Alexander Henry Haliday

Alexander Henry Haliday, also known as Enrico Alessandro Haliday and Alexis Heinrich Haliday (1807–1870), was an Irish entomologist. He is primarily known for his work on Hymenoptera, Diptera and Thysanoptera, but Haliday worked on all insect orders and on many aspects of entomology.

Haliday was born in Holywood, County Down, Ireland. A boyhood friend of Robert Templeton, he divided his time between Ireland and Lucca, now part of Italy, where he was a co-founder with Camillo Rondani and Adolfo Targioni Tozzetti of the Italian Entomological Society. He was a Member of the Royal Irish Academy and the Belfast Natural History Society and a Fellow of the (now Royal) Entomological Society of London.

With Hermann Loew (1807–1879), Alexander Haliday was among the greatest dipterists of the 19th century and one of the most renowned British entomologists of the day. His achievements were in four main fields: description, higher taxonomy, synonymy and biology. He erected many major taxa including the order Thysanoptera and the families Mymaridae and Ichneumonidae. Most of Haliday's correspondence with British and continental entomologists is in the library of the Royal Entomological Society, other parts are in the Hope Department Library at the University of Oxford.

Haliday died in Lucca in 1870.

Biography

Family

Alexander Henry Haliday was born at Clifden, Holywood, a small seaside town in County Down, Ireland on 21 November, 1806, the eldest child of William Haliday, a cloth merchant, and Marion Webster. The Haliday family, were Protestant, though not religious, and clearly well-placed, holding convert|3228|acre|km2 of farmland in County Antrim valued at £3,054.00 in 1820. The family also owned property in Holywood and in Dublin and had a cloth merchant business. They also had were also shipping interests. Haliday's brother, William Robert, was sometime a Lieutenant-Colonel in the 36th Regiment of Foot quartered at Windsor. Aside from a collection of parrots from Australia, Malacca and Malabar, collected in the 1840s, William Haliday, whose name on the army register is spelled Halliday, is not known as a naturalist. Haliday's sister was named Hortense. She was interested in botany. Little is known of Hortense except that she suffered from tuberculosis as did the rest of the family. She is charmingly enshrined in Curtis' folio 4569 of British Entomology - being illustrations and descriptions of the genera of insects found in Great Britain and Ireland May 1, 1836 :quote|For the beautiful drawing of "Rosa hibernica" (the Belfast Rose) I am indebted to Miss Haliday.

The Haliday family had relatives in Lucca, Italy-the Pisani's. – “I have been a long time about writing to you but the return of my sister and some other relatives from Italy who had not been home for many years has filled our house and occupied my thoughts mostly ie my cousin Mme Pisani, her husband and three nieces with myself" he wrote. The Pisani's were a prominent Lucca family and Haliday a frequent visitor to "Campagna bella e chiamate di Tuscanys a Firenze, a Lucca, a Pisa ed al Cinque Terre che la campagna della Toscana allunga dall'aria croccante e libera del Apennines ad alcune delle linee costiere più belle dell'Italia." The frequent presence of the Pisani family led to, according to Camillo Rondani "Alessandro's" learning Italian "al suo ginocchio delle madri, come un nativo"-Rondani as a child.

Education

Haliday and his life-long friend Robert Templeton (though they were to see nothing of each other after 1833) began their education at the Belfast Academical Institution. Opened in 1814, the school had strong leanings towards natural history. Haliday, aged twelve, studied Classics first, then two years later took up Arithmetic and then two years after that Mathematics. Both boys were taught drawing by an Italian master whose talents evidently lay in teaching as much as skill. Both boys became skilled illustrators. The natural history lessons from George Crawford Hyndman, were not a part of the curriculum but formal. Hyndman was an avid insect collector and one of the founding members of the Belfast Natural History Society which had a Museum and Library. Haliday left the Belfast Academical Institution, and the family home in nearby Holywood at fifteen, for Dublin where he entered Trinity College in 1822, graduating in 1827. He was awarded a gold medal in classics. After graduating and aged twenty Haliday went to Paris in late 1827 staying for most of a year.

Metropolitan Dublin

Haliday in the years 1825-1840 spent most of his time in Dublin from 1833 living at No. 3, North Cumberland Street (in later years his Dublin address was No. 8, Harcourt Street). He returned frequently to Clifden, however and also spent much time in London and more than occasionally visited Lucca, staying with the Pisani's. Aside from its modern, metropolitan pleasures, Dublin had competing attractions for Haliday: the Dublin Society housing the Leske Collection, the Marsh Library and that of Trinity College, the Linnaean Garden (a garden presenting the 24 classes of Carolus Linnaeus’ Systema the Opera and the Theatre Royal.

Times of strife

Between the years of 1841 and 1848 Haliday seems to have spent most, if not all of his time away from Ireland, mainly in the Pisani family home in Lucca. In these years Europe was riven by conflict culminating in the Revolutions of 1848. Prior to this the Irish Potato Famine beginning in 1845 took as many as one million lives from hunger and disease by 1849.

