1991 Pacific hurricane season

Infobox hurricane season
Basin=EPac
Year=1991
Track=1991 Pacific hurricane season map.png First storm formed=May 16, 1991
Last storm dissipated=November 12, 1991
Strongest storm name=Kevin
Strongest storm winds=125
Strongest storm pressure=935
Average wind speed=1
Total depressions=16
Total storms=14
Total hurricanes=10
Total intense=5
Fatalities=1
Da

Inflated=
five seasons=1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993
The 1991 Pacific hurricane season officially started on May 15, 1991 in the eastern Pacific, and on June 1, 1991 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1991. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean.

There are few notable systems this year. Tropical Depression Five-E killed one person in Mexico. Elsewhere, Hurricane Fefa caused flooding in Hawaii. Hurricane Kevin resulted the longest lasting hurricane in the northern Eastern Pacific Basin and Hurricane Nora became the strongest November storm at that time, as Hurricane Sergio during the 2006 season broke the record recently.cite web|author=Max Mayfield and Edward Rappaport|year=1991|title=1991|publisher=Eastern North Pacific Hurricane Season of 1991|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://ams.allenpress.com/archive/1520-0493/120/11/pdf/i1520-0493-120-11-2697.pdf] cite web|author=Richard Pasch and David Roberts|year=2006|title=Tropical Cyclone Report on Hurricane Sergio|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-23|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-EP212006_Sergio.pdf]

eason summary

The 1991 season in the eastern North Pacific Ocean had a total of sixteen tropical cyclones developed, featuring ten hurricanes, 4 tropical storms and 2 tropical depressions. These totals are close to the climatological averages established since 1966, when satellite surveillance began. Nevertheless, 1991 had some important peculiarities. First of all, this season had the second earliest start, only behind last year. The season also ended late with the first November hurricane since the last quarter of century. On the other hand, the months of July and August, often the most active ones in this basin, only produced two tropical cyclones each one.

None of the tropical storms or hurricanes made landfall. One of the two tropical depressions of the season, Five-E, came ashore near Salina Cruz, Mexico, on the last day of June. The depression caused the only fatality of the season and 500 injuries with 2 people reportedly missing. Delores, Ignacio and Marty threatened the coast of Mexico.cite web|author=Max Mayfield and Edward Rappaport|year=1991|title=1991|publisher=Eastern North Pacific Hurricane Season of 1991|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://ams.allenpress.com/archive/1520-0493/120/11/pdf/i1520-0493-120-11-2697.pdf] Also, Tropical Storm Ignacio was also responsible for 40 injuries as the system passed just offshore of Lázaro Cárdenas, Mexico.

Several tropical cyclones grew into specially long-lived and intense overwater systems. In fact, Hurricane Kevin endured as a hurricane for 12½ days to the east of 140°W, establishing a new record for longevity in the eastern Pacific. It is also important to remark that most of the cyclones this season originated from African tropical waves.cite web|author=Max Mayfield and Edward Rappaport|year=1991|title=1991|publisher=Eastern North Pacific Hurricane Season of 1991|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://ams.allenpress.com/archive/1520-0493/120/11/pdf/i1520-0493-120-11-2697.pdf]

Activity

With fourteen cyclones, this season was slightly below average. There were ten hurricanes, five hurricanes of Category 3 intensity or higher on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, and four tropical storms. No storms formed in the Central Pacific.cite web|author=Max Mayfield and Edward Rappaport|year=1991|title=1991|publisher=Eastern North Pacific Hurricane Season of 1991|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://ams.allenpress.com/archive/1520-0493/120/11/pdf/i1520-0493-120-11-2697.pdf]

Tropical Storm Andres

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac


Track=Andres 1991 track.pngFormed=May 16
Dissipated=May 20
1-min winds=55
Pressure=994
The first tropical depression of 1991 in the eastern Pacific formed about 1000 nautical miles (1850 km) southwest of the southern tip of Baja California on May 16. This was the second earliest date for a tropical depression to form in this basin since weather satellite monitoring started in 1966. The earliest was the year before, when the depression which later became Hurricane Alma formed on May 12.cite web|author=Max Mayfield|year=1991|title=Tropical Strom Andres Prelim 1|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/andres/prenhc/prelim01.gif]

