Sunni view of the Sahaba


Sunni view of the Sahaba

:"This is a sub-article to Sahaba and Sunni

Sunni doctrine accords high respect to the Sahaba, since it is believed they did their utmost to support the Islamic prophet Muhammad and to continue his work. Sunnis believe that Muhammad confirmed the high status of the Sahaba. Sunnis also value the Sahaba for their part in maintaining the narrations where Prophet Muhammad's Sunnah, or way of life, is described.

Saduddin Teftazani makes the following explanation in "Sharh-i-Aqaid", one of the basic books of the Suni Islam: “We have to believe in the fact that the differences and wars among the Sahaba were based on benevolent reasons. It is not permissible to curse or blame any one of the Sahaba. And it is kufr to malign a Sahaba who is praised in the Nass (ayahs and hadiths with clear meanings); Hadrat Aisha is one of the Sahaba in that category. If a Sahaba is not individually praised in the Nass, it is an act of heresy and a grave sin to malign him.” It is stated in a hadith written in the book "Mawâhib-i-ladunniyya": “Hold your tongue when my Sahaba are mentioned! Do not say something that may be blasphemy against their honour!”

Sahaba who turned aside from Muhammad's teachings are excluded from this overall view. For example, some Muslims who reverted to paganism, Christianity or Judaism are not considered to be sahaba. Muslims who pretended to be believers but in practice opposed Prophet Muhammed are considered to be 'hypocrites' and are also not regarded as sahaba.

In short, Sunnis have a generally positive view of the Sahaba, even though they do not believe them to be infallible. Sunnis assume that the Sahaba had the best of intentions, even when they went to war with each other.

Ranking of Sahaba

The Sahaba are ranked second only to the immediate family of Muhammad, though there are various sub-rankings within the Sahaba themselves.

The concept of ranking is drawn from Qu'ranic verses:

:" [9.20] Those who believed and fled (their homes), and strove hard in Allah's way with their property and their souls, are much higher in rank with Allah; and those are they who are the achievers (of their objects).

:" [57.10] And what reason have you that you should not spend in Allah's way? And Allah's is the inheritance of the heavens and the earth, not alike among you are those who spent before the victory and fought (and those who did not): they are more exalted in rank than those who spent and fought afterwards; and Allah has promised good to all; and Allah is Aware of what you do.accords significant importance to the Sahaba relative to other groups and individuals."

The Ahl al-Bayt are usually ranked first in importance, followed by the ten Sahaba who were promised Paradise, and then the others.

Ahl al-Bayt

The Ahl al Bayt are the family members of Muhammad, and are considered an entirely separate category. The category includes Muhammad's progeny and their subsequent offspring, and his close relatives.

The Ten Promised Paradise

*The Ten Promised Paradise are Sahaba whom were specifically promised Paradise by Muhammad, in a single list.

Other Sahaba

The Sahaba in this category are also ranked as follows:
* The senior companions of those who fought at the battle of Badr (all those who fought at Badr having been promised Paradise);
*Those who gave bay`at al-ridwân under the Tree and those Ansar distinguished for the two pacts preceding Emigration (al-`aqabatayn);
*Those who adopted Islam in the year of the conquest of Mecca; and finally
*The younger companions who saw Muhammad as child. Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr is in this category.
Another categorization of scholars of Sunni Islam group the Sahaba in three categories in respect of superiority as follows:

#Muhajirun (Migrators): Those who left their homes and countries, in Mecca or elsewhere, and migrated to Medina, before the conquest of Mecca. Those people converted to Islam either before or after joining the Prophet Muhammad in Medina. For instance, 'Amr ibn al-'As was one of them.
#Ansar (Helpers, Supporters): Muslims who lived in the city of Medina or in places near this city, as well as those who belonged to the two tribes called Banu Aws and Banu Khazraj, are called Ansar.
#The other Sahaba: They are the persons who became believers upon the conquest of Mecca or afterwards in Mecca or elsewhere. They are not called Muhajirun or Ansar. They are only called Sahaba. According to an observation in the book entitled "Jâmi", by "ibn Esîr Izzaddîn Alî Jazrî", the Muhajirun are higher than the Ansar, the earlier ones of the Muhajirun are higher than those Ansar who converted to Islam later, the earlier ones of the Ansar are higher than the later ones of the Muhajirun, and yet there is many a later Sahaba higher than many another Sahaba who converted to Islam earlier. For instance, Omar ibn al-Khattāb and Bilal al-Habeshi are higher than a number of other Sahaba who joined the believers earlier.

