Jerauld Wright


Jerauld Wright

during its commissioning and fitting-out period. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 100 - 101, 105 - 107; [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/s10/sequoia-ii.htm USS "Sequoia" (AG-23)] - DANFS - Naval Historical Center]

Bureau of Ordnance

Wright developed an interest in gunnery and ordnance after he was turned down for naval aviation because he had exophoria. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 79] His first tour of duty at the Bureau of Ordnance (BuOrd) was as a fire control section assistant, specializing in anti-aircraft equipment, from August 1929 to August 1931. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 94] The fitness report by Bureau chief Rear Admiral William D. Leahy observed:

:Lieutenant Wright has a very thorough knowledge of the theory and practice of antiaircraft fire control. He has been energetic in the acquisition of this knowledge and in its application to problems confronting the Bureau. I consider him a very valuable young officer. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 94]

Wright's second BuOrd assignment was with its supply and allowance division, involving ammunition distribution to the fleet, from June 1936 to July 1937. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 105 - 106] Bureau chief Rear Admiral Harold R. Stark rated Wright highly, twice recommending promotion, while adding:

:Lieutenant Commander Wright has done a good job in this Bureau. The more I have seen of him, the higher has become my regard for his ability and efficiency. He is of high personal and military character. Fitted for promotion when due. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 105 - 106]

United States Naval Academy

Commander Wright served two tours at the United States Naval Academy as the Battalion Commander for the First Battalion, from June 1934 to June 1935, and the Battalion Commander for the Second Battalion, from June 1939 to March 1941. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 99 - 100, 114; Official Biography] Wright earned two nicknames at the Naval Academy:

* "Old Iron Heels" because he wore steel wedges on his shoes to alert midshipmen of his approach. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 99 - 100]
* "Old Stoneface" because of his ability to elicit confessions from offending midshipmen regarding disciplinary infractions without uttering a word. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 100]

The commandant of midshipmen, Captain W. F. Draemel, gave Wright high marks for his second tour: "I believe this officer will produce results in any billet to which assigned." ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 114]

Wright also served as the staff aide to the Commander Atlantic Squadron during the Midshipman's Practice Cruise in June-August 1940. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 114 - 116; Official Biography] Admiral Hayne Ellis noted::... an officer of outstanding professional ability... possesses exceptional talent for organization and administration... qualified in all respects for promotion to the grade of Captain and recommend him for such promotion. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 116]

World War II

Pearl Harbor aftermath, COMINCH, and London

The USS "Mississippi" completed its overhaul in three weeks and transited the Panama Canal to re-join the U.S. Pacific Fleet, visiting San Francisco, California to re-assure its citizens in the aftermath of the attack on Pearl Harbor. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 126]

In March 1942, Captain Jerauld Wright was detached from the "Mississippi" for temporary duty on the staff of Admiral Ernest J. King, the Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Fleet (COMINCH), before being assigned to Admiral Harold R. Stark's staff in London, effective 3 June 1942. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 126]

Captain Wright was subsequently assigned to the planning staff of Lieutenant General Dwight D. Eisenhower, who would lead the British-American invasion of North Africa (Operation Torch). Wright's role would be to coordinate with his British counterparts regarding the Mediterranean landings in Algiers. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 133 - 134]

One growing concern for Eisenhower and his planners was the likely reaction of local French political and military leaders toward an Allied invasion of North Africa. Strong French resistance could cause more casualties for the landing force. One issue coloring French attitudes was their deep-seated resentment toward the British for the Attack on Mers-el-Kébir in which the Royal Navy shelled the anchored French fleet in June 1940. Another issue was working with officials connected to the Vichy government which could cause serious political and security complications. [Warrior among Diplomats", p. 135 - 138]

Diplomat Robert D. Murphy, the U.S. consul general in Algiers, spearheaded efforts to gather pre-invasion intelligence and cultivate diplomatic contacts in French North Africa, and Wright would find himself intimately involved in his pre-invasion activities.

North Africa, Sicily, and Italy

Operation Flagpole

On 16 October 1942, Captain Jerauld Wright was summoned to Operation Torch's staff headquarters at Horfolk House in London for important meeting with General Eisenhower. Also present were:

*Major General Mark Clark, United States Army, the recently-appointed deputy commander for Operation Torch
*Brigadier General Lyman L. Lemnitzer, U.S. Army, head of the allied force planning section for Operation Torch
*Colonel Archelaus L. Hamblen, U.S. Army, the staff expert on shipping and supply
*Colonel Julius C. Holmes, U.S. Army, head of civil affairs branch for Operation Torch
*Rear Admiral Bernard H. Bieri, U.S. Navy, senior U.S. naval representative and Wright's immediate superior

Eisenhower informed the group that the War Department had forwarded an urgent cable from U.S. diplomat Robert D. Murphy requesting the immediate dispatch of a top-secret high-level group to meet with Général Charles E. Mast, the military commander of Algiers and the leader of a group of pro-Allied officials in French North Africa.

The objective of this secret mission, code-named Operation Flagpole, was to reach an agreement through Mast and his colleagues to have Général Henri Giraud, a key pro-Allied French army officer, step forward, take command of French military forces in North Africa, and then arrange a ceasefire with the Allied invasion force. Other alternatives, like Jean Darlan and Charles de Gaulle, had been rejected by the British and American governments for a variety of political reasons. Clark would be Eisenhower's personal representative, with Lemnitzer as the top invasion planner, Hamblen as the invasion's logistics expert, and Holmes serving as translator. Wright would serve as the liaison with the French Navy, with the specific objective of convincing the French to have their fleet anchored in Toulon join the Allied cause. ["Warrior among Diplomats". p. 138 - 140] The group flew in two Boeing B-17 Flying Fortresses bombers to Gibraltar, and on 19 October, they boarded the British submarine HMS|Seraph|P219|6, Lieutenant Norman Limbury Auchinleck "Bill" Jewell, RN, commanding.

"Seraph" transported Clark's party to the small fishing village of Cherchell, located 82 mils (132 kilometers) west of Algiers. After midnight on the evening of 21 October, the "Seraph" surfaced and set Clark's mission ashore, where they met with Mast and Murphy. Wright met with "Capitaine de vaisseau" Jean Barjot and learned that the French Navy was opposed to U.S. entry into North Africa, although the army and air force supported it.

On 24 October, Clark's mission returned to the "Seraph" and later met a seaplane that flew them back to Gibraltar, arriving back in London on 25 October where Wright briefed Admiral Stark. ["Warrior among Diplomats". p. 140 - 154; [http://home.cogeco.ca/~gchalcraft/sm/seraph.html HMS "Seraph"] - British Submarines of World War Two] Both Eisenhower and Clark recommended Jerauld Wright for a Distinguished Service Medal in . ["Warrior among Diplomats". p. 153] Wright's DSM was personally pinned by Admiral Ernest J. King, the Chief of Naval Operations, during the Casablanca Conference. ["Warrior among Diplomats". p. 173; Official Biography]

Operation Kingpin

With the preliminaries concluded during Operation Flagpole, the next task was to free Général Giraud (code-named Kingpin) whom the Vichy government had under house arrest for his anti-Nazi leanings at Toulon in southern France.

On 26 October 1942, Captain Jerauld Wright was directed to take part in the mission to extract Giraud, code-named Operation Kingpin. Because of intense anti-British sentiment among French officers, the mission would present an American face. However, because there were no American submarines operating in the Mediterranean Sea, a novel solution was conceived with Wright taking command of the British submarine "Seraph". As Captain G. B. H. Fawkes, RN, the commander of 8th Submarine Flotilla in the Mediterranean, noted:

:It was, I think, unique in the history of the two nations that a United States Naval officer should be placed in nominal command of a British submarine thereby making her the only warship on active duty to be commanded by two captains.

The "Seraph" got underway on 27 October and arrived off Toulon on 30 October. After several delays, Giraud and his party were brought on board, and a PBY Catalina flying boat subsequently flew Wright, Giraud, and the others back to Gibraltar, the new Operation Torch headquarters, to confer with generals Eisenhower and Clark. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 153 - 163] [ [http://home.cogeco.ca/~gchalcraft/sm/seraph.html HMS "Seraph"] - British Submarines of World War Two]

Captain Jerauld Wright was awarded his first Legion of Merit in recognition of . [Official Biography]

Operation Torch

D-Day for Operation Torch, 8 November 1942, saw over 73,000 American and British troops landed at Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers. However, the most significant development was on the diplomatic and political front when U.S. consul general Robert D. Murphy alerted the Allied high command about unexpected presence of "Amdiral de la flotte" Jean Darlan, the head of the Vichy French military, who was visiting his ill son in Algiers.

Darlan's presence complicated the pre-invasion arrangements with Général Henri Giraud. Darlan pointed out to Murphy that he out-ranked Giraud whom Darlan maintained had little influence within the French military.

After a ceasefire was reached in Algiers, General Eisenhower sent a delegation to resolve the situation and broker a ceasefire with all French North African forces. Captain Jerauld Wright accompanied General Clark who concluded that Darlan could, with certain conditions, deliver the general ceasefire and oversee the post-invasion occupation, and that Giraud lacked the political ability to accomplish these goals. Eisenhower endorsed Clark's recommendation, which caused a political firestorm within the Allied governments because of Darlan's connection to Vichy. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 164 - 168] About Giraud and Darlan, Wright observed:

:Unfortunately, his stubbornness prevented him [Giraud] from being any help on D-day toward negotiating a ceasefire throughout French territory. Because of an extraordinary coincidence [Darlan] , his cooperation might not have made a difference anyway. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 163]

Admiral Harold R. Stark noted in Wright's December 1942 fitness report that:

:An officer of great ability, whose calm, assured habit of command inspires confidence alike in seniors and subordinates. Excellent personal and military character. Has performed two outstanding dangerous and secret missions.... Qualified for Flag rank. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 174]

About Jerauld Wright, General Dwight D. Eisenhower noted: prophetically that "I would especially desire to have him under my command at any time." ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 174]

Wright reciprocated this high regard, praising Eisenhower for his leadership in directing a coalition military operation:

:I don't think Ike had a nationalistic thought in his mind when he ran the TORCH operation. I believe he might have acceded to British desires for supreme command if he had not been such strong backing from Roosevelt and Marshall. He was most accommodating to British suggestions and sensitive to their wishes. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 179] At the Casablanca Conference in January 1943, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and the Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS) made the following decisions regarding future operations in the European-Mediterranean theater following the conclusion of the Tunisia campaign:

*Operation Sledgehammer, a limited-objective cross-channel invasion of Europe in response to a German or Soviet collapse in 1942, was indefinitely shelved in light of the aftermath of the Dieppe raid.
*Future military operations would be in Sicily (Operation Husky) and Italy (Operation Avalanche).

Finally, Admiral Darlan was assassinated on 24 December 1942, and Charles de Gaulle would ultimately out-maneuver and marginalize Henri Giraud to become the sole leader of the Free French movement.

Operation Husky

Captain Jerauld Wright joined the staff of Vice Admiral H. Kent Hewitt, USN, the Commander, U.S. Naval Forces, Northwest Africa Waters (COMNAVNAW), as its assistant chief of staff.