A tropical disturbance organized into Tropical Depression One-E on May 16. The depression moved into a slow cyclonic loop and became Tropical Storm Andres the next day. Andres then developed rapidly, with a minimum pressure of 994 mbar and corresponding maximum winds of 60 mph (95 km/h). This intensity was maintained for a day and subsequently weakened as upper level shear increased. Andres was downgraded to a tropical depression on May 19 and finally dissipated on May 20.cite web|author=Max Mayfield|year=1991|title=Tropical Strom Andres Prelim 1|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/andres/prenhc/prelim01.gif]

There were no reported damages or casualties caused by Andres.cite web|author=Max Mayfield|year=1991|title=Tropical Strom Andres Prelim 1|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/andres/prenhc/prelim02.gif]

Tropical Storm Blanca

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac


Track=Blanca 1991 track.pngFormed=June 14
Dissipated=June 22
1-min winds=55
Pressure=994
A well organized tropical wave over northern Africa moved off on May 31. The wave never showed signs of organization while crossing the Atlantic and emerged into the eastern North Pacific on June 10. It was not until June 13 when the convection associated with the wave became better organized and the next day, Tropical Depression Two-E was formed, about 450 nautical miles (830 km) from Acapulco, Mexico.cite web|author=Hal Gerrish|year=1991|title=Tropical Strom Blanca Prelim 1|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/blanca/prenhc/prelim01.gif] cite web|author=Hal Gerrish|year=1991|title=Tropical Strom Blanca Prelim 3|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/blanca/prenhc/prelim03.gif]

For the next 48 hours, the depression moved toward the west and then northwest in response to a weakening ridge to the northwest. On June 17, the strong shear relaxed somewhat and the exposed center moved under the deep convection again. Thus, the depression strengthened into a tropical storm about 630 nautical miles (1165 km) south of the southern tip of Baja California. Tropical Storm Blanca experienced limited development, reaching its peak intensity of 60 mph (95 km/h) early on June 20. Then, the center of Blanca became exposed again and weakened into a tropical depression on June 21. Finally, it dissipated on June 22 over colder waters about 1285 nautical miles (2380 km) southwest of the southern tip of Baja California.cite web|author=Hal Gerrish|year=1991|title=Tropical Strom Blanca Prelim 1|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/blanca/prenhc/prelim01.gif]

There were no casualties or damages attributed to Blanca.cite web|author=Hal Gerrish|year=1991|title=Tropical Strom Blanca Prelim 2|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/blanca/prenhc/prelim02.gif]

Hurricane Carlos

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac


Track=Carlos 1991 track.pngFormed=June 16
Dissipated=June 27
1-min winds=105
Pressure=955
A tropical wave left the African coast on June 4 showing some cyclonic curvature in the low clouds. It passed Barbados six days later, where a low-to-mid wind shift was detected. The wave was followed by a low level wind surge which was observed in Curaçao on June 12. Most of the shower activity associated with the wave moved westward over South America, and then over Panama on June 14. The convection became organized and developed into Tropical Depression Three-E, 300 nautical miles (560 km) south of Salina Cruz, on June 16. It became a tropical storm one day later. Carlos reached minimal hurricane strength on June 18 but two days later, Carlos was briefly downgraded to tropical storm status. A strong high pressure system forced Carlos to move over warmer waters and Carlos began to reintensify. Carlos regained hurricane status and developed a well-defined eye and excellent upper level outflow. On June 24, Carlos peaked at 955 mb and 115 mph (185 km/h) maximum sustained winds. The hurricane then weakened when it moved west over colder waters and encountered upper level shear. Carlos dissipated on June 27.cite web|author=Lixion Avila|year=1991|title=Tropical Strom Carlos Prelim 3|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/carlos/prenhc/prelim03.gif]

There were no reported damages or casualties caused by Carlos. cite web|author=Lixion Avila|year=1991|title=Tropical Strom Carlos Prelim 1|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/carlos/prenhc/prelim01.gif]

Hurricane Delores

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac


Track=Delores 1991 track.pngFormed=June 22
Dissipated=June 28
1-min winds=75
Pressure=979
Delores developed from a tropical wave which moved from Africa to the Atlantic on June 7. And it was not until June 22 when it gained organization and was identified as an area of disturbed weather south of Mexico.cite web|author=Miles Lawrence|year=1991|title=Hurricane Delores Prelim 1|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/delores/prenhc/prelim01.gif]

