly longer on distances up to 300 miles (480 km).

The Beechcraft 1900 can operate safely on relatively short airstrips. It can take off and land on grass and rough runways.

The airplane is certified to fly up to an altitude of 25,000 feet (7,600 meters) above mean sea level. The cabin is pressurized, and the aircraft is equipped with emergency oxygen masks for the pilots and passengers in the event the cabin loses pressure.

It is designed to operate in most weather conditions, including icing conditions, and it is usually equipped with weather radar to help pilots avoid severe weather.

Raytheon offers the option of configuring the aircraft with a lavatory, using space otherwise available for passenger seating and cargo storage. Because most flights are less than two hours' duration, most airlines choose to configure the aircraft with the additional seating and cargo space, forgoing the lavatory.

The Beechcraft 1900 is used by the FAA for its Airline Transport Pilot knowledge test section on operating and performance data. Pilots are tested on center of gravity calculations, takeoff and landing performance and en route fuel burn.

ICAO Aircraft Designator

The ICAO designator for the 1900 is B190. This is used in ATC flight plans and pilot reports, as well as for aircraft type identification on ATC radar.

Variants

1900

The original design is known simply as the Beechcraft 1900. It features two "airstair" passenger boarding doors: one near the tail of the aircraft much like the smaller King Airs, and a second at the front just behind the cockpit. It has a small cargo door near the tail for access to the baggage compartment, which is behind the passenger compartment. Only three airframes were built, with "UA" serial numbers of UA-1, UA-2, and UA-3. UA-1 and UA-2 are stored at a Beechcraft facility in Wichita, Kansas. As of September 2006, UA-3 is in service with Bolivia's Ministry of National Defence in La Paz.

1900C

It immediately became clear that two airstair doors were redundant on an aircraft holding only 19 passengers. Beechcraft kept the front airstair, but eliminated the aft airstair door, installing an enlarged cargo door in its place. The changed aircraft was renamed 1900C. Other than the redesigned door layout, the early 1900Cs were substantially similar to the original 1900s. These were assigned serial numbers starting with the letters UB. A total of 74 UB version were built, many of which remain in service.

Aircraft in the UA and UB series employ a bladder-type fuel tank system in the wings. Later 1900Cs use a "wet wing" fuel system: entire sections of the wing are sealed off for use as fuel tanks. This design change allowed more fuel to be stored, substantially increasing the 1900C's range. The wet wing 1900Cs were assigned serial numbers beginning with "UC." These aircraft are also referred to as 1900C-1s. The wet wings proved popular, and the UC is the most common version of the low-ceiling 1900, with 174 UC airframes built.

Raytheon also manufactured six 1900C aircraft for use by the U.S. military. These were assigned "UD" serial numbers, UD-1 through UD-6.

1900D

While the 1900C had become a popular regional airliner, Beechcraft undertook a substantial redesign of the aircraft, and in 1991 introduced a new version called the 1900D.

The 1900 and 1900C, like most 19-passenger airliners and business jets, have fairly small passenger cabins, with ceilings so low that passengers cannot walk through the interior without bending forward. The 1900D was designed to remedy this by providing a "stand-up cabin," which would allow most passengers to walk upright. It is the only 19-seat airliner with this feature.

Because the taller passenger cabin adds both weight and drag to the airplane, other elements of the 1900D were also changed. More powerful engines and modified propellers were installed, winglets were added to reduce drag and increase the wings' efficiency, and the tail was made larger in response to the more powerful engines. The cockpit was updated with an Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS). The 1900D was certified under the then-new FAR Part 23 "Commuter Category" standards, which had replaced the earlier SFAR 41C. Since the UD serial numbers were already in use by the military 1900s, the 1900D airplanes have serial numbers beginning with UE. The 1900D is the most popular version of the airliner, with 438 of the 1900D built.

Military C-12J

The U.S. military designation for the Beechcraft 1900C is C-12J. This is a variant of the C-12 Huron, which is the most common designation for military King Airs. The C-12J includes the 6 UD series Beechcraft 1900s built for the U.S. military, as well as other 1900Cs in U.S. military service.