More settled times

In the 1850s Haliday, once more resident in Dublin, where from 1854-1860 he edited parts of the Natural History Review, gave lectures at meetings of the Dublin University Zoological Association (Trinity College) and curated the insect collections at the same University. Here he renewed his interest in geology (Haliday, as did most educated people, had a well read copy of Charles Lyell's 3 volume book, Principles of Geology, in published between 1830 and 1833). He became a member of the Dublin University Geological Society on its foundation,not only attending meetings but the reading papers of geologists unable to attend in person. Presumably his language skills were also useful. A manuscript in the Royal Irish Academy proves that Haliday gave a series of talks on fossil insects to the Dublin geologists illustrating this with specimens some from his own and the Universities collections. In these years he made regular visits to London, usually staying with Henry Tibbats Stainton. The visits coincided with the more important meetings of the Entomological Society of London. Visits to the continent included two trips to Switzerland staying near Monte Rosa with entomological friends.

Italy

In 1862 (February) Haliday took up residence in Villa San Cordeo in Lucca,staying in Paris en route to study the important Johann Wilhelm Meigen collection. Changes of address in Lucca became the rule in March, Casa Pelosi, May, Monte Bonelli and in 1863 Villa Buia. Then following a trip to Sicily he moved into Villa Pisani, with his cousin Mme. Pisani and her family (husband and three nieces). Visits to see entomologists and expeditions became much more frequent. He collected insects over much of northern Italy in these years.

Travels in Italy

From 1862 until his death Haliday travelled widely in Italy, mainly in the North - Emilia-Romagna, Liguria, Lombardy, Piedmont, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Aosta Valley and in Tuscany although he made two trips to Sicily. Various trips to Switzerland, France and Bavaria followed and in 1865, with Edward Perceval Wright, he made an entomological expedition to Portugal. In May and June 1868 he toured Sicily also with Wright.

"I am back but a few days from an excursion in the Apennines cut short by unfavourable weather. I took a horse and man from baths of Lucca and found myself at Abetone the pass between Tuscany and Modena — ascending Gione the highest point of the central Apennines which lies a little detached from the chain so commanding a more extensive view including both seas Adriatic and Tyorhem but I saw on the top only fog, rain and rock. Rondinago the next highest (in the main chain) was little better as to view and in the mist my guide who had never been at the summit took me up the most precipitous side really a perilous climb in fog — I had intended going on to some of the Apuan Alps (or Carrara range) but this experience discouraged me — also I found that the season was too far advanced in respect to vegetation and consequently insects".

The second tour of Sicily with Wright in 1870 was his last. He died in Lucca.

Some of his collection localities included Emilia-Romagna, Comacchio and Tuscany.

ocieties

Haliday was a Member of the Royal Irish Academy, the Entomological Society of London,the Linnean Society of London , the Dublin University Zoological Association, the Dublin University Geological Societythe Stettin Entomological Society and La Società Entomologica Italiana or,in English, the Italian Entomological Society, of which he was a cofounder.

Haliday the man

A cultured man Haliday was quite at home at the opera and was an avid concert and theatre-goer in both Dublin and Lucca and, occasionally Rome. Occasional literary references point to the novel and, naturally the classics and we know of family visits especially with Madame Pisani (of whom he appears to have been extraordinarily fond) "to view the paintings" He was, presumably, culturally no different to any other highly educated European gentleman.Invitations are to be found among the papers in the Royal Irish Academy- to M. Gounod's "Sappho", first performed in Paris in 1851, Verdi's "Rigoletto" Il Trovatore", "La Traviata and Les Vespres Siciliennes", Schumann's "Manfred"; Donizetti's "Lucia di Lammermoor" and Berlioz' " The Infant Christ".Such advanced musical tastes and opportunities usually come early in life and by were presumably instilled in Hortense and Henry by the Pisani's rather than by Haliday's provincial and decidedly dour family.It is worth noting, but no more, that Giacomo Puccini, the Italian opera composer,was born in Lucca, Halidays other hometownin 1859.Business,or rather lack of it did not occupy Haliday.There is no reference in his will to other than minor amounts. He died without leaving property or significant sums of money money.As to personality,there is much humour in Haliday's writing all of it good natured and he was very tolerant of others failings though not always. Modesty was not a virtue; Haliday was by no mean self-effacing. Far from it - The quote, which, in full is, in English, "Hunting the wolf and whelps upon the mountain for which the Pisans cannot see Lucca" is from Dante's Inferno Canto 23. No matter what the context Haliday simply could not resist showing his literary and other prowess whenever the opputunity presented itself. Religion did not interest him,though a regular attender at the Protestant church in Lucca and an opponent of Transcendentalism. Haliday was not a religious man. His political views were less progressive, at least in respect of the American Civil War and the Risorgimento. Despite, the disordered nature of much of Haliday's life and suggestions that he suffered from nervous dyspepsia but this is belied by much of his writing and by and large he was in robust health.