Hewett would command the Western Naval Task Force, which would land U.S. Seventh Army under Lieutenant General George S. Patton in the Gulf of Gela near Palermo for Operation Husky, the Allied invasion of Sicily.

Vice-Admiral Sir Bertram Ramsay, RN, would command the Eastern Naval Task Force, which would land the British Eighth Army under General Sir Bernard L. Montgomery near Syracuse.

Admiral Sir Andrew B. Cunningham, RN, would command all Allied naval forces for Operation Husky, and General Dwight D. Eisenhower, United States Army, would be in overall command of the Sicily invasion.

The Western Naval Task Force consisted of three subordinated forces:

*Task Force 80 (code name "JOSS") under the command of Rear Admiral Richard L. Conolly to land the 3rd Infantry Division, Major General Lucian Truscott commanding, on beaches near Licata.
*Task Force 82 (code name "DIME") under Rear Admiral John L. Hall land to 1st Infantry Division, Major General Terry de la Mesa Allen commanding, on beaches near Gela.
*Task Force 85 (code name "CENT") under the command of Rear Admiral Alan Kirk to land the 45th Infantry Division, Major General Troy Middleton commanding, on beaches near Scoglitti.

Wright worked closely with his U.S. Army counterparts, and he considered Patton "a great fellow" who grew to appreciate the effectiveness of naval gun support for his landing force. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 169, 186] However, Wright was critical of Lieutenant General Carl A. Spaatz, USAAF, and Air Vice-Marshal Sir Arthur Coningham, RAF, regarding the lack of cooperation on close air support from the Allied air forces. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 183 - 184, 186 - 188] Wright did praise Air Vice-Marshal Sir Hugh Pugh Lloyd, RAF, for providing air support from Malta. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 184]

The loading of ships and landing craft of the Western Naval Task Force was completed on 8 July 1943, with Vice Admiral Hewitt and his staff embarking on the USS "Monrovia", the invasion force's flagship. D-Day was 10 July, and Patton's troops stormed ashore and began their history-making drive for Messina. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 185 - 186; [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/m13/monrovia.htm USS "Monrovia" (APA-31)] - DANFS - Naval Historical Center]

Operation Avalanche

Operation Avalanche was the Allied invasion of the Italian mainland with amphibious landings at Salerno, with additional landing at Calabria (Operation Baytown} and Taranto (Operation Slapstick).

For the Salerno landing, Captain Jerauld Wright faced two major challenges in his capacity as the assistant chief of staff for U.S. Naval Forces, Northwest Africa Waters (NAVNAW):

*Shortage of U.S. escort vessels
*Shortage of landing craft

While Wright was able to secure additional British escorts, landing craft would remain a persistent problem given the competing demands from Operation Overlord and the Pacific Theater of Operations, with Wright noting: "LST's don't grow on trees." ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 191 - 192]

On the other hand, two developments were welcomed by Wright and his fellow invasion planners:

*U.S. escort aircraft carriers (CVE) would provide much needed off-shore close air support for the landing force.
*Major General E. J. House would oversee tactical air support for the ground forces using aircraft from of the Northwest African Air Force.

However, Wright felt that the Army's decision to forgo pre-invasion naval gun bombardment was ill-considered, even for the sake of maintaining the element of surprise. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 192]

The invasion force got underway, with Vice Admiral H. Kent Hewitt, Wright, and the NAVNAW staff embarked on the USS "Ancon", Hewitt's flagship for Operation Avalanche. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 191; [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/a8/ancon-ii.htm USS "Ancon" (AGC-4)] - DANFS - Naval Historical Center]

While en route, Wright heard the announcement about the Armistice with Italy by General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the supreme allied commander, on 9 September. While this removed the Italian military from the battlefield, German Army forces in Italy under "Generalfeldmarschall" Albert Kesselring were not bound by this agreement. The immediate objective for Operation Avalanche was to secure the Gulf of Salerno and capture Naples. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 191 - 192]

9 September 1943 was D-Day for Operation Avalanche as the 36th Infantry Division, under the command of Major General Fred L. Walker USA, stormed ashore at Salerno under heavy fire from German tanks, artillery, and machine guns. During the landings, on the morning of 11 September, Wright witnessed a radio-controlled flying bomb severely damaged the USS "Savannah", a "Brooklyn"-class light cruiser. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 193; [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/s6/savannah-iv.htm USS "Savannah" (Cl-42)] - DANFS - Naval Historical Center]

A powerful German counter-attack on 13 September threatened to drive a wedge into the Salerno bridgehead, but it was beaten back by a powerful Allied air-land-sea assault, forcing a German retreat. With the Fifth U.S. Army under Lieutenant General Mark Clark driving for Naples, Admiral Hewitt and Wright returned to Malta to give a full report on Operation Avalanche to General Eisenhower. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 194]

Captain Jerauld Wright was awarded a second Legion of Merit for . [Official Biography]

Central Pacific

USS "Santa Fe" (CL-60)

In October 1943, Captain Jerauld Wright was detached from U.S. Naval Forces, Northwest Africa Waters (NAVNAW) to take command of the USS "Santa" Fe (CL-60), a "Cleveland"-class light cruiser, nicknamed the "Lucky Lady." Wright relieved Captain Russell Berkey on 15 December 1943. "Santa Fe" was the flagship of Cruiser Division 13, Rear Admiral Laurance T. DuBose commanding, which also included USS "Birmingham" (CL-62), USS "Mobile" (CL-63), and USS "Reno" (CL-96). ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 200, 213] During December 1943, "Santa Fe" underwent amphibious training off San Pedro, California. [ [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/s5/santa_fe.htm USS "Santa Fe" (CL-60)] - DANFS - Naval Historical Center]

On 13 January 1944, "Santa Fe" set sail from California for the Marshall Islands, as part of the invasion force for Operation Flintlock. "Santa Fe" served as an escort for the Northern Attack Force (Task Force 53), Rear Admiral Richard L. Conolly commanding, which was tasked to capture Roi-Namur and the northern half of the Kwajalein atoll. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 202; [http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USMC/USMC-M-Marshalls/USMC-M-Marshalls-2.html Chapter 2, p. 13] - "The Marshalls: Increasing the Tempo"] "Santa Fe" joined the bombardment force (Task Group 53.5), Rear Admiral Jesse B. Oldendorf commanding, that provided naval gunfire support for U.S. Marine landing forces at Kwajalein which was secured on 4 February. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 203; [http://pacific.valka.cz/forces/tf53.htm#flint Task Force 53 -- Operation Flintlock] ]

Following a lay-over at Majuro, "Santa Fe" participated in air raids against Truk and Saipan as part of Task Force 58 during February 1944. Captain Wright received a Letter of Commendation for his actions as the commanding officer of the "Santa Fe" during this engagement. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 203 - 204; Official Biography]

From 15 March through 1 May 1944, "Santa Fe" was part of Task Group 58.2, Rear Admiral Joseph J. Clark commanding, which provided air support for amphibious landings at Emirau Island and Hollandia while also participating in air raids against Japanese garrisons on Palau, Yap, Wakde, Woleai, Sawar, Satawan, and Ponape,as well as major air strike against the Japanese naval base at Truk. "Santa Fe" also participated in the shore bombardment of Wakde and Sawar. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 204 - 208]

On 15 June 1944, "Santa Fe" participated in landings on Saipan, Guam, and Tinian (Operation Forager) as a part of the U.S. Fifth Fleet under the overall command of Vice Admiral Raymond A. Spruance. On 19 June, Japanese carrier aircraft began attacking the Fifth Fleet which remained close to the beachhead on orders from Spruance. Wright concurred that this controversial decision was the correct one given the importance of protecting the landing force. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 209]

During the ensuing Battle of the Philippine Sea, "Santa Fe's" anti-aircraft guns helped to protect the fleet during these enemy air attacks while American naval aviators counter-attacked the Japanese fleet. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 210 - 212] Later, on 20 June, "Santa Fe" ignored possible Japanese submarine activity when she turned on her lights to help guide returning American aircraft back to their carriers during highly hazardous night landings. After air strikes on Pagan Island, "Santa Fe" returned to Eniwetok for reprovisioning. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 209 - 212]

In August, "Santa Fe" joined Task Group 38.3, Rear Admiral Frederick C. Sherman commanding, for the invasion of Peleliu and Angaur (Operation Stalemate II) as part of the U.S. Third Fleet under the overall command of Admiral William F. Halsey, and carrier air attacks to neutralize Japanese air bases on Babelthuap and Koro in preparation for the upcoming Philippines campaign led by General Douglas MacArthur. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 212 - 215]

During air raids on Formosa in October, the heavy cruiser "Canberra" and light cruiser "Houston" were seriously damaged by aerial torpedoes. "Santa Fe" was part of a covering force (Task Force 30.3), nicknamed "CripDiv 1," formed to protect the damaged cruisers as they were being towed back for Uliti for repairs. The final engagements that Wright participated in as the commanding officer of the USS "Santa Fe" were the invasion of Leyte and the Battle of Leyte Gulf. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 215 - 222]

Captain Jerauld Wright received the Silver Star in recognition of his participation in the towing of the "Canberra" and "Houston" back to Uliti. [Official Biography]

Amphibious Group Five

In November 1944, Rear Admiral Jerauld Wright took command of Amphibious Group Five, a newly-created unit of the Amphibious Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet, commanded by Vice Admiral Richmond Kelly Turner. Wright's group would be involved in the invasion of the Ryukyu Islands (Operation Iceberg), the island of Okinawa being the key objective. Once taken, U.S. forces would use Okinawa as a staging area for the eventual invasion of Japan, and a base for the B-29 Superfortress bombers of the U.S. Seventh Air Force to attack the Japanese home islands. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p.222- 223; [http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/ref/Transport/transport-1.html#s5 Chapter I, Section 5] - TRANSPORT DOCTRINE, Amphibious Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet - September 1944]

Amphibious Group Five would transport the 2nd Marine Division, Major General Thomas E. Watson, USMC, commanding, with Wright flying his flag from the USS "Ancon" (AGC-4). ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 222- 223; [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/a8/ancon-ii.htm USS "Ancon" (AGC-4)] - DANFS - Naval Historical Center]

For Operation Iceberg, Wright's force was designated Demonstration Group Charlie (Task Group 51.2), whose mission was to serve as a decoy force working in conjunction with the Southern Attack Force (Task Force 55) commanded by Rear Admiral John L. Hall while the Western Islands Group (Task Group 51.1) under Rear Admiral Ingolf N. Kiland and the 77th Infantry Division secured Kerama Retto and other offshore islands before landing at Ie Shima. Task Group 51.2 would subsequently serve as a floating reserve for the U.S. Tenth Army (Task Force 56), commanded by Lieutenant General Simon B. Buckner, USA, before returning to Saipan. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p.223- 224; [http://ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/BBBO/BBBO-25.html Chapter 25] , [http://ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/BBBO/BBBO-26.html Chapter 26] , [http://ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/BBBO/BBBO-27.html Chapter 27] - "Beans, Bullets and Black Oil" by Admiral Worrall Reed Carter, USN - HyperWar; [http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/battles_okinawa1.html#usnavy Navy] - Operation Iceberg: The Assault on Okinawa - The Last Battle of World War II (Part 1) April - June 1945 - Historyof War.org]

Wright was ordered to Pearl Harbor to begin planning the invasion of the Japanese home islands, which would begin with Operation Olympic, the invasion of the southern island of Kyūshū. Wright's Amphibious Group Five would be part of the 5th Amphibious Force, commanded by Vice Admiral Harry W. Hill, which would land the V Amphibious Corps (VAC) on the west coast in the Kaminokawa - Kushikino area. Amphibious Group Five would consist of four old battleships, ten cruisers, fourteen destroyers, and seventy-four support craft. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p.226; [http://www.fas.org/irp/eprint/arens/chap2.htm Chapter 2 - V Amphibious Corps] - "V [Marine] Amphibious Corps Planning for Operation Olympic and the Role of Intelligence in Support of Planning" by Major Mark P. Arens, USMCR - Federation of American Scientists (FAS)]

However, Operation Olympic and the follow-up invasion of Honshū (Operation Coronet) were cancelled following the dropping of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Rear Admiral Jerauld Wright was awarded a Bronze Star, with a combat "V" devise, for his leadership as the commander of Task Group 51.2 during Operation Iceberg. [Official Biography]

Cruiser Division Six

Rear Admiral Jerauld Wright took command of Cruiser Division Six (CruDiv 6), with the USS "San Francisco" (CA-38), a "New Orleans"-class heavy cruiser, serving as his flagship.