Examples of C-12J aircraft in military service include one used for GPS jamming tests at the 586th Flight Test Squadron, Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, [http://www.holloman.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet_media.asp?fsID=5921 Holloman Air Force Base fact sheet] ] another based at the 517th Airlift Squadron, Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska, [http://www.elmendorf.af.mil/3Wing/Groups/3OG/517AS/Webdocs/index.htm Elmendorf Air Force Base website] ] and two based at the 55th Airlift Flight, Osan Air Base, South Korea. The U.S. Army operates both C-12J and 1900D aircraft along with other C-12 (King Air) aircraft. [http://www.usarmyaviation.com/fixedwing.htm U.S. Army Aviation website] ]

King Air ExecLiner

The King Air ExecLiner was a marketing name for a corporate version of the Beechcraft 1900C.

Operators

Civilian operators

Airlines in the United States which operate the Beechcraft 1900 include Air Midwest (as Mesa Airlines and as US Airways Express), Bering Air, Colgan Air (as US Airways Express), Great Lakes Airlines, Era Aviation, and Gulfstream International (as Continental Connection). Cargo operators such as Ameriflight and the relief organization Air Serv International also operate the Beechliner. [http://www.airliners.net Beech 1900 image database from Airliners.net] ]

Airlines in Canada which operate the Beechcraft 1900 include Air Georgian (Now under air alliance with Air Canada), Air Labrador, Central Mountain Air, North Cariboo Air, Pacific Coastal Airlines, Pronto Airways, Prince Edward Air, Sunwest Aviation, Skylink Express and Transwest Air.

Airlines in Europe which operate the Beechcraft 1900 include Denmark's Danish Air Transport, France's Twin Jet and Chalair Aviation, Germany's Avanti Air and Private Wings Flugcharter, Malta's Medavia, Portugal's Portugalia Airlines, Spain's Binter Canarias, and Sweden's Nextjet, UK's Manx 2.

Other airlines operate Beechcraft 1900s in Africa which include Air Namibia.

The last 16 Beechcraft 1900D airliners built were sold to Eagle Airways to provide regional services for Air New Zealand.

According to Flight International magazine, 451 1900s remain in airline service as of August, 2006, as follows:

138 Raytheon Beech 1900Cs. Major operators include: Alpine Air (12) and Ameriflight (20). Some 45 other airlines operate smaller numbers of the type."Flight International Magazine", 2006-10-09]

313 Raytheon Beech 1900Ds. Major operators include: Air Georgian (19), Avior Airlines (11), Buddha Air (5), Central Mountain Air (11), Colgan Air (4), CommutAir (14), Eagle Airways (17 (18)), Great Lakes Airlines (23), Gulfstream International Airlines (26), Mesa Airlines (11), National Airways (12), Travira Air (15). Wasaya Airways (5). Some 60 other airlines also operate the type in smaller numbers.

Military operators

Military and government operators include:;ALG;AUS
* Defence Science and Technology Organisation;BOL
* Ministry of National Defence;EGY;FRA;ROC;SUI ;THA
* Royal Thai Army;UAE;UNO;USA
* United States Air Force
* United States Army

;COL
*Colombian National police-Beech 1900

Accidents and incidents

* 1995 Air St. Martin Beech 1900 crash
* 1996 Beechcraft 1900D ground collision with a King air Qincy
* Air Midwest Flight 5481
* 2008 South Sudan Air Connection (Beechcraft 1900) with South Sudan's defense minister on board crashed killing 22 people

pecifications (Beechcraft 1900D)

aircraft specifications
plane or copter?=plane
jet or prop?=prop
ref=Beechcraft 1900D Airplane Flight Manual
crew= 1 (2 in U.S. airline operations)
capacity= 19 passengers + 2 crew
length main= 57 ft 10 in
length alt= 17.63 m
span main= 58 ft 0 in
span alt= 17.67 m
height main= 15 ft 6 in
height alt= 4.72 m
area main=
area alt=
airfoil=
empty weight main= 10,650 lb
empty weight alt= 4,831 kg
max ramp weight= 17,230 lb
loaded weight alt=
useful load main=
useful load alt=
max takeoff weight main= 17,120 lb
max takeoff weight alt= 7,668 kg
more general=*Fuel Capacity: 4,484 lb.
*Fuel Type: Jet A recommended, others usable.