The system immediately showed signs of rotation and it was upgraded to Tropical Depression Four-E the same day. It was centered about convert|450|nmi|km|-1 south-southeast of Manzanillo, Mexico. Then, the depression reached storm strength, enough to be called Delores on June 24 while 150 nautical miles (230 km) from the coast of Mexico. It rapidly intensified to a hurricane the next day as it approached to the coast. However it repidly weakened and on June 27 it was downgraded to tropical storm status as it was moving over colder waters. Its deep convection gradually diminished and its west-northwestward motion abruptly halted as the system was being sheared. It weakened to a depression on June 28 near Socorro Island and it dissipated on June 29.cite web|author=Miles Lawrence|year=1991|title=Hurricane Delores Prelim 1|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/delores/prenhc/prelim01.gif]

No damages or casualties caused by Delores were reported.cite web|author=Miles Lawrence|year=1991|title=Hurricane Delores Prelim 2|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/delores/prenhc/prelim02.gif]

Tropical Depression Five-E

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac


Formed=June 29
Dissipated=June 30
1-min winds=30
Pressure=1008
A tropical disturbance south of the Gulf of Tehuantepec became better organized on June 29 and became a tropical depression. Strengthening was very limited as the depression was approaching to land. It made landfall later that day very near of Salina Cruz, Oaxaca. It dissipated the next day, bringing torrential showers to Oaxaca.cite web|author=Mayfield|year=1991|title=Tropical Discussion One on 5-E|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-23|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/td5e/tropdisc/nep0591.001] cite web|author=Avila|year=1991|title=Tropical Discussion Two on 5-E|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-23|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/td5e/tropdisc/nep0591.002] cite web|author=Avila|year=1991|title=Tropical Discussion Three on 5-E|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-23|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/td5e/tropdisc/nep0591.003]

The depression caused the year's lone fatality and occasionated the most significant damage as it destroyed up to 118 homes, caused 500 injuries and two people reportedly missing. Rainfall totals as large as 235 mm (0.80 ft) in 24 hours accompanied the depression over Mexico. cite web|author=Max Mayfield and Edward Rappaport|year=1991|title=1991|publisher=Eastern North Pacific Hurricane Season of 1991|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://ams.allenpress.com/archive/1520-0493/120/11/pdf/i1520-0493-120-11-2697.pdf]

Hurricane Enrique

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac


Track=Enrique 1991 track.pngFormed=July 15
Dissipated=June 21
1-min winds=65
Pressure=987
Enrique formed from a westward-moving tropical wave that crossed the Atlantic between June 30 and July 8. A short-lived cyclonic circulation center within the wave was detected on satellite imagery when the system was over the eastern Atlantic. However, persistent deep convection did not occur until the wave neared the Gulf of Tehuantepec in the eastern Pacific Ocean on July 11.cite web|author=Ed Rappaport|year=1991|title=Hurricane Enrique Prelim 1|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/enrique/prenhc/prelim01.gif]

On July 12, the convection became more concentrated about convert|500|nmi|km|-1 south of Acapulco, near a mid-level vortex within the wave, however it had diminished the next day. The organization of the system began on July 14, becoming Tropical Depression Six-E the next day. The depression intensified further and became Tropical Storm Enrique. Then, on July 17, it reached hurricane intensity for a brief period of time and an eye was identified. But due to shear associated with a trough, Enrique began to feel the effects and hence started to weaken. Also Enrique entered over cooler waters and its center became exposed. Enrique was downgraded to a depression on July 19 and it eventually dissipated the 20th.cite web|author=Ed Rappaport|year=1991|title=Hurricane Enrique Prelim 1|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/enrique/prenhc/prelim01.gif] cite web|author=Ed Rappaport|year=1991|title=Hurricane Enrique Prelim 2|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/enrique/prenhc/prelim02.gif]

No damages or casualties were caused by Enrique.cite web|author=Ed Rappaport|year=1991|title=Hurricane Enrique Prelim 2|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/enrique/prenhc/prelim02.gif]

Hurricane Fefa

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac



Track=Fefa 1991 track.pngFormed=July 29
Dissipated=August 8
1-min winds=105
Pressure=959
A wave became better organized and it developed into Tropical Depression Seven-E while 850 nautical miles (1570 km) south-southeast of Cabo San Lucas on July 29. The depression intensified quickly and became Tropical Storm Fefa the same day. Fefa continued to strengthen over the warm Pacific water and reached hurricane status on July 31. Satellite imagery showed the appearance of an eye the next day. Fefa peaked on August 2 with a pressure of 959 mbar and 120 mph (195 km/h) maximum sustained winds, making it a Category 3 hurricane in the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. Later, on August 5, Fefa crossed into the north Central Pacific basin.cite web|author=Max Mayfield|year=1991|title=Hurricane Fefa Prelim 1|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/fefa/prenhc/prelim01.gif] cite web|author=Max Mayfield|year=1991|title=Hurricane Fefa Prelim 1|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/fefa/prenhc/prelim02.gif]