In early October 1945, CruDiv 6 was assigned to assist the post-surrender activities and general-purpose peace-keeping duties throughout the Yellow Sea and Gulf of Bohai region as a unit of the U.S Seventh Fleet under the command of Vice Admiral Thomas C. Kinkaid.

Wright's force showed the flag, making port visits at Taku, Tientsin, Tsingtao, Port Arthur, and Chinwangtao.

At the final port call at Inchon, Wright acted as the senior-ranking member of the committee that accepted the surrender of Japanese naval forces throughout Korea. ["Warrior among Diplomats", P. 226 - 232; [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/s4/san_francisco-ii.htm USS "San Francisco" (CA-38)] - DANFS - Naval Historical Center]

Cold War

Operational Readiness Division

In October 1945, Rear Admiral Jerauld Wright joined the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (OPNAV) as the head of its Operational Readiness Division, helping to organize this newly-created organization. Other OPNAV divisions created were Plans (OP-31), Combat Intelligence (OP-32), Operations (OP-33), and Anti-submarine Warfare (OP-35) within the Chief of Naval Operations. Wright organized OP-34 into four sections:

* OP-341 – Fleet Training and Readiness
* OP-342 – Tactical Doctrine
* OP-343 – Joint Operations and Amphibious Warfare
* OP-344 – Operational Requirements

Working with his sister divisions, Wright directed the development of a host of manuals on tactical doctrine based upon experience from World War II. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 233 - 236; [http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/038.html#38.5 Record Group 38.5] - Record Group 38: Records of the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations (OCNO), 1875-1993 - National Archive - Washington, D.C.] Wright involved civilian think tanks, such as the Operation Evaluation Group (OEG), in projects undertaken by OP-34. CNO Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz appointed Wright to chair the U.S. Navy's Air Defense Committee to help improve fleet air defenses. Wright also succeeded Rear Admiral Walter DeLaney as the chairman of the Joint Army-Navy Assessment Committee (JANAC), an inter-service agency set up in 1943 to analyze and assess of Japanese naval and merchant marine shipping losses caused by U.S. and Allied forces during World War Two. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 236 - 240]

Commander Amphibious Forces U.S. Atlantic Fleet

On 24 November 1948, Rear Admiral Jerauld Wright assumed command of Amphibious Forces U.S. Atlantic Fleet (COMPHIBLANT), a position that he held through 1 November 1950. [ [http://www.history.navy.mil/library/guides/rosters/amphib_atl.htm List of Commanders of Amphibious Force, US Atlantic Fleet] - Naval Historical Division - U.S. Department of the Navy] Based at the Norfolk Naval Station, Wright would be responsible for the following major subordinate commands:

* Amphibious Group Two
* Amphibious Group Four
* Little Creek Naval Amphibious Base

COMPHIBLANT also included Amphibious Training, an Amphibious Air Control Group, a Naval Beach Group, a Detached Group, and a Mediterranean Group. Wright's flagship was the USS "Taconic" (AGC-17), an "Adirondack"-class amphibious force command ship. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 240 - 24] The most significant accomplishment during Wright's tour of duty as COMPHIBLANT was PORTREX, a multi-service amphibious assault exercise held from 25 February to 11 March 1950. PORTREX was the largest peacetime amphibious exercise up to that time and it was staged to:

* Evaluate joint doctrine for combined operations.
* Test new equipment under simulated combat conditions.
* Provide training for the defense of the Caribbean.

Over 65,000 men and 160 ships were involved, and it was climaxed by a combined amphibious and airborne assault on Vieques Island, a first in military history. The success of PORTREX offered a prelude for future amphibious operations, including the landings at Inchon during the Korean War. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 240 - 249; [http://www.valerosos.com/PreludetoInchon.html "Prelude to Inchon: The Puerto Rico Exercises of 1950" by Col Gilberto Villahermosa, U.S. Army (July 2004)] - The 65th Infantry Regiment; [http://www.history.navy.mil/branches/avchr7.htm "Naval Aviation Chronology 1950-1953" - March 8, 1950] - Naval Historical Center] Jerauld Wright received his third star, effective 14 September1950, at the conclusion of his tour of duty as COMPHIBLANT. [Official Biography]

tanding Group - North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Vice Admiral Jerauld Wright served as the deputy U.S. representative to Standing Group (SG) of the newly-formed North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), serving from November 1950 to February 1952. [Official Biography]

The Standing Group was the standing planning organization under NATO's Military Committee, composed of military representatives from the United States, Great Britain, and France. At the time of Wright's tour of duty, SG membership was ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 256] :

* United States representative – General of the Army Omar Bradley, United States Army
* British representative – Air Marshal Lord Tedder, Royal Air Force
* French representative – Lieutenant General Paul Ely, French Army

The Standing Group was charged with providing policy guidance and military-related information to NATO's various regional planning groups, including General Dwight D. Eisenhower at SHAPE headquarters. [ [http://www.nato.int/docu/comm/49-95/c490917a.htm Final Communiqué - North Atlantic Council meeting - Washington, DC - September 17, 1949] ]

The Standing Group undertook short-term (STDP), mid-term (MTDP), and long-range (LTDP) strategic military planning for the NATO alliance, as well as making recommendations regarding NATO's unified military command structure, which included the creation of a Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT) billet. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 250 - 274; [http://www.nato.int/archives/1st5years/chapters/7.htm Chapter 7: The Military Structure] - NATO the first five years 1949-1954]

Using the Navy system, General Bradley gave Vice Admiral Jerauld Wright an over-all rating of 3.9 for his final fitness report, adding:

:Admiral Wright is a highly intelligent, thoroughly capable and enthusiastic officer. He is devoted to his duties and can always be counted upon to perform well under any circumstances. He has demonstrated an exceptional knowledge of world politics and military affairs. His recommendations have always been sound and he has demonstrated mature judgments in making them. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 274]

Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Naval Forces Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean

Vice Admiral Jerauld Wright became the Commander-in-Chief, U.S. Naval Forces Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean (CINCNELM), an important U.S. Navy fleet command, effective 14 June 1952. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 274; Official Biography; [http://www.history.navy.mil/library/guides/rosters/com%20chief%20us%20naval%20forces%20europe.htm List of Commander-in-Chief of U.S. Naval Forces Europe] - Naval Historical Division - U.S. Department of the Navy] CINCELM's area of responsibility (AOR) stretched from the eastern Atlantic through the Indian Ocean to Singapore, and it was organized into the following subordinate commands: ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 278 - 279] [ [http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/UCS.html "The Development of Unified Command Structure for the U. S. Armed Forces, 1945-1950," p. 11-21] in Ronald H. Cole, et al, "The History of Unified Command 1946-1993" (Washington, DC: Joint History Office of the Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1995)]

* Northern European Force (CTF 101) — Rear Admiral Robert B. Pirie, Chief of Staff to CINCNELM
* Fleet Air, Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean (CTF-122) — Rear Admiral E.A. Cruise
*Military Sea Transport Service, Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean (CTF-123) — Rear Admiral C.F. Chillingsworth
* U.S. Naval Forces, Germany (CTF-104) — Rear Admiral H.E. Orem
* Middle Eastern Force (CTF-109) — Rear Admiral Wallace M. Beakley
*U.S. Sixth Fleet — Vice Admiral J.H. Cassady

Wright's operational control over the Sixth Fleet proved to be a source of friction with Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten, RN, NATO's Commander-in-Chief Allied Forces Mediterranean (CINCAFMED). Mountbatten felt that the Sixth Fleet should be assigned to his command while Wright wanted to maintain control of the fleet, particularly its nuclear-armed aircraft carriers, pursuant to both U.S. Navy policy and Federal law. The dispute tested the diplomatic skills of both men. CINCNELM forces participated in NATO Operation Mariner and Operation Weldfast exercises during 1953, and units of the Sixth Fleet did participate in NATO exercises while staying under U.S. control. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 279, 287 - 288; [http://www.nato.int/archives/1st5years/chapters/9.htm Chapter 9: The increase in strength - International Exercises] - NATO the first five years 1949-1954]

As CINCNELM, Wright maintained strong diplomatic ties with allies within his area of responsibility. He made a 14-day goodwill trip to the Middle East that culminated with a courtesy call with the newly-crowned King Saud bin Abdul Aziz in Jidda, Saudi Arabia. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 279 - 280] Later, Wright attended the coronation ceremonies of King Hussein of Jordan in May 1953. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 279, 286] In June 1953, Wright served as the senior U.S. Navy representative at the coronation pageant of Queen Elizabeth II, including flying his flag from the heavy cruiser USS "Baltimore" during the Coronation Naval Review of Spithead on 15 June. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 287 - 289]

Admiral Wright also made the arrangements for U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom Winthrop Aldrich to present a bronze plaque of John Paul Jones from the U.S. Naval Historical Center to the British government, initiating his long-time association with the famous naval hero of the American Revolution. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 290 - 291]

During a high-level conference in Washington from 20 October to 4 November 1953, Wright was informed that that CINCNELM was be become a sub-ordinate command of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet reporting directly to Admiral Lynde D. McCormick, the Commander-in-Chief U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANTFLT). Also, Wright would become the head of NATO's Eastern Atlantic Area, reporting to Admiral McCormick, the first Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT). ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 292]

Admiral McCormick noted in his final fitness report dated March 1954:

:VAdm. Wright has taken over the duty of the Subordinate Command with his usual vigor and ability. This command being a new concept has required analytical adeptness and initiative which he had displayed to high degree. VAdm. Wright is richly deserving of his imminent promotion to the positions which I now hold. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 292]

General Thomas T. Handy, the Deputy Commander-in-Chief, U.S. European Command, also noted:

:Vice Admiral Wright has performed his task as CINCNELM with great distinction and has now been ordered to a new assignment as CINCLANT and NATO SACLANT. A brilliantly qualified officer of strong and determined character. One of the Navy's outstanding leaders. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 292]

Jeruald Wright was promoted to the rank of Admiral effective 1 April 1954. [Official Biography]

Atlantic Command

Admiral Wright's final command assignment proved to be the most challenging undertaking in his career as he literally took on three concurrent roles:

* Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANTFLT)
* Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Atlantic Command (CINCLANT)
* Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT) of NATO's Allied Command Atlantic (ACLANT)While his nomination to become CINCLANTFLT and CINCLANT was made by the President of the United States, subject to the advice and consent of the United States Senate, Wright's appointment to become SACLANT was subject to the approval of the North Atlantic Council. Fortunately, Wright was a known commodity since he had served Wright had served as the deputy U.S. representative to NATO's Standing Group from November 1950 to February 1952.