Major achievements

* Contributions to the species concept by the designation of type specimens which would be suitably housed. This was suggested in a letter to the Entomological Magazine in 1833 and the idea was approved by the editor, Francis Walker.
* Contributions to the concept of synonymy.
* Establishing rules for systematics and nomenclature, Haliday's refined analysis of the history of names and the natural groupings the names identified was a model of perfection and the rules Haliday suggested were taken up by all important continental and most British authors.
* Haliday's description of the genus "Orphnephila" (Diptera: Thaumalaeidae)and the accompanying plate set a new standard of descriptive taxonomy far in advance of anything of its time.
* Halidays "Essay on the classification of parasitic Hymenoptera" is a work of higher taxonomy.He was one of the pioneers of the group. Others were Johann Ludwig Christian Gravenhorst, Arnold Förster (also Förster) and Nees von Essenbeck. The higher classification of the ichneumons is unstable but many of Halidays higher taxa have survived.
* Haliday was a specialist, working full-time on Diptera in the families Sphaeroceridae and Dolichopodidae and on the Hymenoptera and Thysanoptera (excepting the arena of synonymy)

Important works

The following are the more important works of Haliday. [ [http://www.insects.fsnet.co.uk/alexander_henry_haliday.htm Biography] ]

*1832 The characters of two new dipterous genera with indications of some generic subdivisions and several species of Dolichopodidae. "Zoological Journal" 5: 350-368. 1 pl.
*1833 with Francis Walker. Monographia Chalciditum. London, 1833-1842, Much of this work was collaborative with Haliday A.H who was the sole author of the sectional diagnoses.
*1833-1838 An essay on the classification of the parasitic Hymenoptera...of Britain which correspond with the Ichneumones minuti of Linnaeus. Entomological Magazine 1: 259-276; 333-350; 48-491; 2: 93-106; 225-259; 4: 92-106; 203-221; 5:209-248.
*1836 British species of the dipterous tribe Sphaeroceridae. "Entomological Magazine" 3: 315-336.
*1836 An epitome of the British genera in the order Thysanoptera with indications of a few of the species. "Entomological Magazine" 3: 439-451.
*1837 with John Curtis, James Charles Dale, Francis Walker, Second edition of "A guide to the arrangement of British insects being a catalogue of all the named species hitherto discovered in Great Britain and Ireland " *1839 "Hymenoptera Britannica : Oxyura et Alysia". London, Balliére Fasc. 1: 15, Fasc. 2: 28 et 4.
*1839 "Hymenopterorum Synopsis and Methodum Fallenii ut plurimum accomodata" (Belfast) 8 4pg. s.titulo.
*1851-6 in Francis Walker Insecta Britannica Diptera 3 vols. London Characters and synoptical tables of the order (vol.I: 1-9 of the Empidae (Vol.I:85-88) of the Syrphidae (Vol.I: 234-237) chapters on the Dolichopodidae (Vol.I: 144-221),on the Borborides (Vol.II: 171-184), on the Hydromyzides (Vol.II: 247-269)also the corrigenda and addenda (Vol.III: xi-xvi) and contributions to the J.O. Westwood plates.
*1851 with Dohrn, C.A. Wissenschaftliche Mittheilungen Sendschreiben von Alexis H. Haliday an C. A. Dohrn über die Dipteren der in London befindlichen Linnéischen Sammlung Aus dem Englischen uberstez von Anna Dohrn and also (index) Haliday, A.H. Über die Dipteren der in London befindlichen Linnéischen Sammlung "Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung" 12: 131-145.
*1857 Review Zoonomische briefe : allgemeine darstellung der Thierischen Organisation Von Dr. Hermann Burmeister, Professor der Zoologie zu Halle. Ersler und Zweiter Theil 8 vo. Otto Wigand: Leipzig 1856. Natural History Review (Proc.) 4: 69-77.

Miscellania

Haliday and the Linnean Collection

In the winter of 1847-8 Carl August Dohrn joined Haliday in London for a study of the Linnean collection later to be published in the Stettin Ent. Zeit for 1851 (Volume 12 131-145)under the German title "Wissenschaftliche Mittheilungen Sendschreiben von Alexis H. Haliday an C. A. Dohrn über die Dipteren der in London befindlichen Linnéischen Sammlung Aus dem Englischen uberstez von Anna Dohrn" but also. "Über die Dipteren der in London befindlichen Linnéischen Sammlung". Dohrn, with his daughter Anna was staying with Henry Tibbats Stainton in Lewisham at the time. It was she, on a later visit to London who translated the account. Though Dohrn appears as author, he simply communicated the paper.In many bibliographies the paper is attributed to Haliday alone. This is the only known early account of the Diptera collection of Carl von Linné, examined 64 years after its acquisition by the Linnean Society.