As it crossed, shear had increased and Fefa began to weaken as it approached rapidly to the Hawaiian Islands as a tropical storm on August 7. Fefa passed over the Big Island and rapidly weakened back to a tropical depression later that day to finally dissipate on August 9 northwest Kauai. cite web|author=Central Pacific Hurricane Center|year=1991|title=Hurricane Fefa Report on Central Pacific|publisher=CPHP|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1991.php]

The remnants of Fefa caused heavy rains and strong winds in the counties of Hawaii and Kauai. Flash flooding was reported in the Kohala and Hamakua districts. Lightning injuried two persons on the Big Island.cite web|author=Central Pacific Hurricane Center|year=1991|title=Hurricane Fefa Report on Central Pacific|publisher=CPHP|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1991.php]

Hurricane Guillermo

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac


Track=Guillermo 1991 track.pngFormed=August 4
Dissipated=August 10
1-min winds=70
Pressure=983
The tropical wave that ultimately produced Guillermo emerged from the northwest coast of Africa on July 22. The wave had a large amplitude, but very little deep convection while moving westward across the tropical Atlantic. The convection associated with the southern portion of the wave passed over the Windward Islands on July 28 and crossed Central America on July 31.cite web|author=Max Mayfield|year=1991|title=Hurricane Guillermo Prelim 1|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/guillerm/prenhc/prelim01.gif]

Signs of organization were evident late on August 2 when the wave was south of the Gulf of Tehuantepec. Then, on August 4, Tropical Depression Eight-E was formed while centered 300 nautical miles (560 km) south-southeast of Acapulco, Mexico. Although the presence of easterly shear, the depression gradually intensified as the center moved toward the west-northwest, paralleling the coast of Mexico. Then, it reached tropical storm strength the same day as it was centered south-southwest of Acapulco, Mexico. It peaked on August 5 with a central pressure of 993 mb and maximum sustained winds of 75 mph (120 km/h), while convert|220|nmi|km|-1 of Manzanillo, Mexico. After its peak, Guillermo weakened to tropical storm status as it was losing convection. It subsequently weakened back to a tropical depression and then it dissipated on August 10.cite web|author=Max Mayfield|year=1991|title=Hurricane Guillermo Prelim 1|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/guillerm/prenhc/prelim01.gif]

There were no damages or casualties associated with Guillermo.cite web|author=Max Mayfield|year=1991|title=Hurricane Guillermo Prelim 2|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/guillerm/prenhc/prelim02.gif]

Tropical Storm Hilda

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac


Track=Hilda 1991 track.pngFormed=August 8
Dissipated=August 14
1-min winds=55
Pressure=992
Satellite imagery showed a convective area with some cyclonic turning in connection with a tropical wave over Africa on July 22. The convection gradually diminished as the system moved west-southwest into the Atlantic. On July 31, the wave passed south of Trinidad, where a low-level wind shift was detected. For the next couple of days, this system passed over Venezuela and Colombia. Then it crossed into the Pacific basin. It was not until August 6, while it was south of Guatemala, when the convection became organized. Then, the wave strengthened into a tropical depression about 200 nautical miles (370 km/h) south-southwest of Acapulco, on August 8. The system intensified further and became Tropical Storm Hilda the next day. The storm reached its peak intensity on August 11 with estimated convert|60|mi/h|km/h|-1|abbr=on maximum winds and a pressure of 993 mb. The tropical storm moved on a general west-northwest track for the next couple of days and then turned toward the north on August 13 as it was under the influence of an upper level trough. Later on that day, tropical storm force winds were reported on Guadalupe Island as the center of Hilda was located about 150 nautical miles (280 km) from the island. Hilda gradually weakened over cool waters but maintained a rather large level of circulation which produced some rain over California. The depression dissipated on August 14. The process of dissipation was slower than usual, probably due to the large size of Hilda's circulation. There were no casualties or damages reported from Hilda. cite web|author=Lixion Avila|year=1991|title=Tropical Strom Hilda Prelim 1|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/hilda/prenhc/prelim01.gif]