President Dwight D. Eisenhower noted in his 1 February 1954 announcement:

:I feel that Admiral Wright is extremely well qualified to perform the duties of Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic. Admiral Wright has extensive background and naval command experience in positions of vital importance and he is an officer of outstanding character and ability. Admiral Wright has served as Deputy U.S. Representative to the Standing Group of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and is thoroughly cognizant of the duties and responsibilities of SACLANT. I feel that Admiral Wright will uphold and carry forward the fine traditions and worthy objectives sought by all the NATO nations. I have every confidence that Admiral Wright can make an outstanding contribution to our common defense effort. [ [http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=10161 Statement by the President on the Appointment of Admiral Jerauld Wright as Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic] dated February 17, 1954 - John Woolley and Gerhard Peters, The American Presidency Project [online] . Santa Barbara, CA: University of California (hosted), Gerhard Peters (database). Available from World Wide Web]

Admiral Jerauld Wright assumed command of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet, the U.S. Atlantic Command, and Allied Command Atlantic on 12 April 1954, relieving Admiral Lynde D. McCormick who had been the first Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic.

Command structure and responsibilities

Admiral Wright's command responsibilities are as defined as follows:

* Commander-in-Chief U.S. Atlantic Fleet (CINCLANTFLT) – One of the two major fleet commands within the U.S. Navy with responsibility for all naval operations throughout the Atlantic Ocean. Subordinate naval forces under his command included:
**U.S. Second Fleet
**Fleet Marine Force Atlantic (FMFLANT)
**Hunter-killer (HUK) Force – Task Force 138
**Operational Test and Evaluation Force (OPTEVFOR) – Task Force 142 [ In May 1959, the command was renamed Operational Test and Evaluation Force (OPTEVFOR) to reflect more accurately its increased responsibilities regarding weapon systems and tactics testing and evaluation (T&E). See [http://www.cotf.navy.mil/ OPTEVFOR official web site] ]
** South Atlantic Force (SOLANTFOR) – Task Force 138
** Training Command – Task Force 43/88
** Force type commands:
***Amphibious Forces, Atlantic Fleet (PhibLant)
*** Battleship-Cruiser Force, Atlantic Fleet (BatCruLant)
***Destroyer Force, Atlantic Fleet (DesLant)
***Minesweep Force, Atlantic Fleet (MinLant)
*** Naval Air Force, Atlantic Fleet (NavAirLant)
***Service Force, Atlantic Fleet (ServLant
***Submarine Force, Atlantic Fleet (SubLant)
* Commander-in-Chief U.S. Atlantic Command (CINCLANT) – A unified command responsible U.S. military operation throughout the Atlantic Ocean geographical region. [ [http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/UCS.html "The Development of Unified Command Structure for the U. S. Armed Forces, 1945-1950," p. 11-21] in Ronald H. Cole, et al, "The History of Unified Command 1946-1993" (Washington, DC: Joint History Office of the Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1995)] Service component and subordinate forces included:
**U.S. Atlantic Fleet (LANTFLT)
** U.S. Army, Atlantic Command (USARLANT) – Continental Army Command (CONARC)
** U.S. Air Forces, Atlantic Command (AFLANT) – Tactical Air Command (TAC)
**Iceland Defense Force (IDF)
**U.S. Forces Azores (USAFORAZ)
* Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic (SACLANT) – One of the two principal military commands for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Allied Command Atlantic (ACLANT) was responsible for keeping the sea lanes open between the United States and Europe. Major subordinate ACLANT commands, their commanders, and nationality were as follows at the time of Wright's appointment: [ [http://www.nato.int/archives/1st5years/annexes/d4.htm Annex: Allied Command Atlantic 1st July, 1954] - NATO the first five years 1949-1954] :
** Deputy Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic – Vice Admiral Sir John Stevens, RN (United Kingdom)
*** Chief of Staff – Vice Admiral Stuart Ingersoll, USN (USA)
** Western Atlantic Area – Admiral Jerauld Wright, USN (USA)
***United States Atlantic Sub-area – Vice Admiral Laurance T. DuBose, USN (USA)
***Canadian Atlantic Sub-area – Rear Admiral R. E. S. Bidwell, RCN (Canada)
***Canadian Atlantic Sub-area - Air – Air Commodore A. D. Ross, RCAF (Canada)
***Ocean Sub-area – Admiral Jerauld Wright, USN (USA)
** Eastern Atlantic Area – Admiral Sir Michael M. Denny (United Kingdom)
***Eastern Atlantic Area - Air – Air Marshal Sir John N. Boothman, RAF (United Kingdom)
***Northern Sub-area – Rear Admiral W. G. A. Robson, RN (United Kingdom)
***Northern Sub-area - Air – Air Vice-Marshal R. L. Ragg, RAF (United Kingdom)
***Central Sub-area – Admiral Sir Alexander C. G. Madden RN (United Kingdom)
***Central Sub-area - Air – Air Vice-Marshal T. G. Trail, RAF (United Kingdom)
***Bay of Biscay Sub-area – Vice Admiral Jourdain, FN (France)
***Submarine Forces Eastern Atlantic – Rear Admiral G. B. H. Fawkes, RN (United Kingdom)
** Striking Fleet Atlantic – Vice Admiral Edmund T. Wooldridge, USN (USA)

Fleet modernization

Admiral Jerauld Wright inherited a U.S. Atlantic Fleet in transition as the U.S. Navy was going through a modernization period to replace warships and aircraft built during World War Two. Warship conversions The "Oregon City"-class light cruiser USS|Northampton|CLC-1|2 was completed as a command cruiser, with extensive command, control and communications facilities, which could serve as a fleet flagship.

The sclass|Baltimore|cruisers USS|Boston|CAG-1|6 and USS|Canberra|CA-70|2 were converted to carry Terrier anti-aircraft missiles while the sclass|Cleveland|cruisers USS|Galveston|CLG-3|2 and USS|Little Rock|CG-4|2 were converted to carry Talos long-range anti-aircraft missiles.

The Fleet Rehabilitation and Modernization (FRAM) program allowed World War II era destroyers to shift to an anti-submarine (ASW) hunter-killer (HUK) role to counter the growing threat from the Soviet submarine force. FRAM would extend the operational life for "Fletcher"-class, "Sumner"-class, and "Gearing"-class destroyers by completely tearing down and rebuilding these vessels from the hull up, with new engines, enlarged combat information centers (CIC), and new sonar, radar, and weapon systems.

Modernized "Gato", "Balao", and "Tench" class submarines from World War II continued to rejoin the fleet after undergoing GUPPY refits that added increased battery capacity, streamlining, snorkels, and improved fire control systems.

New warship construction New surface warship construction to join the Atlantic Fleet during Wright's tour of duty as CINCLANTFLT included the hunter-killer cruiser USS|Norfolk|DL-1|2, three sclass|Mitscher|destroyer, eleven sclass|Forrest Sherman|destroyers, and the "Farragut"-class guided missile frigate USS|Dewey|DDG-45|2 equipped with Terrier and ASROC missiles.

New postwar construction submarines USS|Barracuda|SSK-1|2, USS|Sailfish|SSR-572|2, USS|Darter|SS-576|2, and USS|Barbel|SS-580|2 joined "Tang"-class submarines USS|Trigger|SS-564|2, USS|Trout|SS-566|2 and USS|Harder|SS-568|2 as new units of Submarine Force, Atlantic Fleet (SUBLANT).

New weapon systems New weapon systems that joined the inventory of the Atlantic Fleet during Admiral Wright's tour of duty included the Mark 37 torpedo, the Mark 90 nuclear depth charge, the Mark 7 tactical nuclear bomb, the Mk 101 air-dropped nuclear depth bomb (NDB), the Mark 44 air-launched and ship-launched lightweight torpedo, and the Talos and Terrier anti-aircraft missiles systems.

Important weapon systems under development that would be going into production included the Mark 45 torpedo, ASROC, SUBROC, DASH, and the Tartar anti-aircraft missile.

Naval aviation developments Naval aviation within the Atlantic Fleet also enjoyed a resurgence as exemplified by the addition of the new sclass|Forrestal|aircraft carriers USS|Forrestal|CV-59|2, USS|Saratoga|CVA-60|2, and USS|Independence|CVA-62|2, allowing the older sclass|Midway|aircraft carriers to undergo long-needed SCB-110 reconstruction.

Also, sclass|Essex|aircraft carriers USS|Intrepid|CV-11|2, USS|Bennington|CV-20|2, USS|Randolph|CV-15|2, and USS|Essex|CV-9|2 rejoined the fleet after undergoing SCB-125 refits.

New carrier-based aircraft joining the fleet included the Douglas A-3 Skywarrior strategic attack bomber, the Grumman F-11 Tiger and Douglas F4D Skyray fighters, the Chance Vought F8U Crusader interceptor, the Douglas A-4 Skyhawk light attack bomber, the Grumman S2F Tracker Anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraft, the Grumman WF-1 Tracer built airborne early warning aircraft, and the Grumman TF1 Trader carrier onboard delivery (COD) transport.

New rotary aircraft to join the fleet included the Sikorsky HO4S general utility helicopter, the Sikorsky HSS-1 Seabat ASW helicopter, and the HUS-1 Seahorse utility transport helicopter.

Amphibious assault developments The U.S. Marines developed the new concept of Vertical Envelopment wherein ship-based helicopters would be used to transport Marine landing forces behind enemy beach fortifications and providing logistics and medical support as they attack from the rear to seize critical points, cut enemy supplies and logistical support, sever lines of communications, and link up with amphibious assault forces that landed on the beaches.

To support this concept, the USS|Boxer|CV-21|6, an "Essex"-class aircraft carrier, joined the Atlantic Fleet as an interim helicopter-carrying amphibious assault ship (LPH) until the purpose-built "Iwo Jima" class began joining the fleet in the early 1960s.

Finally, four new "Thomaston"-class dock landing ships (LSD) and all seven "De Soto County"-class tank landing ships (LST) joined the Atlantic Fleet during Wright's tour of duty.

Nuclear-powered submarines A significant development was the introduction of the nuclear-powered submarine, with the first three such vessels – USS|Nautilus|SSN-571|2, USS|Seawolf|SSN-575|2, USS|Skate|SSN-578|2 – joining Wright's command, as well as the lead ship for the high-speed sclass|Skipjack|submarines.

Strategic nuclear deterrence Finally, the most far-reaching development was in the field of strategic nuclear missile technology with the introduction the Regulus nuclear-armed cruise missiles that could be launched from submarines, cruisers, and aircraft carriers.