Haliday and Darwin

"No branch of natural science has more fully felt the beneficial impulse and stimulus of Darwin's labors than entomology"
Charles Valentine Riley 1883

In 1837 the results of Haliday's work on the Hymenoptera collected by the naturalists on two ships, H.M.S. 'Adventure' and H.M.S. 'Beagle' which had over three years explored the coasts of South America were published by Haliday as Descriptions etc., of the insects collected by Captain P.P. King , R.N., F.R.S. in the survey of the straits of Magellan. Descriptions etc. of the hymenoptera in the "Transactions of the Linnean Society of London" 7: 316-331. This came about through John Curtis.

As a consequence when the Beagle docked at Falmouth on a stormy night in 1836 the Diptera and Hymenoptera were progressively dispatched ( between 1837 and 1839), to Haliday in Dublin by Francis Walker who was to describe most of the "Chalcidites" and some of the Diptera. Although Haliday himself published nothing on these his notes and comments were published by Walker.

The Darwin insects retained by Haliday are in the National Museum of Ireland, they, and the circumstances are detailed by Smith. [Smith, K. G. V. 1987. Darwin's insects: Charles Darwin's entomological notes, with an introduction and comments by Kenneth G. V. Smith. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Historical Series. Vol. 14(1): 1-143. [http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F1830&viewtype=side&pageseq=3 scanned reference] ]

Contacts

Haliday was a very influential figure in entomology as his contacts and correspondence show. They included:

*Robert Mac Lachlan (1837-1904) Forest Hill, Lewisham London England
*Ignaz Rudolph Schiner (1813-1873) Austria Diptera (species recognition)
*Hermann Loew (1807-1879) Germany Diptera species recognition, description, higher taxonomy
*Francis Walker (1809-1874) England
* Achille Costa Museum director, Naples
* John Curtis (1791-1862) England
* Carl August Dohrn (1806-1892) Germany
* James Charles Dale (1792-1872) England
* John Obadiah Westwood (1804-1893) England
* Camillo Rondani (1807-1879) Italy Diptera
* Henry Tibbats Stainton (1822-1892) Mountsfield, Lewisham, England. Microlepidoptera species recognition, description, higher taxonomy
*Frédéric Jules Sichel Paris Hymenoptera
* Giorgio Jan Milan
* Philipp Christoph Zeller (1808-1883) A teacher in Germany with special interest in the microlepidoptera.
* John William Douglas (1814-1905) England Microlepidoptera species recognition, description, higher taxonomy
* Rasmus Carl Staeger (1800-1875) Denmark Diptera
* Thomas Vernon Wollaston (1822-1878) England Diptera
* Heinrich Frey (1822-1890) Switzerland
* Adolfo Targioni Tozzetti (1823-1902) Italy
* Thomas Ansell Marshall (1827-1903) The College Milford Haven later Barnstaple Devon England Hymenoptera.
* Arnold Förster (1810-1884) Aachen Germany Ichneumonidae
* Pietro Stefanelli (1834-1919) Italy.
* Fernandino Maria Piccioli (1821-1900) Italy
* Edmond de Sélys Longchamps (1813-1900) Belgium Odonata
* Maximilian Spinola (1780-1857) Italy All orders but especially Diptera, Coleoptera.
* Johann Angelo Ferrari (1806-1876) Italy
* Friedrich Kipp (1814-1869) London,England
* Andrew Murray (1812-1878) Scotland
* Edward Newman (1801-1876) Peckham, London, England Lepidoptera
* G.T. Rudd of 4 Kelpel Street, Russel Square London.
* William Wilson Saunders (1809-1879) Margate, England.
* Frederick Smith (1805-1879 (British Museum?) England.
* Odorado Pirazzoli Imola, Italy Coleoptera
* Johann Heinrich Kaltenbach (1807-1876) Germany
* Carl Herman Conrad Burmeister (1807-1892) Germany Essig
* August Emil Holmgren (1829-1888) Ostergotland Ichneumonidae
* George Robert Crotch (1842-1874) England Coleoptera
* Carl Gustav Alexander Brischke (1814-1897) Danzig Ichneumonidae
* Ernst Gustav Kraatz Coleoptera
* Jacques-Marie-Frangile Bigot,(In French)
* Émile Blanchard
* Emil von Brück Lucca and Crefeld)
* Jean Baptiste Lucien Buquet
* Achille Deyrolle Paris
* Jean Antoine Dours Amiens
* Alexei Pavlovich Fedchenko Salerno, Moscow, Orenburg, Samerkand botanist
* Arnold Förster
* Georg Ritter von Frauenfeld Vienna then, then Berlin
* Francois Jean-Paul GervaisMonpellier
* F. Giraud for Joseph-Étienne Giraud Paris (In French)
* Hermann August Hagen Konigsberg, 10 December 1862
* Johann Friedrich Jaennicke Frankfurt(In English)
* Charles Georges Javet Paris
* Ernest August Hellmuth von Kiesenwetter Bautreu
* Leopold Anton Kirchner Kaplitz
* Hippolyte Lucas Jardin des Plantes, Paris
* Gustav Mayr
* Étienne Mulsant Lyons
* Henri Milne-Edwards Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris
* Karl Robert Osten-SackenNew York, 9 January 1869
* Michel Rajewscy Vienna
* Hermann Reinhard Bautzen and Dresden 1860–1869
* Dr. Renard, Moscow
* Otho Ruthe enclosures for Johann Friedrich Ruthe
* Henri de Saussure Geneva
* Michel Edmond de Selys-Longchamps Liege
* Sylvain Auguste de Marseul
* Giovanni Passerini
* Peter Fredrik Wahlberg