Tropical Depression Ten-E

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac


Formed=September 12
Dissipated=September 13
1-min winds=30
Pressure=1006
A tropical disturbance southwest of Manzanillo became a tropical depression on September 12 as its convection became persistent around the new formed circulation center. But the development of the conditions were not favorable because the depression was embedded in a strong shear environment caused by a trough.cite web|author=Rappaport|year=1991|title=Tropical Depression Ten-E Discussion One|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-23|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/td10e/tropdisc/nep1091.001] Then the depression took a northwesternward and then a northward track to finally dissipate on September 13 as it was being sheared in the southern Gulf of California.cite web|author=National Hurricane Center|year=1991|title=Tropical Depression Ten-E Discussions|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-23|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/td10e/tropdisc/]

Tropical Depression Ten-E brought heavy showers to the states of Jalisco and Colima, but there were no reported deaths or damages. cite web|author=National Hurricane Center|year=1991|title=Tropical Depression Ten-E Discussions|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-23|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/td10e/tropdisc/]

Tropical Storm Ignacio

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac


Track=Ignacio 1991 track.pngFormed=September 16
Dissipated=September 16
1-min winds=55
Pressure=994
Two waves had moved westward across the Atlantic during the first ten days of September. Tropical Storm Erika formed over the east-central Atlantic from the trailing wave. Otherwise, the waves were accompanied by only a small amount of cloudiness before entering the eastern Pacific between September 10 and September 12.cite web|author=Ed Rappaport|year=1991|title=Tropical Strom Ignacio Prelim 1|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/ignacio/prenhc/prelim01.gif]

The area of convection developed southeast of an upper level low centered about convert|250|nmi|km|-1 west of the southern tip of Baja California peninsula. A trough axis extended southward from the low to the west of the convection. By September 15, the area of disturbed weather included some convective bands. The organization of the convection improved and the cloud system became Tropical Depression Eleven-E the next day. The trough that was near the depression moved the cyclone to the north-northwest and during that period it strengthened and became Tropical Storm Ignacio, all on the same day. Then, the influence of the trough over Tropical Ignacio diminished. The track of the tropical storm was a small clockwise loop, which Ignacio reached the northernmost point on September 17. The storm was centered about 25 nautical miles (45 km) offshore and was near its peak intensity, convert|60|mi/h|km/h|-1|abbr=on. Further intensification was precluded by the storm's proximity to land and by shear associated with the low near the Baja California peninsula. As Ignacio turned toward the east, its forward motion slowed. When the storm began moving to the south, it lost its identity very rapidly. Ignacio weakened to depression status and dissipated six hours later. The remnants of Ignacio moved toward the west-southwest over the next two days.cite web|author=Ed Rappaport|year=1991|title=Tropical Strom Ignacio Prelim 1|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/ignacio/prenhc/prelim01.gif]

Ignacio caused street flooding in Acapulco. However, no further damages or casualties were reported from this storm.cite web|author=Ed Rappaport|year=1991|title=Tropical Strom Ignacio Prelim 2|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/ignacio/prenhc/prelim02.gif]

Hurricane Jimena

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac


Track=Jimena 1991 track.pngFormed=September 20
Dissipated=October 2
1-min winds=115
Pressure=945
The tropical wave from which Jimena originated moved off the coast of Africa on September 5 as a fairly active-looking system. Part of this wave strengthened into Tropical Storm Danny over the eastern Atlantic. The southern portion of the system proceeded westward uneventfully over the Caribbean. As it passed over Panama and Costa Rica during September 14 and September 15, the convective activity increased. The system moved westward as an area of disturbed weather in the Pacific ITCZ over the next few days. The convection became sufficiently well organized and intensification took some time due to an upper level anticyclone north on Mexico. But on September 20 the cloud pattern had increased and was upgraded to a tropical depression. cite web|author=Richard Pasch|year=1991|title=Hurricane Jimena Prelim 1|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/jimena/prenhc/prelim01.gif]

It took about one day the depression to strengthen into a tropical storm, as it improved its banding features. The cyclone was tracking in a northwestward direction. After becoming tropical storm, the ensuing development was rather rapid, particularly after September 22 as a banding type eye was forming. Further rapid development took place over the next 24 hours and the maximum sustained winds increased to near convert|130|mi/h|km/h|-1|abbr=on by the afternoon of September 23. Later, on September 24 Jimena reached her peak with maximum winds of convert|140|mi/h|km/h|-1|abbr=on and a minimum central pressure of 945 mb. Jimena maintained herself as a powerful hurricane for three days, moving practically due west until September 26, when it turned toward the west-northwest. Jimena began to weaken on September 27. A northwestward movement commenced on September 29 in response to a large trough which developed in its northwest. It continued to weaken and on September 30 it weakened back to a tropical storm and then downgraded to a depression. On October 2 was declared dissipated.cite web|author=Richard Pasch|year=1991|title=Hurricane Jimena Prelim 1|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/jimena/prenhc/prelim01.gif] cite web|author=Richard Pasch|year=1991|title=Hurricane Jimena Prelim 2|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/jimena/prenhc/prelim02.gif]