However, this system's operational life would be cut short by the development of the submarine-launched Polaris two-stage solid-fuel nuclear-armed fleet ballistic missile (FBM) system. The first operational nuclear-powered FBM submarine was the USS|George Washington|SSBN-598|2, commissioned on 30 December 1959, which would join the Atlantic Fleet in 1960.

Fleet readiness

For Admiral Jerauld Wright, the best method to evaluate fleet readiness for the U.S. Atlantic Fleet was the staging and execution of naval exercises like Lantflex I-57.

Among the high-level observers for this naval exercise were:

*President Dwight D. Eisenhower
*United States Secretary of State John Foster Dulles
*United States Secretary of the Treasury George M. Humphrey
*United States Secretary of Defense Charles E. Wilson
*United States Secretary of the Navy Thomas S. Gates, Jr.
* Chairman Lewis Strauss of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC)
*Admiral Arleigh Burke, the Chief of Naval Operations

The highlight of Lantflex I-57 was the landing of two A3D Sky Warriors and two F8U Crusaders onboard the USS "Saratoga" that had been launched from the USS "Bon Homme Richard" operating in the Pacific, the first carrier-to-carrier transcontinental flight in history. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 341 - 346; [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,867702,00.html "Victory at Sea"] ] - "TIME" - Monday, June 17, 1957]

Other Atlantic Fleet exercises included Operation Springboard, the annual winter naval maneuvers in the Caribbean Sea. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 306]

Units of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet and the Royal Canadian Navy participated in Operation Sweep Clear III, a bilateral mine warfare exercise, between July and August 1958. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 373] Also, in 1960, the U.S. Atlantic Fleet initiated UNITAS, an annual multilateral series of exercises between the South Atlantic Force (SOLANTFOR) and Latin American navies. [ [http://www.ciponline.org/facts/unit.htm Exercise: UNITAS] - Center for International Policy]

As SACLANT, Wright coordinated such NATO naval exercises as Operation Sea Watch, a convoy escort exercise. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 338]

However, the most significant naval exercise during Admiral Wright's tour of duty was Operation Strikeback, a ten-day exercise involving over 250,000 men, 300 ships, and 1,500 aircraft during September 1957, which was the largest naval exercise staged by NATO up to that time. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 333 - 335, 338; [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,891351,00.html "Emergency Call"] - "TIME" - Monday, September 30, 1957]

Under Admiral Wright, the U.S. Atlantic Fleet also took the lead on the field of operational testing and evaluation (OT&E) of systems and tactics, particularly regarding anti-submarine warfare for the United States Navy, with the Operational Development Force (OPDEVFOR), under the command of Rear Admiral William D. Irvin, serving as the lead agency for this effort. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 363 - 365]

Finally, in February 1959, when several transatlantic cables off Newfoundland were cut and the Soviet fishing trawler MV "Novorossisk" operating in the vicinity at the time of the break, the radar-picket ASW destroyer USS "Roy O. Hale" (DER-336) was dispatched to enforce the 1884 Convention for the Protection of Submarine Cables. On the 26 August, the "Hale" sent a boarding party to the "Novorossisk" to investigate and determined that there were no indications of intentions "other than fishing." A diplomatic protest was lodged, but there were no more breaks. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 362 - 363; [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,825640,00.html "Visit & Search"] - "Time" - Monday, March 09, 1959; [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,810862,00.html?promoid=googlep "Strong Presumption"] - "Time" - Monday, April 06, 1959; James Cable. "Gunboat Diplomacy 1919-1979: Political Applications of Limited Naval Force" (New York: Macmillan, 1981) p. 188; [http://www.iscpc.org/information/Convention_on_Protection_of_Cables_1884.pdf Convention for the Protection of Submarine Telegraph Cables. (Paris, 14 March 1884)] ]

Anti-submarine warfare

Admiral Jerauld Wright stated in a "Time" magazine article from 1958 that: "The primary mission of every combat ship in the Atlantic Fleet is antisubmarine. Everything else is secondary." [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,863701,00.html "The Goblin Killers"] - "Time" - Monday, September 1, 1958]

Given his previous exposure to anti-submarine warfare (ASW) doctrine at OP-34, Wright was a natural fit for overseeing the anti-submarine renaissance during his tour of duty as CINCLANTFLT. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 237 - 238]

One significant innovation was the Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS), a network of underwater hydrophones and listening posts designed to track the movement of submarines. The first operational test of SOSUS was done during the ASDevEx 1-54 exercise from 6 April to 7 June 1954. [Polmar and Moore. "Cold War Submarines" (2004), p.21]

However, 1958 news accounts about the growing threat of the Soviet snorkel-equipped diesel-electric submarine force began to gain the attention of the American public. Central Intelligence Agency Director Allen Dulles was reported to have said that ten missile-carrying Soviet submarines could destroy 1600 square miles (4144 sq. km) of the industrial-rich eastern seaboard in a sneak attack. [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,863224,00.html?iid=chix-sphere "Antisubmarine Boss"] - "Time" - Monday, April 7, 1958] Also, an Associated Press dispatch, dated 14 April 1958, quoted U.S. Congressman Carl Durham (D-North Carolina}, who said that 184 Soviet submarines had been sighted off the U.S. Atlantic coast during 1957. [Sontag and Drew. , p. 299 - 300]

Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) Arleigh A. Burke had responded on 1 April by creating Task Force Alfa, a hunter-killer (HUK) flotilla under the command of Rear Admiral John S. Thach, which would develop new ASW tactics to counter this growing Soviet submarine threat. ["The Unraveling and Revitalization of U.S. Navy Antisubmarine Warfare" by John R. Bendict. Naval "War College Review" (Spring 2005), [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0JIW/is_2_58/ai_n14705062/pg_3 p. 98] ; [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,863701,00.html "The Goblin Killers"] - "Time" - Monday, September 1, 1958; [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,863224,00.html?iid=chix-sphere "Antisubmarine Boss"] - "Time" - Monday, April 7, 1958]

Admiral Wright's personal contribution provided the first look at a missile-armed Soviet submarine, a Project AV611/Zulu-V variant armed with two R-11FM/SS-1b Scud-A ballistic missiles. [Sontag and Drew. , p. 41 - 42, 300; Polmar and Moore. "Cold War Submarines" (2004), p. 107, 111] Wright also spearheaded the establishment of the SACLANT ASW Research Centre, created on 2 May 1959 in La Spezia, Italy, to serve as a clearinghouse for NATO's anti-submarine efforts. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 357; [http://www.nurc.nato.int/about/history.htm History] - NATO Undersea Research Centre] The efforts of the Atlantic Fleet to develop and implement new ASW tactics during Admiral Wright's tour of duty laid the groundwork for the success that the U.S. Navy had in locating and tracking Soviet submarines during the Cuban Missile Crisis. ["The Unraveling and Revitalization of U.S. Navy Antisubmarine Warfare" by John R. Bendict. Naval "War College Review" (Spring 2005), [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0JIW/is_2_58/ai_n14705062/pg_3 p. 98] ]

Nuclear submarine operations

In the keynote address during commissioning ceremonies of the USS "Nautilus" (SSN-571), the world's first nuclear-powered ship, on 30 September 1954, Admiral declared:

:"Today the Navy turns a channel marker in the course of history." ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 353]

The first three nuclear submarines commissioned into the United States Navy joined the U.S. Atlantic Fleet and quickly demonstrated their effectiveness and performance capabilities:

USS "Nautilus" (SSN-571):
* During her shakedown cruise from New London to San Juan, Puerto Rico, "Nautilus" covered 1,381 nautical miles (2,558 km) in less than ninety hours at an average speed of 15.3 knots (28.3 kph). This was the longest submerged cruise by a submarine at the highest sustained speed (for at least one hour) ever recorded up to that time. [ [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/n2/nautilus-iv.htm USS "Nautilus" (SSN-571)] - DANFS - Naval Historical Center; Polmar and Moore. Cold "War Submarines", p. 58]
* "Nautilus" logged her 60,000th nautical mile (111,120 km) on 4 February 1957, matching the endurance of the fictional submarine "Nautilus" described in the 1870 novel "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under The Sea" written by Jules Verne . [ [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/n2/nautilus-iv.htm USS "Nautilus" (SSN-571)] - DANFS - Naval Historical Center]

USS "Seawolf " (SSN-571):
* On 3 September 1957, "Seawolf" steamed across the North Atlantic to participate in Operation Strikeback, returning to Naval Station Newport on 25 September after cruising 6,331 nautical miles (10,189 kilometers) nonstop. [ [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/n2/nautilus-iv.htm USS "Seawolf " (SSN-571)] - DANFS - Naval Historical Center]
* "Seawolf" submerged on 7 August 1958 and did not surface again until 6 October, logging over 13,700 nautical miles (25,372 km) during a total of 60 days submerged. [ [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/n2/nautilus-iv.htm USS "Seawolf " (SSN-571)] - DANFS - Naval Historical Center; Polmar and Moore. Cold "War Submarines", p. 61]

"Seawolf" has the distinction of being the first nuclear-powered ship to be visited by a President of the United States when President Dwight D. Eisenhower embarked onboard the submarine for a brief cruise on 26 September 1958. [ [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/n2/nautilus-iv.htm USS "Seawolf " (SSN-571)] - DANFS - Naval Historical Center; Polmar and Moore. Cold "War Submarines", p. 61]

Both "Nautilus" and the USS "Skate" (SSN-578) carried out extensive under-the-ice Arctic operations.

Finally, the first submerged circumnavigation (Operation Sandblast) was undertaken on the eve of Admiral Wright's retirement when the USS "Triton" (SSRN-586) departed from New London to start its shakedown cruise on 16 February 1960.