Taxa erected by Haliday

Families of Hymenoptera include the Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae and along with Francis Walker, the families Agaonidae, Encyrtidae, Eupelmidae, Eurytomidae and Torymidae.

Bibliography

*1824-1840 Contributions to Curtis, J.. "British Entomology, being illustrations and descriptions of the genera of insects found in Great Britain and Ireland; containing coloured figures from nature of themost rare and beautiful species, and in many instances of the plants upon which they are found " London.6 volumes 193 Folios 770 coloured plates (Dissection drawings, text for much of folios relating to Hymenoptera and Diptera).
*1828 Notice of insects taken in the North of Ireland. "Zoological Journal" 3: 500-501.
*1832 The characters of two new dipterous genera with indications of some generic subdivisions and several species of Dolichopidae. "Zoological Journal" 5: 350-368. 1 pl.
*1833 Catalogue of Diptera occurring about Holywood in Downshire. "Entomological Magazine" 1: 147-180.
*1833 Defence of Mr Westwood’s conduct. "Entomological Magazine" 1: 424.
*1833 Generic names should be of Greek derivation. "Entomological Magazine" 1: 515.
*1833 Burrowing Hymenoptera. "Entomological Magazine" 1: 516.
*1833 Public Entomological Collection. "Entomological Magazine" 1: 518-519
*1833 An essay on the classification of the parasitic Hymenoptera of Britain which correspond with the Ichneumones minuti of Linnaeus. "Entomological Magazine" 1: 259-276; 333-350; 48-491.
*1833-1842 with Walker, F. "Monographia Chalcidum". London, 1833-1842. (Much of this work was collaborative with Haliday who was the sole author of the sectional diagnoses. In the M.W.R de V. Graham collection of Francis Walker papers there is an annotated [by Walker] copy of this work Formerly this was the property of Haliday and he had gummed into it proof copies of his figures of Dryinidae and Proctotrupidae Ent. I, plates A-P. Reproduced and dated in O’Connor, J.P, Nash, R and Boucek, Z. (2000).
*1834 "Aleyrodes Phyillyrea'. "Entomological Magazine" 2: 119-120.
*1834 Notes on the Bethyli and on "Dryinus pedestris". "Entomological Magazine" 2: 219-221.
*1834 An essay on the classification of the parasitic Hymenoptera of Britain which correspond with the ichneumones minuti of Linnaeus (cont.) "Entomological Magazine" 2: 93-106; 225-259.
*1835 Curious economy of "Gyrinus villosus". "Entomological Magazine" 2: 530-531.
*1835 "Psychoda nervosa". 'Entomological Magazine" 2: 531.
*1836 British species of the dipterous tribe Sphaeroceridae. "Entomological Magazine" 3: 315-336.
*1836 An epitome of the British genera in the order Thysanoptera with indications of a few of the species. "Entomological Magazine" 3: 439-451.
*1837 Additional Notes on the Order Thysanoptera. "Entomological Magazine" 4:144-146
*1837 Notes upon Diptera: characters of some undescribed species of family Muscidae. "Entomological Magazine" 4:147-152.
*1837 Notes about "Cillenum laterale" and a submarine species of Aleocharidae. "Entomological Magazine" 4: 251-254.
*1837 Descriptions etc., of the insects collected by Captain P.P. King, R.N., F.R.S. in the survey of the straits of Magellan.Descriptions etc. of the hymenoptera. "Transactions of the Linnean Society of London" 7: 316-331.
*1837 An essay on the classification of the parasitic Hymenoptera of Britain which correspond with the Ichneumones minuiti of Linnaeus (cont.). "Entomological Magazine" 4: 92-106; 203-221.
*1837 with Curtis, Dale, J. , Walker, F..Second edition of "A guide to the arrangement of British insects being a catalogue of all the named species hitherto discovered in Great Britain and Ireland".(Six pages of introductory matter are followed by 282 columns of insect names in two columns per page systematically arranged and followed by an index to genera. This work attributed to John Curtis was in fact co-authored by John Dale ,Francis Walker and Alexander Henry Haliday;Haliday and Walker writing almost the whole of the sections on Diptera and parasitic Hymenoptera.The list contains 1500 generic and 15,000 specific names.Ireland and Britain are not separated).
*1838 Note on "Dryinus" etc. "Entomological Magazine" 5: 518.
*1838 Note on the genus "Epyris". "Entomological Magazine" 5: 519.
*1838 Addenda to the genus "Alysia". "Entomological Magazine" 5: 519.
*1838 Description of the larva of "Blaps mortisaga". "Transactions of the Entomological Society of London". 2: 100-102, fig.
