1993 Pacific hurricane season

Infobox hurricane season
Basin=EPac
Year=1993
Track=1993 Pacific hurricane season map.png First storm formed=June 11, 1993
Last storm dissipated=October 14, 1993
Strongest storm name=Lidia
Strongest storm winds=130
Strongest storm pressure=930
Average wind speed=1
Total depressions=18
Total storms=15
Total hurricanes=11
Total intense=9
Fatalities=42
Da

Inflated=1
five seasons=1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995
The 1993 Pacific hurricane season officially started May 15, 1993 in the eastern Pacific, and June 1, 1993 in the central Pacific, and lasted until November 30, 1993. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northeastern Pacific Ocean.

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Activity

There were 14 named storms this year, of which ten were hurricanes and eight were major by reaching Category 3 or higher on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. Also, three tropical depressions occurred during the season. In the central Pacific, a major hurricane developed and eventually became a typhoon after crossing the dateline.

Hurricane Adrian

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac


Track=Adrian 1993 track.pngFormed=June 11
Dissipated=June 19
1-min winds=75
Pressure=979
The first named storm of the season developed on June 11 from a broad and persisting area of disturbed weather, partially related from interaction with a tropical wave that crossed over from the Atlantic, 960 miles southwest of the tip of the Baja Peninsula, though signs of a circulation were evident as early as June 9. [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1993-prelim/adrian/ Preliminary report on Adrian] ] Located under a weak steering flow, Adrian gradually strengthened as it drifted to the northwest, reaching its peak intensity of 85 mph (135 km/h) on June 16, but increasing vertical wind shear gradually began to weaken the storm shortly thereafter. The storm began a short clockwise loop back to the southeast on June 17, becoming nearly stationary for the remainder of its life until June 19, when Adrian dissipated as a low-level cloud swirl over cooler waters. Adrian caused no deaths and did not affect land.

Tropical Storm Beatriz

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac


Track=Beatriz 1993 track.pngFormed=June 18
Dissipated=June 20
1-min winds=55
Pressure=995
The second named storm of the season originated from a slow-moving area of increasing cloudiness over the Gulf of Tehuantepec on June 14. Moving little, a broad area of low pressure formed within the mass, but the area remained disorganized, although a tropical wave moved through on June 16. However, another tropical wave moved through on the 18th, and the area of cloudiness gradually became more concentrated, and post-storm analysis indicated that a tropical depression formed on June 18 near Huatulco as banding increased. A report of tropical storm-force winds from a ship was issued, and the depression was quickly upgraded to Tropical Storm Beatriz. [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1993-prelim/beatriz/ Preliminary report on Beatriz] ] Beatriz moved northwest due to influence from the outflow from developing Tropical Storm Arlene in the Gulf of Mexico, briefly reaching its peak intensity of 65 mph (105 km/h) on June 19 shortly prior to landfall near Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca. Beatriz quickly weakened after landfall, dissipating over the mountainous southwest Mexican terrain, although the remnant cloudiness associated from the storm's circulation spread over portions of the western Gulf of Mexico on June 20.

Beatriz caused extensive damage in southwest Mexico, especially from heavy rains and flooding, with highest rainfall totals of between five and ten inches occurring in Oaxaca, with even higher totals of 11.97 and 15.46 from Las Pilas and Salina Cruz. Six deaths were reported in the Mexican states of Morelos and Veracruz from flooding and downed trees attributed to Beatriz, though no damage totals were available.

Tropical Depression Three-E

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac
Formed=June 27
Dissipated=July 2
1-min winds=30
Pressure=1006
This system brought large amounts of rain and flooding to southern Mexico.

Hurricane Calvin

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac


Track=Calvin 1993 track.pngFormed=July 4
Dissipated=July 9
1-min winds=95
Pressure=966
Hurricane Calvin was the deadliest hurricane in the season, killing 34 people as it paralleled the Mexican coastline in July and causing over $32 million in damage from heavy rains, flooding, and mudslides.

Hurricane Dora

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac
Track=Dora 1993 track.pngFormed=July 14
Dissipated=July 21
1-min winds=115
Pressure=945
Dora lasted over the open east Pacific from July 14 to July 20, peaking over open waters as a 135 mph Category 4 with a minimum pressure of 945 mbar. Land was never affected.

Hurricane Eugene

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac
Track=Eugene 1993 track.pngFormed=July 15
Dissipated=July 25
1-min winds=110
Pressure=948
Eugene was an intense major Category 3 hurricane that formed quickly in the eastern Pacific off Mexico on July 15, but it soon weakened to a tropical storm over open waters by the 22nd, and it made landfall on the Big Island of Hawaii as a tropical depression on July 25, dissipating shortly thereafter after crossing the island. As of 2005, it is the most recent tropical cyclone to make landfall in Hawaii, although there have been a few near-misses since then. Effects were minimal.