Arctic operations

Between in 1946, the U.S. Navy undertook five arctic expeditions involving submarines of the U.S. Pacific Fleet. However, the limiting factor for under-the-ice operations was the electric batteries used by submarines for submerged propulsion, which allowed a maximum of 100 miles (161 lm), at slow speed, before re-charging. [Williams. "Submarines Under Ice", p. 43 - 51, 67 - 99] One of the submarine commanders involved in these arctic missions, Lieutenant Commander James M. Commander Palmer of the USS "Carp" (SS-338), noted in his final report:

:Arctic patrols should continue, if only for the experience gained. It appears, however, that further penetration of field ice should not be attempted without a specially constructed submarine. [Williams. "Submarines Under Ice", p. 81]

However, following the second "Redfish" expedition in 1953, Rear Admiral Charles B. Momsen, Commander Submarine Force U.S. Pacific Fleet, decreed that submarine should stay out of the Arctic region. [Williams. "Submarines Under Ice", p. 99]

This changed when, following temporary assignment to Pearl Harbor, the USS "Nautilus", the world's first nuclear-powered submarine, returned to her Connecticut home base via the North Pole, traveling 1,830 nautical miles (3,390 km) submerged under the Arctic ice cap, passing underneath the North Pole en route, from 1 August to 5 August 1958. "Nautilus's" top-secret mission {Operation Sunshine) involved the highest levels of the U.S. government, and it had been a joint operation between the submarine type commands of the Pacific and Atlantic fleets. Nautilus received the first peacetime Presidential Unit Citation, and the Eisenhower administration had an effective answer to Sputnik. [Williams. "Submarines Under Ice", p. 100 - 132; Polmar and Moore. "Cold War Submarines", p. 58 - 59; [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/n2/nautilus-iv.htm USS "Nautilus" (SSN-571)] - DANFS - Naval Historical Center]

On 30 July 1958, the USS "Skate" submerged underneath the Arctic ice. During the next ten days, Skate surfaced through the ice nine times while she navigated over 2,400 miles (3,863 km) under the ice. "Skate" became the second ship to reach the North Pole. On August 23, "Skate" steamed into Bergen, Norway, completing her mission. [Williams. "Submarines Under Ice", p. 133 - 142; Polmar and Moore. "Cold War Submarines", p. 64; [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/s13/skate-ii.htm USS "Skate" (SSN-578)] ] - DANFS - Naval Historical Center]

In early March 1959, the "Skate" headed back for the Arctic to undertake operations during the period of extreme cold and maximum ice thickness. She steamed 3,900 miles (6,276 km) under pack ice while surfacing through it ten times. On 17 March 1959, "Skate" surfaced at the North Pole, becoming the first ship to physically reach the pole. The crew committed the ashes of the famed Arctic explorer Sir Hubert Wilkins to the Arctic waste. [Williams. "Submarines Under Ice", p. 143 - 155; Polmar and Moore. "Cold War Submarines", p. 64; [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/s13/skate-ii.htm USS "Skate" (SSN-578)] - DANFS - Naval Historical Center]

However, the groundwork for Operation Sunshine and "Skate's" two missions under the Arctic ice was laid when the "Nautilus" and the diesel-electric submarine USS "Trigger" (SS-564) carried out joint operation along the ice pack prior the NATO Operation Strikeback naval maneuvers in September 1957. [ [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/n2/nautilus-iv.htm USS "Nautilus" (SSN-571)] - DANFS - Naval Historical Center; [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/t8/trigger-ii.htm USS "Trigger" (SS-564)] - DANFS - Naval Historical Center]

In the coming years of the Cold War, submarine operations under the Arctic Ocean would take on increasing strategic significance as the Soviet Navy commissioned its first nuclear submarines, especially with the Arctic serving as a sanctuary to hide their nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines. [Sontag and Drew. "Blind Man's Bluff". p. 233n, 146 - 147; Polmar and Moore. "Cold War Submarines", p 172 - 175]

howing the flag

One example of soft power regarding seapower is showing the flag. Under Admiral Jerauld Wright, units of the United States Atlantic Fleet showed the flag at such high-profile events:

* Hurricane Relief – Atlantic Fleet ships provided relief to Tampico, Mexico following hurricanes Gladys and Hilda during September 1955. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 326]
*International Geophysical Year (IGY) – U.S. Navy ships and aircraft were deployed to provide support scientific activities in the Antarctic (Operation Deep Freeze) ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 326, 339; [http://www.history.navy.mil/ac/exploration/deepfreeze/ctf.htm Deep Freeze I, Summary of Operations, 1955-56] - Naval Historical Center] Also, the nuclear-powered submarine USS "Skate" visited Ice Station Alpha, located on Ice Island T-3 in the Arctic, on 14 August 1958. [Williams. "Submarines Under Ice", p. 133 - 141]
*International Naval Review – Thirty warships from seventeen nations joined units of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet in celebrating the 350th anniversary of founding of Jamestown by participating this 1957 naval review held at Hampton Roads, Virginia, from 11 June to 13 June 1957. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 346 - 351]
* Operation Strikeback – Units of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet paid port visits to European ports following the NATO naval exercise.
* Operation Inland Sea – Task Force 47 (TF-47), a 28-ship detachment of the U.S. Atlantic Fleet under the command of Rear Admiral Edmund B. Taylor, participated in the official opening of the Saint Lawrence Seaway, attended by Queen Elizabeth II and U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower on 26 June 1959. Ships of TF-47 visited ports throughout the Great Lakes, often escorting Queen Elizabeth aboard the royal yacht HMY "Britannia". ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 326, 339]
* USS "Macon" South American Goodwill Tour – The USS "Macon" (CA-132), the flagship of the South Atlantic Force (SOLANTFOR), conducted a goodwill tour of South American ports with the U.S. Navy Band onboard. [ [http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/m1/macon.htm USS "Macon" (CA-132)] - DANFS]

Also, in his capacity as CINCLANT/CINCLANTFLT/SACLANT, Admiral Wright and his staff participated 18 formal presentations and 62 NATO and joint military planning meetings during his six-year tour of duty in these positions. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 311]

Final change of command and retirement

The White House announced on December 31, 1959, that Admiral Jerauld Wright was stepping down as CINCLANTFLT/CINCLANT/SACLANT, with President Dwight D. Eisenhower noting:

:I would like to take this opportunity to express my personal thanks and that of the American people for the services which you have performed over a period of the last six years. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization represents an endeavor on the part of fifteen free nations, the success of which is vital to the security and well-being of the United States. Thus, the position of Commander of one of the major commands of this organization is one of the greatest responsibility. The leadership and judgment which you have displayed in this capacity have been a source of deep satisfaction to me personally, and I know has won the great admiration not only of the nations of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization but of all the Free World. [ [http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=11657 August Letter to Admiral Jerauld Wright on His Release From the Position of Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic] dated December 31, 1959 - John Woolley and Gerhard Peters, The American Presidency Project [online] . Santa Barbara, CA: University of California (hosted), Gerhard Peters (database). Available from World Wide Web]

General Lauris Norstad, USAF, NATO's Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR), wrote:

:Your strength of character, judgement and devotion to the cause we support have helped and inspired those of us who have served with you. On a broader basis, you have made an outstanding contribution to NATO, to the cause of peace and freedom, during the six years you have served as SACLANT. In the minds of the peoples of the many NATO countries, recognition of this fact will serve as a monument to your efforts. The Free World is indebted to you. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 389 - 390]

Admiral Sir Charles Lambe, RN, First Sea Lord, wrote:

:Before you finally hand over your great command, may I add my warmest personal thanks to the many you will have for all you have done to maintain the maritime strength of the Atlantic Alliance over the past six years. The Royal Navy has been proud to play its part under your command, and I am very conscious of the debt we owe to you personally for your wise direction and able handling of our joint affairs in the face of many difficulties. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 391 - 392]

Admiral of the Fleet Louis Mountbatten, RN, the Chief of the Defense Staff, wrote:

:On the occasion of your relinquishing of your present appointment, may I express to you on behalf of the United Kingdom Chiefs of Staff, our sincere gratitude for all you have done for NATO, in particular over the past six years as SACLANT. We would also like you to know how much we have appreciated the warm relations that have always existed between us. We wish you the best of good fortune in the future. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 390]

In his final fitness report, Admiral Arleigh Burke, the Chief of Naval Operations, wrote:

:A truly great American and a naval officer of rare distinction, he has earned over and over every laudatory word spoken to him. Outstanding. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 392]

In a personal note, Burke added::I personally and humbly share the immense pride of the entire Navy takes in the deserved admiration and respect in which you are held by foreign peoples — including those outside the free world community. No man will ever better symbolize the high standards and principles that we would like the entire world to associate with the qualities of a great American. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 393]

On 29 February 1960, Admiral Jerauld Wright stepped down as CINCLANTFLT/CINCLANT/SACLANT, retiring after 46 years of service in the United States Navy effective 1 March 1960. [Official Biography; "Warrior among Diplomats", p. 390]

Admiral Wright received a second Distinguished Service Medal from Secretary of the Navy William B. Franke in a special ceremony held onboard the supercarrier USS "Independence" (CVA-62). [Official Biography; "Warrior among Diplomats", p. 388, 391]

Dates of rank

{|border="1" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" align="center" width="100%"
-!Commodore (3)!Rear Admiral!Vice Admiral!Admiral
-!O-7!O-8!O-9!O-10
-
align="center" width="16%"
align="center" width="16%"
align="center" width="16%"
align="center" width="16%"
-!24 October 1944!07 August 1947 (4)!14 September 1950!01 April 1954Notes:
# Wright was temporarily promoted to Lieutenant on 16 November 1918.
# Wright was temporarily promoted to Captain on 02 January 1942.
# Temporary wartime flag rank equivalent to present-day U.S Navy rank of rear admiral (lower half).
# Wright temporarily promoted to Rear Admiral on 27 November 1944, which was made retro-active effective 05 May 1943.

All DOR referenced from Official U.S. Navy Biography.

Awards and decorations


=Distinguished Service Medal=

Citation excerpt (1942):

:For exceptionally meritorious service... immediately before the occupation of French North Africa by the United States Army Forces. As a member of the advanced party which effected a successful night landing along the northern coast of the continent and kept a secret rendezvous prior to the outbreak of hostilities, Captain Wright participated in vital conferences preliminary to the invasion of Morocco and Algeria. In addition to assisting the conception and organization of plans for offensive operations, he personally commanded the vessel in which General Henri Giraud made his escape from France.... [Official Biography]

Gold Star in lieu of the Second Distinguished Service Medal (1960):

:For exceptionally meritorious service to the Government of the United States in a duty of great responsibility while serving as Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic, Commander in Chief Atlantic, and Commander in Chief United States Atlantic Fleet, from March 1954 to March 1960. Exercising the highest type of leadership and diplomacy in administering the great responsibilities of his multinational commands and in accomplishing the objectives of his complex missions, Admiral Wright has contributed significantly to our national posture and has aided materially in advancing the objectives of the United States toward stabilizing world peace. In dealing with the highest level military and civilian representatives of foreign governments, he has been greatly instrumental in enhancing unanimity of effort in the discharge of the responsibilities of the United States in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, achieving the trust and confidence of the leaders of the NATO countries and contributing substantially to the further strengthening and effectiveness of that Organization. Admiral Wright's exceptional professional ability and inspiring devotion to the fulfillment of an exceptionally important and exacting assignment, reflects the highest credit upon himself (and) represents the crowning achievements of a distinguished career... ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 388; Official Biography]

ilver Star

Citation Excerpt (1944): :For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity as Commanding Officer of the USS SANTA FE, in action against enemy Japanese forces, October 13, to 17, 1944. Skilled and courageous in directing his command in its assigned missions to protect the withdrawal of two severely damaged ships from enemy infested waters, Rear Admiral Wright contributed essentially to the expeditious accomplishment of his hazardous salvage operation, providing efficient and effective support against hostile air attacks and making possible the successful reclamation of the damaged ships... [Official Biography]

Legion of Merit

Citation excerpt

:For meritorious service of a high degree in connection with a mission by submarine to Algeria, and negotiations with the French near that city prior to the occupation of North Africa by Allied Forces. In this duty he displayed good judgment, tact, and soldiery qualities that reflect great credit to the United States Navy. [Official Biography]

Gold Star in lieu of a second Legion of Merit

:For exceptionally meritorious conduct... as Assistant Chief of Staff of the Commander United States Naval Forces, Northwest African Waters, prior to and during the landing of forces in Sicily and Italy. Working tirelessly, (he) assisted in the drawing up of plans for the landing of United States forces in Sicily and... Allied forces in Italy... (and) helped to coordinate the various functions of the staff... [Official Biography]