*1838 Description of new British Insects indicated in Mr Curtis’s Guide. "Annals of Natural History" series 1, 2: 112;121; 183-190.
*1838 An essay on the classification of the parasitic Hymenoptera of Britain which correspond with the Ichneumones minuiti of Linnaeus (cont.) "Entomological Magazine" 5:209-248.
*1838 Additional Notes on the Order Thysanoptera. "Entomological Magazine" 4:144-146.
*1838 Notes upon Diptera: characters of some undescribed species of family Muscidae. "Entomological Magazine" 4:147-152.
*1838 Notes upon Diptera: characters of some undescribed species of family Muscidae. "Entomological Magazine" 4: 147-152.
*1838 Notes about "Cillenum laterale" and a submarine species of Aleocharidae. "Entomological Magazine" 4: 251-254.
*1839 "Hymenoptera Britannica : Oxyura et Alysia". London, Balliére Fasc. 1: 15, Fasc. 2: 28 et 4.
*1839 "Hymenopterorum Synopsis and Methodum Fallenii ut plurimum accomodata" (Belfast) 4pg. s.titulo.
*1841 Note on the primary divisions of Carabidae. "Entomologist" 1841: 185-186.
*1841 Notes on Staphylinidae. "Entomologist' 1841: 186-188.
*1842 Note on Adelotopus. "Entomologist" 1842: 305-306.
*1843 in Thompson, W. 1843 "Report on the fauna of Ireland: Div. Invertebrata." British Association Report.
*1847 On the Branchiotoma Spongillae (larva Sisyrae) and on Conipoteryx. "Transactions of the Entomological Society of London" 5: (Proc).: 31-32.
*1851-6 in Walker, F."Insecta Britannica Diptera" 3 vols. London. (Characters and synoptical tables of the order (vol.I: 1-9 of the Empidae (Vol.I:85-88) of the Syrphidae (Vol.I: 234-237) chapters on the Dolichopidae (Vol.I: 144-221), on the Borborides (Vol.II: 171-184), on the Hydromyzides (Vol.II: 247-269) also the corrigenda and addenda (Vol.III:pxi-xvi) and contributions to the J.O. Westwood plates Separates the "Brittanic" Diptera into those from England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland (E.S.W.I.)).
*1851 with Dorn, C.A., Wissenschaftliche Mittheilungen Sendschreiben von Alexis H. Haliday an C. A. Dohrn über die Dipteren der in London befindlichen Linnéischen Sammlung Aus dem Englischen uberstez von Anna Dohrn but also (index) Haliday, A.H. Über die Dipteren der in London befindlichen Linnéischen Sammlung "Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung" 12: 131-145.
*1852 A.H. Haliday, in F. Walker. "List of the specimens of homopterous insects in the collection of the British Museum", part iv: 1094-1118. pls. V-viii. London 1852.
*1855 Review. Recent works on the Diptera of Northern Europe. "Natural History Review" (Proc.) 2: 49-611855 (with Hogan). 1855 Notes on various insects captured or observed in the neighbourhood of Dingle, Co Kerry in July, 1854. "Natural History Review" (Proc.) 2: 50-55.
*1855 Descriptions of insects figured and references to lates illustrating the notes on Kerry insects. "Natural History Review" (Proc.) 2: 59-64. pl. 2 and "Zoologist" p.4756.
*1855 On some Irish Insects. "Natural History Review" (Proc.) 2: 116-124. P.III.
*1855 Daraus: Gelegentliche Bemerkungen uber entomologische Nomenclatur. "Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung" 16: 287-290
*1855-1873 with Stainton,H.T. , Zeller, P.C., Douglas,J.W. and Frey.H.The Natural History of the Tineina 13 volumes, (2000 pages English French, German and Latin editions.Text additions, synonymies and translations).
*1856 On the wing veins of Insects. "Natural History Review" (Proc.) 2: 59-64. cf. "Transactions Entomological Society. London" Ser. 2 T4: 64.
*1856 On the affinities of the Aphaniptera among insects. "Natural History Review" (Proc.) 3: 9-19 tab. 1.
*1856 Descriptions of the larvae of "Ochthebius punctatus" and "Diglossa mersa". "Natural History Review" 3: 20. Fig.
*1856 Notice on larvae infesting the horns of "Oreas canna". "Natural History Review" (Proc.) 3: 23. fig.
*1856 Notice on two Irish dipterous insects. "Natural History Review" (Proc.) 3:32-33.
*1856 Recent works on the Diptera of Northern Europe. Supplementary Notie.Zetterstedt, Diptera Scandinaviae.TomXII 8 vo. Lundae 1855.Stenhammar, Copromyzinae Scandinaviae 8 vo. Ppp. 184 Holmiae 1855. "Natural History Review" (Proc.) 3: 32, 33.
*1856 in Thompson,W.(ed. Patterson, R.) "Natural History of Ireland". London. (vol. iv Mammalia etc. Insecta: 265-367.