Hurricane Keoni

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac
Track=Keoni 1993 track.pngFormed=August 7
Dissipated=August 19
1-min winds=115
Keoni formed southeast of the Big Island of Hawaii on August 9, and was later classified as a named system south of the island chain. Keoni peaked as an intense 135 mph Category 4 hurricane over open waters and lasted until the 29th, crossing the International Date Line and becoming a typhoon in the western Pacific, but never affected land.

Hurricane Fernanda

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac


Track=Fernanda 1993 track.pngFormed=August 9
Dissipated=August 19
1-min winds=125
Pressure=934
Fernanda formed from a tropical wave that moved off the west African coast on July 28 and crossed into the eastern Pacific. The developing storm reached tropical storm status on August 9 while 635 miles south of the southern tip of Baja, and Fernanda strengthened into a hurricane the next day. Fernanda developed a large and well-defined eye, reaching its peak of 145 mph (235 km/h) on July 12 over the open eastern Pacific. Fernanda eventually crossed into the central Pacific on July 14, and passed as close as 300 miles northeast of the Big Island of Hawaii as a Category 2 hurricane on July 16. [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1993-prelim/fernanda/ National Hurricane Center Fernanda preliminary report] ] Fernanda later began to curve slowly to the northwest on July 16 under the influence of an upper-level trough after approaching the Hawaiian Islands, becoming extratropical on July 19 after weakening due to shear and cooler waters, with the remnant circulation merging with the cold upper-level trough. [http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1993.php#Fernanda Central Pacific Hurricane Center report on Fernanda] ]

Although it did not make landfall in the Hawaiian Islands, Fernanda's close approach prompted a hurricane warning for the Big Island and a hurricane watch elsewhere in the islands. Heavy surf and wave action affected the islands, with waves as high as between 15 and 20 feet reported on Kauai, causing damage to shoreline roads on all of the islands, allowing water intrusion into some homes, and washing one home several feet off its foundation. Many beach parks were also inundated, though evacuations prevented any deaths. In total, Fernanda caused $5 million in damage to the Hawaiian Islands, and moisture induced by the interaction of Fernanda and the cold-core trough also affected the islands, producing showers and thunderstorms on all of the islands and localized flooding on Kauai. [http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/summaries/1993.php#Fernanda Central Pacific Hurricane Center report on Fernanda] ]

Hurricane Greg

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac


Track=Greg 1993 track.pngFormed=August 15
Dissipated=August 28
1-min winds=115
Pressure=948
Greg was a continuation of Atlantic Tropical Storm Bret. Forming on August 15, Greg reached an intense peak as a 135 mph Category 4 south of Baja California over open waters. Though it traveled a rather long distance, lasting until the 28th, Greg had no effects on any land.

Hurricane Hilary

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac


Track=Hilary 1993 track.pngFormed=August 17
Dissipated=August 27
1-min winds=105
Pressure=957
A tropical wave entered the Northeastern Pacific Ocean on August 14. As it did it intiated multiple small rounds of convention through August 16. The system progressed west to just south of Central America on August 16, and later that day thunderstorm activity continued to the south of the Gulf of Tehuantepec. Early on August 17, the system became Tropical Depression Nine-E. As it formed an upper-level low pressure system was located over the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, north of 9-E. The upper-level low slowed the development of a strong upper-level outflow in 9-E. The inner portion of the system, however, continued to development convection, mostly east and south of the center of circulation. On August 18, the system became Tropical Storm Hillary, 120 miles to the south of Huatulco. Through August 21, Hillary paralled the southwestern coast of Mexico, eventually bringing Hillary to a location 200 miles west of Manzanillo. The course of Hillary was determined by a steering flow from a wind pattern, dominated by a high pressure system located to the northeast of Hillary. As it moved on this storm path, Hillary intensified. On August 19, very cold cloud tops were observed on Hillary and it was upgraded to hurricane status. On August 20, an eye began to become apparent on satellite imagery, ships reported a very large circulation, and tropical storm force winds extended around 150 miles, close to the coastline. NHC Tropical Satellite Analysis and the Air Force Global WeatherCentral both indicated an eye diameter of 18 miles on August 21, a well defined eye, as Hurricane Hillary peaked at 121 mph. The eye's diameter, however, decreased to only a 10 mile diameter, later in the day. Hillary's motion then became unsteady, as the storm's path changed from northwest to westward motion, on August 22. By August 23 Hillary nearly completely stalled, before executing a small loop when 150 miles south of the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula. This change in direction, followed by a loop, was likely due to fujiwhara interaction with Tropical Storm Irwin. [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1993/hilary/prenhc/prelim01.gif] Hurricane watches and tropical storm warnings were issued prior to Hillary's landfalls. [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1993/hilary/prenhc/prelim07.gif] Hurricane Hilary made landfall on the Baja California peninsula as a tropical storm, and two landfalls on the Mexican Coast, one has a tropical storm, the other as a depression. There were heavy rains, but no damage or deaths. [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1993/hilary/prenhc/prelim04.gif]

Tropical Storm Irwin

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac
Track=Irwin 1993 track.pngFormed=August 21
Dissipated=August 22
1-min winds=60
Pressure=999
Irwin came close to western Mexico, but didn't make landfall. It brought rain, but it's effects were minimal.