There were no casualties or damages reported from Jimena.cite web|author=Richard Pasch|year=1991|title=Hurricane Jimena Prelim 2|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/jimena/prenhc/prelim02.gif]

Hurricane Kevin

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac


Track=Kevin 1991 track.pngFormed=September 25
Dissipated=October 12
1-min winds=125
Pressure=935
Kevin formed from a westward-moving tropical wave which emerged from the northwest coast of Africa on September 11. The wave crossed into the Pacific basin on September 21 with no signs of development. Cloudiness and convection became better organized on the first hours of September 24, becoming Tropical Depression Thirteen-E the next day as it was located about convert|350|nmi|km|-1 southeast of Acapulco, Mexico. Then the depression moved toward the west. cite web|author=Max Mayfield|year=1991|title=Hurricane Prelim 1|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/kevin/prenhc/prelim01.gif]

The banding pattern became more pronounced and the depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Kevin later that day, being centered about 275 n mi south-southeast of Acapulco. The convective banding increased for the next 24 hours and Kevin strengthened to hurricane status on September 26, while convert|200|nmi|km|-1 south-southwest of Acapulco. Kevin continued to strengthen and showed intermitten glimpses of an eye the days 27 and 28 September. By September 29, Kevin had a well-defined eye and this feature persisted for several days. The hurricane continued to strengthen and on October 1 reached its peak intensity while centered convert|350|nmi|km|-1 south-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California, with estimated convert|145|mi/h|km/h|0|abbr=on maximum winds and a minimum pressure of convert|935|mi/h|km/h|0|abbr=on. Kevin was moving toward the west at this time, but turned toward the west-southwest in response of a strong high pressure system located northwest of the hurricane. Then, Kevin began to weaken gradually and its eye became poorly defined on October 4. It weakened to a minor hurricane on October 6 as the hurricane began turning toward the northwest and continued this general motion for the next few days. cite web|author=Max Mayfield|year=1991|title=Hurricane Prelim 1|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/kevin/prenhc/prelim01.gif] cite web|author=Max Mayfield|year=1991|title=Hurricane Prelim 2|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/kevin/prenhc/prelim02.gif]

However, a well-defined eye reappeared in the system and Kevin reintensified to a low-end Category 4 hurricane with maximum winds of convert|115|mi/h|km/h|0|abbr=on and a minimum pressure of 960 mb on October 7. But this was short-lived and on October 8 the hurricane began to weaken again and on the next day it had entered into the North Central Pacific basin as a waning Category 1 hurricane. After this crossing, it was subsequently downgraded to storm strength the same day and on October 11, to a depression. It dissipated that same day. The remnant circulation, however, did persist a while longer as it slowly drifted north to finally lose its identity late on October 14. Kevin had been a hurricane for 12½ days while over the Eastern Pacific basin. This is the longest a system has remained as a hurricane in the basin since improved satellite imagery began.cite web|author=Max Mayfield|year=1991|title=Hurricane Prelim 2|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/kevin/prenhc/prelim02.gif] cite web|author=Central Pacific Hurricane Center|year=1991|title=Kevin report: Central Pacific|publisher=CPHC|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1991.php]

There were no reported casualties or damages from Kevin.cite web|author=Max Mayfield|year=1991|title=Hurricane Prelim 2|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/kevin/prenhc/prelim02.gif]

Hurricane Linda

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac


Track=Linda 1991 track.pngFormed=October 2
Dissipated=October 13
1-min winds=105
Pressure=957
The tropical wave that ultimately produced Hurricane Linda emerged from the northwest coast of Africa on September 16. It could be tracked reasonably well across the tropical Atlantic. The convection increased markedly upon approaching the Lesser Antilles on September 21. The northern part split from the wave and caused showers in Jamaica, the Bahamas and Cuba while the southern part continued and crossed Panama into the Pacific basin on September 25 as a group of disorganized cloud clusters. It took many days to organize and it was not until October 3 when organization improved and the wave became Tropical Depression Fourteen-E that same day.cite web|author=Hal Gerrish|year=1991|title=Hurricane Linda Prelim 1|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/linda/prenhc/prelim01.gif]