Imam Al-Suyuti states as follows in the book entitled Tarih-ul-Khulafa: As is unanimously stated by scholars of Sunni Islam, the (earliest) four caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad are the highest ones of the Sahaba. The next highest Sahaba are the remaining six of the ten fortunate people who were blessed with the Glad Tidings of Paradise, and also Hasan bin Ali and Huseyn bin Ali. The highest Sahaba next after them are the three hundred and thirteen Sahaba who, together with these twelve (highest) Sahaba, joined the Battle of Badr. The next highest Sahaba are the seven hundred (700) of them who fought in the Battle of Uhud. The next highest Sahaba are the fourteen hundred (1400) persons who promised the Prophet Muhammad, saying, “We will rather die than go back,” in the sixth year of the Hijra. The well-known covenant is called "Bi’at ur-Ridwan".

It is stated as follows in a hadith quoted in the book of tafsir entitled "Bahr-ul-’ulûm" by Aladdin Alî Samarkandi who died in the Anatolian city Larende (today Karaman, Turkey) in the year 860:“Abu Bakr is the most compassionate Muslim in this Ummah. Umar has the rigidest religious perseverance. Uthman has the most "hayâ" (sense of shame). Ali is the one who answers every question in the Islamic Law. Muadh is the one who is most knowledgeable in halals and harams. Abiyy bin Ka’b is the best reader (or reciter) of the Qur'an al-kerîm. Huzayfa-t-ibn Yeman is the one who recognizes the hypocrites. He who wants to see Isa should look at the zuhd Abu Zer has! Paradise is in love with Salman el Farisi. Khalid ibn al-Walid is the sword of Allah. Hamza is the “lion of Allah”. Hasan and Huseyn are the highest ones of the young people of Paradise. Jafar ibn Abi Talib will be flying with the angels in Paradise. Bilal will be the first to open the gate of Paradise. Suhayb ar-Rumi will be the first to drink from my pond kawthar. On the Rising Day, Abu Darda will be the first person with whom angels will shake hands. Every prophet has a friend. Sa’ad bin Muadh is my friend. There are people whom every prophet chooses from among his Ummah. Talha and Zubayr are the ones I have chosen. Every prophet has an assistant who performs his private chores. Anas ibn Malik is my assistant. There are hakîms in every Ummah. Abu Hurairah is the one of my Ummat who utters the most hikmah. Hassan bin Thabit’s speech has been endowed with a powerful effect by Allah. The voice of Abu Talha in the battlefield is stronger than that of a division of soldiers.”

Beliefs

Sunnis have a number of beliefs regarding the Sahaba.

Uprightness of Sahaba

Sunnis believe that the Sahaba were generally upright and truthful, although not infallible. Most Sunnis accept them in chains of narrations (isnad) unless they were proven to be liars or opposed to Prophet Muhammed.

All Sahaba go to heaven

Although Sunnis believe that there are differences in rank between the Sahaba, they assume that all are going to heaven unless they were opposed to Prophet Muhammed or were insincere in their faith.

Sunnis believe that ten Sahaba were granted paradise even as they lived.

ee also

*Uprightness of all Sahaba (Sunni doctrine)
*Not mentioning the faults of the Sahaba (Sunni doctrine)
*Shia view of the Sahaba
*Lives of the Sahaba (book)

External links

* [http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Forum/1424/Sahaba.html The Views of Ahl us Sunnah towards the Sahaba]
* [http://qa.sunnipath.com/issue_view.asp?HD=1&ID=2081&CATE=120 The Status and Rank of the Sahaba - SunniPath Answers]
* [http://qa.sunnipath.com/issue_view.asp?HD=7&ID=13&CATE=24 The Fiqh of Cursing and the Impermissibility of Disparaging Any of the Companions of the Prophet - SunniPath Answers]
* [http://www.islaam.com/Article.aspx?id=74 The Views Of Ahlus-Sunnah Towards The Sahaba]


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