*1856 Review The Natural History of Ireland in four volumes Vol. IV Mammalia, Reptiles and Fishes: also Invertebrata by the late William Thompson, Esq. 8vol. London: Henry G. Bohn, York Street, Covent Garden 1856 Natural History Review (Proc.) 3: 60-62.
*1857 Entomological notes. "Natural History Review" (Proc.) 4: 31-36.
*1857 Explanation of terms used by Dr Hagen in his synopsis of the British Dragon-flies. "Entomologists' Annual" 164-15. Fig.
*1857 Note on a peculiar form of the ovaries observed in a hymenopterous insect constituting a new genus and species of the family Diapriadae. "Natural History Review" (Proc.) 4:166-174, 1 pl.
*1857 On some remaining blanks in the natural history of the native Diptera. (List of the genera and species of British Diptera, the earlier stages of which are more or less perfectly known with references to the principle authorities). (Additional note on the metamorphosis of some species of Diptera hitherto undescribed or known but imperfectly). "Natural History Review" (Proc.) 4: 177-196, 1pl.
*1857 (with Wright,E. P.) Notes of a visit to Mitchelstown Caves by E. Percival Wright, A.B., M.R.I.A., Director of the DublinUniversity Museum: Hon. Sec. Dublin University Zoological and Botanical Association. With supplemental notes of the blind Fauna of Europe by A.H. Haliday, A.M., M.R.I.A., F.L.S., vice-president of the Dublin University Zoological and Botanical Association. "Natural History Review" (Proc.) 4: 231-234.
*1857 Review, Wahre parthenogenesis bei Schmetterlingen and bienen ein beitrag zur fortpflanzungsgeschichte der thiere. Von C.Th.E. von Siebold 8 vol. Leipzig 1856. (On a true parthenogensis in moths and bees, a contribution to the history of reproduction in animals by C.Th. von Siebold); translated by W.S. Dallas, F.L.S., etc., 8 vo. Van Voorst, London 1857. "Natural History Review" (Proc.) 4: 64-77.
*1857 Review Zoonomische briefe : allgemeine darstellung der Thierischen Organisation Von Dr. Hermann Burmeister, Professor der Zoologie zu Halle. Ersler und Zweiter Theil 8 vo. Otto Wigand: Leipzig 1856. "Natural History Review" (Proc.) 4: 69-77.
*1857 with William Henry Harvey, Review. Retrospect of various works published during the last year, new editions and new works in process. "Natural History Review" (Proc.) 4: 27-42.
*1857 with other eds. Obituary of Robert Ball. "Natural History Review" (Proc.) 4: frontispiece.
*1862 Caractéres de deux nouveaux genres d’Hymènoptéres de la famille des Chalcididae (Philomides and Chirolophus) de la collection du Docteur Sichel. "Annales de la Société Entomologique de France". (4) 2: 115-118.
*1863 Note sur la soie produite par les larves du genre "Embia". "Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France".1863: 3
*1864 "Iapyx", a new genus of insects belonging to the stirps Thysanura in the order Neuroptera. "Transactions of the Linnean Society of London" vol xxiv: 441-447
*1865 On "Dicellura" a new genus of Insects belonging to the Stirps Thysanura in the order Neuroptera. "Journal of the Linnean Society of London" 8: 162-163.
*1868 "Relazione sul Baco dell Oliva — Estratta dall’Agricoltore, periodico mensile del Comizio Agrario Lucchese". Lucca.
*1868 Description of Periphyllus laricae n.sp. "Annales de la Société entomologique de France"8: xi-xiii.
*1869 Translation of Prof. Hermann Loews paper on Blepharoceridae.La Famiglia dei Blefaroceridi (Blepharoceridae). "Bolletino della Societa Entomologica Italiana" 1: 85-98.
*1869 Note sull precedente memoria del Prof. Loew. "Bolletino della Societa Entomologica Italiana" 1: 99.
*1869 with A. Targioni-Tozzett, P. Stefanelli, and F. Piccioli, Avvertimento. Bull. Soc. Ent. Ital. Note sull precedente memoria del Prof. Loew. "Bolletino della Societa Entomologica Italiana" 1: 99.
*1870 Description d’une éspece nouvelle de la famille des Curculionites:- Rhynchites coligatus. "Annales de la Society. Linne de Lyons" vol. xviii: 125
*1885 (posthumous) Notes on Irish Coleoptera (edited by S.A. Stewart). "Proceedings of Belfast Naturalists' Field Club" 1883-4 Appendix viii 1: 208. Missing Literature"Hymenopterorum Synopsis and Methodum Fallenii ut plurimum accomodata" (Belfast) 4pg. s.titulo.was privately printed in Belfast and dated only by contemporary reference (1839) .Haliday,s name appears nowhere. It is very likely that Haliday had printed many such works, wishing to avoid typgraphical and editorial errors, but these remain untraced, since anonymous and therefore uncatalogued.