The tropical depression moved toward the northwest while strengthening and became Tropical Storm Linda within 12 hours. As Linda then drifted to the north it was upgraded to a hurricane on October 5. Then, the hurricane reached its estimated peak intensity of convert|120|mi/h|km/h|-1|abbr=on and a minimum central pressure of 957 mb that same day. Linda began to weaken as it was following Kevin's track and entered to colder waters. Linda turned the west-northwest and produced convert|80|mi/h|km/h|-1|abbr=on sustained winds on Socorro Island on October 7 as the center of Linda was only convert|50|nmi|km|-1 from the island. Later that day, Linda weakened to a tropical storm. On October 9, as Linda was following Kevin's track, the cyclone had been sheared near the center and it had been downgraded to a depression, although deep convection continued to intermittently appear. Finally, on early October 14, Linda dissipated.cite web|author=Hal Gerrish|year=1991|title=Hurricane Linda Prelim 1|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/linda/prenhc/prelim01.gif] cite web|author=Hal Gerrish|year=1991|title=Hurricane Linda Prelim 2|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/linda/prenhc/prelim02.gif]

There were no reported casualties or damages from Linda.cite web|author=Hal Gerrish|year=1991|title=Hurricane Linda Prelim 2|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/linda/prenhc/prelim02.gif]

Hurricane Marty

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac


Track=Marty 1991 track.pngFormed=October 7
Dissipated=October 18
1-min winds=70
Pressure=979
A series of weak tropical waves, of relatively short wave length, exited the African during the last part of September. They traveled across the Atlantic and the Caribbean, encountering a hostile environment for development. On October 5, one of the waves crossed Central America and it began to organize the next day.

Based on satellite classifications, the weather system was upgraded to tropical depression status about convert|240|nmi|km|-1 south of the Gulf of Tehuantepec on October 7. It became Tropical Storm Marty the next day and reached hurricane status early on October 10 while moving parallel to the coast of Mexico. There were several occasions when an eye was becoming apparent in satellite imagery but it never fully developed. An upper trough over the western United States forced Marty to moved toward the northwest and north for a while, bringing the hurricane to waters previously cooled by hurricanes Kevin and Linda. Then, Marty disorganized and weakened into a tropical storm. Also, the trough which forced Marty northward moved out of the area, which made that Marty turned sharply to the west, then west-southwest around a high pressure system. Marty weakened further and remained as a tropical depression. It finally dissipated on October 18. There were no associated casualties or damages with Marty. cite web|author=Lixion Avila|year=1991|title=Hurricane Marty Prelim 1|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/marty/prenhc/prelim01.gif]

Hurricane Nora

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac


Track=Nora 1991 track.pngFormed=November 7
Dissipated=November 12
1-min winds=90
Pressure=970
A tropical wave organized into a tropical depression on November 7. It moved to the northwest and strengthened into Tropical Storm Nora the next day. On November 9, Nora became the first hurricane to form in November in the northern East Pacific basin since the 1966 season. It peaked as a Category 2 hurricane on November 10. A large trough moved in from the west and formed a low. Shear increased and disrupted Nora's convection. The low also caused an abrupt change of course to the northeast. Nora weakened to a depression on November 11 and dissipated the next day. Nora's remnants continued to the northeast, showing brief flare-ups of convection, causing rain in Sinaloa and Nayarit. Effects were minor. cite web|author=Miles Lawrence|year=1991|title=Hurricane Nora Prelim 1|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/nora/prenhc/prelim01.gif] cite web|author=Miles Lawrence|year=1991|title=Hurricane Nora Prelim 3|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2006-12-22|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/nora/prenhc/prelim02.gif]

Hurricane Nora is one of only six known tropical cyclones to reach hurricane intensity east of the dateline in November or December. The other ones were Hurricane/Typhoon Ruby in 1972 season, Hurricane Iwa in the 1982 season, Hurricane Winnie in the 1983 season, Hurricane Rick in the 1997 season, and Hurricane Sergio in the 2006 season. cite web|author=NOAA|year=1990|title=80columnreport|publisher=AOML|accessdate=2006-12-20|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/tracks1949to2005_epa.txt]