engine (prop)=Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-67D
type of prop=turboprops
number of props=2
power main= 1,279 shaft horsepower [(1,353 equivalent shaft horsepower, including thrust from jet exhaust), 3,950 foot-pounds Torque]
power alt= 955 kW
power original=
max speed main= Maximum operating speed 248 knots IAS (285 mph, 459 km/h) to 13,200 ft (4,020 m) [Mmo = Mach 0.48 to 25,000 ft (7,600 m)] .
cruise speed main= 260 knots (True Airspeed)
cruise speed alt= 300 mph, 480 km/h
never exceed speed main=
stall speed main= 84 knots (IAS)
stall speed alt= 97 mph, 156 km/h
range main= 1,498 NM
range alt= 1,724 mi, 2,776 km
ceiling main= 25,000 ft (maximum certificated altitude)
ceiling alt= 7,600 m
climb rate main= ~2,000 ft/min
climb rate alt= ~10 m/s
loading main=
loading alt=
thrust/weight=
power/mass main=
power/mass alt=
more performance=
armament=
avionics= *Rockwell Collins EFIS-84 Electronic Flight Instrument System.

References

*cite journal |last=Jackson |first=Paul |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2003 |month= |title= Beech 1900D |journal= Jane's All the World's Aircraft |volume= 2003-2004 |issue= |pages=p. 535–536 |id= ISBN 0-7106-2537-5 |url= |accessdate= |quote=
*Phillips, Edward H. "Beechcraft - Pursuit of Perfection", A History of Beechcraft Airplanes. Flying Books, Eagan, Minnesota 1992.ISBN 0-911139-11-7

ee also

aircontent
related=
* Beechcraft Model 18
* Beechcraft Twin Bonanza
* Beechcraft Queen Air
* Beechcraft King Air
* Beechcraft Super King Air
* Beechcraft Model 99
* Beechcraft 1300

similar aircraft=
* Antonov An-28
* Britten-Norman Trislander
* British Aerospace Jetstream 31
* De Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter
* Dornier Do 228
* Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante
* Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner
* Harbin Y-12
* PZL M-28
* Short SC.7 Skyvan

sequence=
800 -
1000 -
1300 -1900 -
2000 -
4000

lists=

see also=

External links

* [http://www.flugzeuginfo.net/acdata_php/acdata_1900_en.php Beechcraft 1900 specifications]
* [http://www.airliners.net/info/stats.main?id=329 Airliners.net's background of the 1900]
* [http://aviation-safety.net/database/type/type.php?type=090 Aviation Safety Network Beechcraft 1900 data]
* [http://aviation-safety.net/airlinesafety/exits/exit.php?type=090 Aviation Safety Network 1900 emergency exits]
* [http://www.airsafe.com/events/models/beech.htm Airsafe's List of fatal accidents involving the Beechcraft 1900]
* [http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ac/c-12.htm Federation of American Scientists' description of the military C-12]
* [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/aircraft/c-12j.htm GlobalSecurity.org's background on the C-12J]
* [http://www.holloman.af.mil/library/factsheets/factsheet_media.asp?fsID=5921 586th Flight Test Squadron's C-12J]
* [http://www.elmendorf.af.mil/units/ 517th Airlift Squadron]
* [http://www.usarmyaviation.com/fixedwing.htm Army C-12 and Be-1900D Aircraft]
* [http://www.faa.gov/education_research/testing/airmen/test_questions/ FAA Test Bank questions]


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