Publications listing Haliday type specimens

*Fitton, M.G. 1976 The Western Palaearctic Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) of British authors."Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History)" 32:303-373. Lists type material.
*Ismay John W, Chandler, P.J O'Connor, J.P., and Nash R., 2001 Additions to the Irish List of Chloropidae, with notes on the A.H. Haliday collection "Dipterist's Digest" 8: 53-64.Lists type material.
*Kim, K.C. and Coo, E.F. 1966. A comparative external morphology of adult Sphaeroceridae (Diptera). "Misc. pub. ent. Soc. America" 5(2): 78-100.Lists type material.
*Nash, R, Chandler, P.J , O'Connor, J.P., 2001 The Irish Species of Lesser Dung Flies (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae) including a list of type specimens in the Haliday collection National Museum of Ireland and in La Specola, Florence, Italy and six species new to Ireland "Bull. Ir. Biogeog. Soc". 25 180-210. Lists type material.
*O’Connor, J.P., Nash,R. and Achterberg, C.van, 1999 "A catalogue of the Irish Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea)" Occasional Publication of the Irish Biogeographical Society No.4 123 p. 7 figs., 4 plates ISBN here Complete synonymic catalogue. Lists type material.
*O’Connor, J.P, Nash, R and Boucek, Z., 2000 "A catalogue of the Irish Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera)" Occasional Publication Irish Biogeographic Society 6 135 pp 19 plates, 12 figures ISBN here Complete synonymic catalogue. Lists type material.
*O'Connor, J.P, Nash, R., D.G. Notton. D.G and Fergusson, N. D. M., 2004 "A catalogue of the Irish Platygastroidea and Proctotrupoidea" Bull. Ir. Biogeog. Soc 110pp. ISBN 0-9511514-6-0. Complete synonymic catalogue. Lists type material.
*O'Connor, J.P, Nash,R. and Fitton, M.G., 2008 "A Catalogue of the Irish Ichneumonidae" Ir. Biogeog. Soc 310pp.ISBN-13: 978-0-9550806-1-6. Complete synonymic catalogue Lists type material.

ources

Institutions (manuscripts, letters)

*Entomologische Bibliotek, Eberswald -Finow, DDR (now Germany)
*Royal Entomological Society of London, England ( by far the biggest repository of Haliday papers so far known although these are only letters to Haliday.)
*Royal Irish Academy
*Hope Department of Entomology Oxford University Museum
*Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna.
*Muséum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris
*Humboldt Museum, Berlin
*Natural History Museum, London
*Natural History Museum, Leiden, Leiden
*Turin Natural History Museum
*La Specola, Firenze (Florence). Italy

Source Publications

* Nash, R, and O'Connor, J.P. 1982 Notes on the entomological collection of A. H. Haliday (1806-1870) in the National Museum of Ireland with a recommendation for type designations. Proc.R.Ir.Acad. 82(B):169-174, 4 plates
*Anon.,1902. Irish Naturalist 11:197-199.
*Osten Sacken. C.R., 1903. "Record of my life work in entomology". vii + 240pp. (pp.51-62 portrait). Cambridge, Massachusetts.
*Howard, L.O., 1930. "Smithsonian miscellaneous Collections" 84: 217, 231, portrait.
*Neave. A., 1933. "A Centennial history of the entomological Society of London". (p.134). London.
* "National Museum [Of Ireland] Bulletin" 3: 27-28, portrait. Dublin.

Source Obituaries

*1870 Anon. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 7:91.
*1870 Anon. "Abeille" 7: lxxv-lxxvi.
*1870 Anon. "American Journal of Science" 50:294.
*1870 Anon. "Nature", London 2: 240.
*1870 Kraatz. G. "Berliner Entomologisches Zeitschrift" 14:x.
*1871 Anon. "Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London" 1870-71: lxxxvii-lxxxviii.

References

External links

* [http://www.insects.fsnet.co.uk/alexander_henry_haliday.htm Life of Haliday]
* [http://www.royensoc.co.uk/ Royal Entomological Society]
** [http://internt.nhm.ac.uk/jdsml/perth/chalcidoids/index.dsml Universal Chalcidoid Database] pdfs of Haliday's publications on Chalcidoids.


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