eason statistics

Timeline

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barset:Hurricane width:10 align:left fontsize:S shift:(4,-4) anchor:till from:12/05/1991 till:16/05/1991 color:TS text:"Andres" from:14/06/1991 till:22/06/1991 color:TS text:"Blanca" from:16/06/1991 till:27/06/1991 color:C3 text:"Carlos" from:24/06/1991 till:29/06/1991 color:C1 text:"Delores" from:29/06/1991 till:30/06/1991 color:TD text:"Five-E" from:15/07/1991 till:20/07/1991 color:C1 text:"Enrique" from:29/07/1991 till:08/08/1991 color:C3 text:"Fefa" from:04/08/1991 till:10/08/1991 color:C1 text:"Guillermo" barset:break from:08/08/1991 till:14/08/1991 color:TS text:"Hilda" from:12/09/1991 till:13/09/1991 color:TD text:"Ten-E" from:16/09/1991 till:19/09/1991 color:TS text:"Ignacio" from:20/09/1991 till:02/10/1991 color:C4 text:"Jimena" from:25/09/1991 till:11/10/1991 color:C4 text:"Kevin" from:03/10/1991 till:14/10/1991 color:C3 text:"Linda" from:07/10/1991 till:18/10/1991 color:C1 text:"Marty" from:07/11/1991 till:12/11/1991 color:C2 text:"Nora" barset:skip

bar:Month width:5 align:center fontsize:S shift:(0,-20) anchor:middle color:canvas from:01/05/1991 till:01/06/1991 text:May from:01/06/1991 till:01/07/1991 text:June from:01/07/1991 till:01/08/1991 text:July from:01/08/1991 till:01/09/1991 text:August from:01/09/1991 till:01/10/1991 text:September from:01/10/1991 till:01/11/1991 text:October from:01/11/1991 till:01/12/1991 text:November

The season began with the formation of Tropical Depression One-E on May 16 and ended with the dissipation of Tropical Depression Nora on November 12. One named storm formed in May, three in June, two in July, two in August, three in September, two in October, and one in November. Very unusually, a Category 2 hurricane formed in November, when strong shear and cold waters are often present in the basin. This has happened only six times, incluiding Nora and Sergio. cite web|author=NOAA|year=1990|title=80columnreport|publisher=AOML|accessdate=2006-12-20|url=http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/hurdat/tra51to05atl-gt.txt]

Accumulated Cyclone Activity (ACE)

The table on the right shows the ACE for each storm in the season. ACE is, broadly speaking, a measure of the power of the hurricane multiplied by the length of time it existed, so storms that last a long time, as well as particularly strong hurricanes, have high ACEs. ACE is only calculated for full advisories on tropical systems at or exceeding 34 knots (39 mph, 63 km/h) or tropical storm strength and it is used to rank hurricane seasons as above-normal, near-normal, and below-normal. It defines below-normal as having an ACE less than 95*104 kt²; It defines above normal as having an ACE above 150*104 kt² along with the numbers of any two of the following above average: tropical storms (15), hurricanes (9), or major hurricanes (4); It defines near-normal as having an ACE between 100*104 kt² and 150*104 kt², or an ACE above 150*104 kt² with fewer than two of the numbers of the following above average: tropical storms (15), hurricanes (9), or major hurricanes (4).cite web|url=http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/Epac_hurr/background_information.html|author=Climate Prediction Center|title=Background Information: East Pacific Hurricane Season|accessdate=2006-10-26]

The cumulative ACE for the Eastern Pacific this season fell within the official "Above Normal" grading, being one of the most active. This occurred because the season had many intense storms that lasted for a long period of time, including Kevin that took almost the third part of the total season ACE, as it held hurricane status for 12½ days in the basin.cite web|author=NOAA|year=1990|title=80columnreport|publisher=AOML|accessdate=2006-12-20|url=http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/hurdat/tra51to05atl-gt.txt]

1991 storm names

The following names were used for named storms that formed in the eastern Pacific in 1991. The names not retired from this list were used again in the 1997 season. This is the same list used for the 1985 season. In previous seasons, "Delores" was spelled "Dolores", but it was misspelled this year. After this season, the typo was corrected. No central Pacific names were used; the first name used would have been Ekeka. Names that were not assigned are marked in gray.

Retirement

The World Meteorological Organization retired one name in the spring of 1992: Fefa. It was replaced in the 1997 season by Felicia.

ee also

*List of Pacific hurricanes
*List of Pacific hurricane seasons
*1991 Atlantic hurricane season
*1991 Pacific typhoon season
*1991 North Indian Ocean cyclone season
*Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone seasons: 1990–91, 1991–92

References

External links

* [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1991/ NHC 1991 Pacific hurricane season archive]
* [http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1991.php Central Pacific Hurricane Center archive]
* [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/tracks1949to2005_epa.txt List of storms with ACE calculations]
* [http://ams.allenpress.com/archive/1520-0493/120/11/pdf/i1520-0493-120-11-2697.pdf 1991 North Eastern Pacific hurricane season summary]


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