Hurricane Jova

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac


Track=Jova 1993 track.pngFormed=August 29
Dissipated=September 22
1-min winds=115
Pressure=948
Jova originated from a persisting area of disturbed weather, associated with a tropical wave that exited the African coastline on August 14, that crossed the Atlantic and Caribbean into the Gulf of Tehuantepec on August 26. Signs of a weak circulation appeared, and as the circulation became better defined, the area of disturbed weather was upgraded to a tropical depression on August 29 near the Mexican coast about 300 nmi south of Acapulco. [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/storm_wallets/epacific/ep1993-prelim/jova/ National Hurricane Center Jova preliminary report] ] Jova moved steadily to the west-northwest, paralleling the coast while strengthening into a tropical storm later on August 29 and a hurricane on August 31 while on steady movement of 13 to 17 mph. An eye developed shortly thereafter on August 31, and Jova reached its peak of 135 mph (220 km/h) based on Dvorak estimates while located approximately 155 miles southwest of Manzanillo.

Jova began gradually weakening thereafter, with an intermittently appearing eye on September 2 and September 3 before a final weakening trend began as Jova turned to the west. With a gradual loss of deep convection, Jova eventually weakened to a swirl of stratocumulus clouds and dissipated on September 5 about 805 miles west of the southernmost tip of the Baja peninsula. Jova's outermost rainbands affected coastal Mexico, resulting in some rainfall but no deaths as the storm paralleled the coastline and moved out to sea.

Hurricane Kenneth

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac


Track=Kenneth 1993 track.pngFormed=September 5
Dissipated=September 17
1-min winds=130
Pressure=932
Kenneth was a long-lasting and intense 150 mph (240 km/h) Category 4 hurricane that stayed south and southwest of Baja California and never affected land. It lasted from September 5 to September 17.

Hurricane Lidia

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac


Track=Lidia 1993 track.pngFormed=September 8
Dissipated=September 14
1-min winds=130
Pressure=930
Lidia was the strongest storm of the season. It made landfall close to Mazatlán, Sinaloa. A tropical wave organized into a depression on September 8. It became a tropical depression early on the next day. Convection became well developed, and Lidia peaked as a Category 4 on September 11.

A trough and an upper-level low recurved Lidia towards mainland Mexico. For unknown reasons, Lidia weakened considerably before making landfall in Sinaloa as a Category 1. Lidia then accelerated northeastward and then east-northeastward. It weakened to a depression just after crossing the international border with Texas. Tropical Depression Lidia dissipated near Austin on September 14. The cyclone's remnants were absorbed by a cold front.

Two deaths and at least one injury were reported. One person in Sinaloa was electrocuted, and another person died in Durango during the collapse of a dwelling. More than 10000 people were "displaced", and damage was widespread in Sinaloa and Durango. Hundreds of shanty-houses near Mazatlán were toppled, and 100 houses were destroyed in La Cruz. In Durango, 16 homes were destroyed and 4000 were damaged. In some areas of Nayarit, flooding destroyed several areas of agriculture, and 1,200 head of cattle were killed near Culiacán, Sinaloa. A 150-foot television tower was blown over in Culiacán.

Tropical Depression Fourteen-E

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac


Track=Gert-14 1993 track.pngFormed=September 21
Dissipated=September 26
1-min winds=30
Pressure=1002
When the large circulation of Gert entered eastern North Pacific late on September 21, the tropical cyclone became Tropical Depression Fourteen-E.

Tropical Storm Max

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac
Track=Max 1993 track.pngFormed=September 30
Dissipated=October 4
1-min winds=40
Pressure=1000
Max was a weak tropical storm that affected no land areas.

Tropical Storm Norma

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac
Track=Norma 1993 track.pngFormed=October 2
Dissipated=October 6
1-min winds=45
Pressure=1000
Norma was a tropical storm for only 36 hours and affected no land areas.

Tropical Depression Seventeen-E

Infobox Hurricane Small
Basin=EPac
Formed=October 11
Dissipated=October 14
1-min winds=30
Pressure=1009
This was a short-lived tropical depression that did not affect any land areas.

torm names

The following names were used for named storms that formed in the eastern Pacific in 1993; names that were not assigned are marked in gray. No names were retired, so it was used again in the 1999 season. This is the same list used for the 1987 season except for Knut, which was replaced with Kenneth. A storm was named Kenneth for the first time in 1993.

One name from the central Pacific list was used - Keoni, which was the first time a storm had been named that.

References

ee also

*List of Pacific hurricanes
*List of Pacific hurricane seasons
*1993 Atlantic hurricane season
*1993 Pacific typhoon season
*1993 North Indian Ocean cyclone season
*Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone seasons: 1992–93, 1993–94

References

External links

* [ftp://ftp.nhc.noaa.gov/pub/storm_archives/pacific/prelimep/ep1993/ NHC 1993 Pacific hurricane season archive]
* [http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc/pages/hurrclimate.php#1993 Central Pacific Hurricane Center archive]


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