Bronze Star with combat "V" devise

"'Citation Excerpt::For meritorious service in connection with operations against the enemy as Commander of an Amphibious Group from December 1944 to August 1945, during the planning, staging and execution of an amphibious assault upon and conquest of Okinawa Shima, Nanse Shoto... Subsequent to this operation, he participated in the preparation of plans for further amphibious combat operations. His conduct throughout distinguished him among those performing duties of the same character.... [Official Biography]

Letter of Commendation

:For distinguished service... during the operation against the Japanese bases at Tinian, Saipan and Guam in the Marianas, on 22 February 1944. In this action for the first time in the war in the Pacific, a Carrier Task Fore was discovered by the enemy and obliged to fight its way to its objective. Throughout these operations he at all times fought his ship with courage and skill. During the night 21-22 February the screen of which his ship was a part shot down at least eight enemy planes in flames and drove off all others before they could inflict damage upon the Task Force.... [Official Biography]

Other awards and decorations

Recall to duty

CIA Board of National Estimates

Admiral Jerauld Wright was recalled to active duty on 12 January 1961 to serve as the U.S. Navy representative on the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Board of National Estimates (BNE), and after completing his BNE assignment, and was released from active duty effective 13 May 1963. [Official Biography; [http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/frus/kennedyjf/xxv/6008.htm Memorandum of Meeting With President Eisenhower] - Washington, January 18, 1961, 2:40 p.m.; "Warrior among Diplomats", p. 395 - 396]

Background

The Office of National Estimates (ON/E) was created on November 13, 1950 when William L. Langer was named as the CIA Assistant Director for National Estimates (AD/NE). [Arthur B. Darling. "The Central Intelligence Agency: An Instrument of Government, to 1950" ((University Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990) p. 419]

The ON/E was responsible for issuing National Intelligence Estimate (NIE), which "should deal with matters of wide scope relevant to the determination of basic policy, such as the assessment of a country's war potential, its preparedness for war, its strategy capabilities and intentions, its vulnerability to various forms of direct attack or indirect pressures." [Peter Grose. "Gentleman Spy: The Life of Allen Dulles" (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1994) p. 304] The ON/E was organized as follows:

* CIA Board of National Estimates (BNE), consisting of prominent American citizens with distinguished intelligence, academic, military, and diplomatic credentials, would oversee NIE documents. The BNE was initially composed of:
** Raymond B. Sontag, a noted professor
**Sherman Kent, a history professor and Office of Strategic Services (OSS) officer
** Maxwell Foster, a distinguished Lawyer from Boston
**Calvin B. Hoover, a noted economist and professor
** DeForest Van Slyck, a senior officer of CIA's Office of Reports and Estimates (ORE)
** Ludwell Montague, a senior officer of CIA's Office of Reports and Estimates (ORE)
**Lieutenant General Clarence R. Huebner, United States Army
**Vice Admiral Bernard Biera, United States Navy
* Estimates Staff, composed of officers for their regional or functional competence regarding the post-war intelligence community, supports the BNE.
* Support Staff controlled the distributing incoming intelligence materials, ran the O/NE library, provided the general secretarial and administrative support work, and coordinated the NIE workflow.

Additionally, there was a Panel of Consultants, which included such individuals as George Kennan and Vannevar Bush, to confer with BNE members on the most important NIEs. [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/sherman-kent-and-the-board-of-national-estimates-collected-essays/inst.html#rtoc2 Sherman Kent and the Board of National Estimates - The Institutional Framework] - Central Intelligence Agency; Arthur. "The Central Intelligence Agency", p. 419 - 420] Since January 1952, Sherman Kent, AD/NE, served as the director of O/NE and chaired the BNE. [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/sherman-kent-and-the-board-of-national-estimates-collected-essays/1tribute.html A Tribute to Sherman Kent by Harold P. Ford] - Central Intelligence Agency] The Office of National Estimates (O/NE) was disestablished effective 1 November 1973. [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/sherman-kent-and-the-board-of-national-estimates-collected-essays/inst.html#rtoc2 Sherman Kent and the Board of National Estimates - The Institutional Framework] - Central Intelligence Agency]

United States Ambassador to China (Taiwan)

Retired Admiral Jerauld Wright was contacted by Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs W. Averell Harriman regarding the ambassadorship to the Republic of China in Taiwan. The current U.S. ambassador, retired Admiral Alan G. Kirk, was in declining health and had recommended Wright as his replacement. After discussing it with his family, Wright accepted. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 396]

Ambassador Wright presented his credentials to President Chiang Kai-shek on June 29, 1963. The U.S. diplomatic mission to the Republic of China was organized as follows ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 397] :

* Deputy Chief of the Mission (DCM) — Ralph Cough
* Administrator — Austin Maley
* Secretary to the Ambassador — Margaret Waterhouse
* Commander Taiwan Defense Command (TDC) — Vice Admiral Charles L. Melson, United States Navy [ [http://ustdc.blogspot.com/2008/04/comustdc.html COMUSTDC] ]
* Commander Military Assistance Advisory Group (MAAG) — Major General Kenneth O. Sanborn, U.S. Air Force [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0RBE/is_2004_Annual/ai_n8572293 "Major General Kenneth O. Sanborn". U.S. Air Force Military Biographies. Annual 2004.] ]
*Agency for International Development (AID) — Howard Parsons
*U.S. Information Service (USIS) — Robert Payne
* Naval Auxiliary Communications Center (NACC) — William Nelson (CIA station chief)

Ambassador Wright won praise for his sensitive handling of the aftermath to the assassination of John F. Kennedy from both the embassy staff and government officials of the Republic of China. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 397 - 404] Wright also closely monitored the tense military situation between Taiwan and mainland China, particularly the potential flashpoint of Qemoy. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p.404 - ] Wright also successfully concluded a Status of Forces Agreement with the Republic of China. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 409]

On July 25, 1965, Jerauld Wright stepped down as the U.S. Ambassador of the Republic of China, closing the final chapter on his public life.

Personal

Family

The future wife of Admiral Jerauld Wright was born Phyllis B. Thompson on April 2, 1906, in New York City. She graduated from Miss Porter's School and made her debut in 1924 with Janet Lee, the future mother of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. She worked for the Women's Organization for National Prohibition Reform (WONPR) in New York. In 1933, Phyllis Thompson joined the Federal Alcohol Control Administration (FACA) in Washington, D.C. and subsequently worked, briefly, at the Federal Housing Administration (FHA). In 1935, she became the society editor for the "Washington Evening Star". ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 106; [http://www.look.net/gunstonhall/masonweb/p51.htm#i2510 Phyllis B. Thompson] - Descendants of George Mason; [http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/jwright.htm Arlington Cemetery] ] ]

Phyllis Thompson meet Jerry Wright through his sister, Marjorie Wright Key, who had also attended Miss Porter's School. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 106; [http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/jwright.htm Arlington Cemetery] ] ] Their marriage took place at St. Andrew's Dune Church, in Southampton, New York, on July 23, 1938, which Phyllis wrote as her last wedding notice for the "Washington Evening Star" as their society editor. Jerry and Phyllis Wright had two children — Marion Jerauld Wright (1941 - ) and William Mason Wright (1945 - ). ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 112, 116, 227; [http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/jwright.htm Arlington Cemetery] ] ; [http://www.look.net/gunstonhall/masonweb/p51.htm#i2512 Marion Jerauld Wright] & [http://www.look.net/gunstonhall/masonweb/p51.htm#i2511 William Mason Wright] - Descendants of George Mason]

Phyllis Wright wrote about her experiences as a Navy wife and the wife of an ambassador:

* "Navy Wife's Log" (1978) ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 108, 282, 420]
* "Taiwan Scrapbook" (1992) ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 397, 282, 420]

She was a former president of the Sulgrave Club and a member of the Metropolitan and Chevy Chase clubs. [ [http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/jwright.htm Arlington Cemetery] ]

Phyllis Thompson Wright died on October 20, 2002, at the National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, from cancer. She was survived by her two children, Marion Wright of Denver and William Wright of Arlington. She was interred with her late husband at the Arlington National Cemetery. [ [http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/jwright.htm Arlington Cemetery] ]

Artwork

In retirement, Jerauld Wright pursued an interest in painting, whose whimsical style was similar to Grandma Moses. His artwork was displayed in exhibits at the Brook Club, the Knickerbocker Club, and the Sulgrave Club. [, p. 415 - 417]

Memberships

Admiral Jerauld Wright was a long-time member of the United States Naval Institute, serving as its president from 1959 - 1960 and was a frequent contributor to its "Proceedings", including an insightful December 1951 article on the challenges facing the newly-created NATO. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 250 - 251, 383 - 384] Wright's other memberships included the Alibi Club, the Chevy Chase Club, the Metropolitan Club, the Knickerbocker Club, the Brook Club, Alfalfa Club, and the United States Navy League. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 417]

Death

Admiral Jerauld Wright, United States Navy (ret.), died on April 27, 1995, on pneumonia in Washington, D.C., at the age of 96. He was survived by his wife of 56 years, Phyllis; a son, William Mason Wright of Arlington; and a daughter, Marion Jerauld Wright of Denver. He was buried with full military honors in Section 2 of the Arlington National Cemetery next to his father and mother, and would be joined by his wife Phyllis upon her death in 2002. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 417; [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=990CE0DB1031F93AA15757C0A963958260 Jerauld Wright, 96, Admiral and Envoy] - "New York Times" - April 29, 1995; [http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/jwright.htm Jerauld Wright] - Arlington National Cemetery]

Legacy

Honorary degrees

Admiral Jerauld Wright received honorary degrees from the Rose Polytechnic Institute, the University of Massachusetts Amherst, and the William and Mary College. ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 385]

Wright Island

Wright Island (coord|74|2|S|116|50|W) is an ice-covered island 35 miles (60 km) long, lying at the north edge of Getz Ice Shelf about midway between Carney Island and Martin Peninsula, on the Bakutis Coast, Marie Byrd Land. Delineated from air photos taken by U.S. Navy Operation Highjump in January 1947, it was named by the Advisory Committee on Antarctic Names (US-ACAN) after Admiral Jerauld Wright who was in over-all command of Operation Deep Freeze during the International Geophysical Year 1957-58. [ [http://aadc-maps.aad.gov.au/aadc/gaz/display_name.cfm?gaz_id=133868 Wright Island - SCAR Gazetteer Ref. No 16234] - Australian Antarctic Data Centre]

Jerauld Wright Award

In light of the growing threat of Soviet submarine activity within his command area, as well as in retaliation for the recent aggressive depth-charging of the USS|Gudgeon|SS-567|6 near Vladivostok, Admiral Wright issued the following challenge:

:"Whereas, the presence of unidentified submarines in the approaches to the United has been frequently reported, and"

:"Whereas, the submarines have been uncooperative in declaring either their identity and their intent as is required by the customs and usages of honorable seamen, and"

:"Whereas, tangible evidence that these surreptitious are being conducted would result in appropriate embarrassment to those involved."

:"Therefore I do hereby pledge to donate one case of Jack Daniels Old No. 7 Brand of Quality Tennessee Sour Mash Corn Whiskey, made as our fathers made it for seven generations at the oldest distillery n the United States, established in 1866, to the first Scene of Action commander who evidence that a "non U.S. or known friendly" submarine has been worn out."

:/s/:Jerauld Wright:Admiral, U.S. Navy ["Blind Man's Bluff: The Untold Story of American Submarine Espionage", p. 58-59]

On 29 May 1959, the USS|Grenadier|SS-525|6, a sclass|Tench|submarine working in conjunction with Patrol Squadron 5 (VP-5), chased a Soviet submarine near Iceland for nine hours before forcing it to surface, and its commanding officer, Lt. Commander Theodore F. Davis, received the case of whiskey from Admiral Wright and the distinction of being the first to surface a Soviet submarine by the U.S. Navy. ["Blind Man's Bluff: The Untold Story of American Submarine Espionage", p. 58-59; [http://www.ussgrenadier.com/award.html USS "Grenadier" SS-525 Home Page] ; [http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/VA-news/VA-Pilot/issues/1995/vp950512/05120443.htm "Adm. Wright's Enthusiastic Zeal is Remembered and Is Honored"] - "Virginia-Pilot", p. A14 (May 12, 1995)]

Admiral Wright Award would be presented, with an accompanying case of whiskey, on two other occasions:

*On 29 October 1962, the USS|Charles P. Cecil|DD-835|6, a sclass|Gearing|destroyer, had chased a Soviet submarine throughout the Caribbean for nearly two days during the Cuban missile crisis. [ [http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/VA-news/VA-Pilot/issues/1995/vp950512/05120443.htm "Adm. Wright's Enthusiastic Zeal is Remembered and Is Honored"] - "Virginia-Pilot", p. A14 (May 12, 1995)]
*The third instance occurred off Gibraltar in 1967, but details were never released. [ [http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/VA-news/VA-Pilot/issues/1995/vp950512/05120443.htm "Adm. Wright's Enthusiastic Zeal is Remembered and Is Honored"] - "Virginia-Pilot", p. A14 (May 12, 1995)]

John Paul Jones Cottage/birthplace museum

Retired admirals Jerauld and Sir Nigel Henderson, RN, spearheaded the effort to restore the Scottish birthplace of John Paul Jones back to its original 1747 condition. The cottage that houses a museum dedicated to the life and accomplishments of John Paul Jones was opened in 1993, and it is situated on the original location on the estate of Arbigland in the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright. [ [http://www.jpj.demon.co.uk/jpjcott.htm History of John Paul Jones Cottage] - John Paul Jones Cottage Museum, Scotland]

The Admiral's Count Down

The following New Year's toast was made by Admiral Jerauld Wright to usher in the new year of 1960 at the U.S. Atlantic Fleet headquarters:

:Families, friends, shipmates, we stand at the threshold of a New Year. We look back at the lessons and accomplishments of the past. We look ahead to the uncertain future with enthusiasm for its prospects, with anticipation of its successes, with hope of its rewards, and with determination that the New Year will be better than many and all years before.

:As we launch the great project of this New Year, let us have a count down, a count of twelve resolutions that will guide us into space and beyond, twelve resolutions which will make better men of all of us, and a better world to live in.

:* For our friends — may they ever be many in the true comradeship of service to flag and country.:* For the unity of our families — may they ever be together in love and spirit, and may our homecomings be often.:* For progress and prosperity — with all nations working together for a better world.:* For the elimination of poverty — with all people, everywhere, may be free from want.:* For the good health and well-being of those less fortunate than ourselves.:* For our happiness in the new year — and all years to come.:* For joy and success in our work, with the interest of others at heart.:* For the preservation of our precious liberties, and the freedom of all who are now oppressed.:* For justice and mercy to all, of whatever minority, race or creed.:* For free nations worldwide — may they multiply, thrive and prosper.:* For our great NATO Alliance — may it ever guard our collective security.:* For world peace through 1960 and forever after.

As his biography and nephew, David M. Key, Jr., noted from the above toast:

:"The words echoed the credo of Wright's 45-year naval career — devotion to family, duty, his country, and the free world. He was consistent to the end." ["Warrior among Diplomats", p. 386 - 387]

ee also

* Atomic Energy Act of 1946
* Cold War (1947–1953)
* Cold War (1953–1962)

References

Notes

Bibliography

Primary sources

* [http://www.loc.gov/rr/mss/text/wright-j.html Jerauld Wright Papers] - Manuscript Division, Library of Congress - Washington, DC
* [http://www.history.navy.mil/ar/whiskey/wrightj.htm Papers of Admiral Jerauld Wright, 1949-1950] - Operational Archives Branch, Naval Historical Center - Washington Navy Yard
* [http://library.georgetown.edu/dept/speccoll/fl/f999%7D6.htm Box: 1 Fold: 510 Wright, Admiral Jerauld, January 1, 1963 - December 31, 1965] - Foreign Affairs Oral History Project - Georgetown University

econdary sources

Biographical works:
* David M. Key, Jr. "Admiral Jerauld Wright: Warrior among Diplomats" (Manhattan, Kansas: Sunflower University Press, 2001) ISBN: 978-0897452519
* [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=990CE0DB1031F93AA15757C0A963958260 Jerauld Wright, 96, Admiral and Envoy] - "New York Times" - April 29, 1995
* Official Biography - Naval History Division, U.S. Department of the Navy - Dated: 08 July 1963Other published works:
* John R. Bendict. "The Unraveling and Revitalization of U.S. Navy Antisubmarine Warfare" - "Naval War College Review" 58, no. 2 (Spring 2005) p. 92-120
* James Cable. "Gunboat Diplomacy 1919-1979: Political Applications of Limited Naval Force" (New York: Macmillan, 1981) ISBN: 0312353464
* Arthur B. Darling. "The Central Intelligence Agency: An Instrument of Government, to 1950" (University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990) 0-271-00717-6 (Paperback)
* Peter Grose. "Gentlemen Spy: The Life of Allen Dulles" (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1994) ISBN: 0-395-51607-2
* Albert Bushnell Hart. "Harper's Pictorial Library of the World War" (New York: Harper, 1920)
* Norman Polmar and K.J. Moore. "Cold War Submarines: The Design and Construction of U.S. and Soviet Submarines" (Washington, DC: Potomac Books, Inc., 2004) ISBN: 1-57488-530-8
* Sherry Sontag and Christopher Drew with Annette Lawrence Drew. "" (New York, New: PublicAffairs, 1998) ISBN: 1-891620-08-8
* Marion D. Williams. "Submarines Under Ice: The U.S. Navy's Polar Operations" (Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1998) ISBN: 1-55750-943-3

External links

* [http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/jwright.htm Jerauld Wright] - Arlington National Cemetery
* [http://www.ussgrenadier.com/award.html Jerauld Wright Award] - [http://www.ussgrenadier.com/ Home Page] - USS "Grenadier" SS-525
* [http://home.cogeco.ca/~gchalcraft/sm/seraph.html HMS "Seraph"] - British Submarines of World War Two
* [http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USMC/USMC-M-Marshalls/USMC-M-Marshalls-2.html Chapter 2: Plans and Preparations] - "The Marshall: Increasing the Tempo" by Lt. Col. Robert D. Heinl, Jr., USMC, and Lt. Col. John A. Crown, USMC - USMC Historical Monograph - Historical Section - Division of Public Affairs - Headquarters U.S. Marine Corps
* [http://pacific.valka.cz/forces/tf53.htm#flint Task Force 53 -- Operation Flintlock]
* [http://www.fas.org/irp/eprint/arens/chap2.htm Chapter 2 - V Amphibious Corps] - "V [Marine] Amphibious Corps Planning for Operation Olympic and the Role of Intelligence in Support of Planning" by Major Mark P. Arens, USMCR - Federation of American Scientists
* [http://www.valerosos.com/PreludetoInchon.html "Prelude to Inchon: The Puerto Rico Exercises of 1950" by Col Gilberto Villahermosa, U.S. Army (July 2004)] - The 65th Infantry Regiment
* [http://aadc-maps.aad.gov.au/aadc/gaz/display_name.cfm?gaz_id=133868 Wright Island - SCAR Gazetteer Ref. No 16234] - Australian Antarctic Data Centre
* [http://www.ciponline.org/facts/unit.htm Exercise: UNITAS] - Center for International Policy
* [http://www.iscpc.org/information/Convention_on_Protection_of_Cables_1884.pdf Convention for the Protection of Submarine Telegraph Cables. (Paris, 14 March 1884)]
* [http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ho/frus/kennedyjf/xxv/6008.htm Memorandum of Meeting With President Eisenhower] - U.S. Department of State - Washington, DC - January 18, 1961, 2:40 p.m.
* [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0RBE/is_2004_Annual/ai_n8572293 "Major General Kenneth O. Sanborn". US Air Force Military Biographies. Annual 2004.]
* [http://ustdc.blogspot.com/2008/04/comustdc.html Commander Taiwan Defense Command (COMUSTDC)]
* [http://www.jpj.demon.co.uk/index.htm John Paul Jones Cottage Museum, Scotland]
* [http://www.cotf.navy.mil/ Operational Test and Evaluation Force] - U.S. Navy
* [http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/UCS.html "The Development of Unified Command Structure for the U. S. Armed Forces, 1945-1950," p. 11-21] in Ronald H. Cole, et al, "The History of Unified Command 1946-1993" (Washington, DC: Joint History Office of the Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1995)
* American Presidency Project - University of California at Santa Barbara:
** [http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=10161 Statement by the President on the Appointment of Admiral Jerauld Wright as Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic] dated February 17, 1954
** [http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=11657 August Letter to Admiral Jerauld Wright on His Release From the Position of Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic] dated December 31, 1959
*
** [https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/sherman-kent-and-the-board-of-national-estimates-collected-essays/inst.html#rtoc2 Sherman Kent and the Board of National Estimates - The Institutional Framework]
** [https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/sherman-kent-and-the-board-of-national-estimates-collected-essays/1tribute.html A Tribute to Sherman Kent by Harold P. Ford]
* Descendants of George Mason, 1629-1686:
** [http://www.look.net/gunstonhall/masonweb/p50.htm#i2504 William Mason Wright]
** [http://www.look.net/gunstonhall/masonweb/p50.htm#i2505 Marjorie R. Jerauld]
** [http://www.look.net/gunstonhall/masonweb/p51.htm Jerauld Wright]
** [http://www.look.net/gunstonhall/masonweb/p51.htm#i2510 Phyllis B. Thompson Wright]
** [http://www.look.net/gunstonhall/masonweb/p51.htm#i2512 Marion Jerauld Wright]
** [http://www.look.net/gunstonhall/masonweb/p51.htm#i2511 William Mason Wright]
* HyperWar:
** [http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/ref/Transport/transport-1.html#s5 Chapter I, Section 5] - TRANSPORT DOCTRINE, Amphibious Forces, U.S. Pacific Fleet - September 1944 - Hyperwar
** "Beans, Bullets and Black Oil" by Admiral Worrall Reed Carter, USN - HyperWar"'
*** [http://ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/BBBO/BBBO-25.html Chapter 25: Operation ICEBERG: The Okinawa Campaign -- The Forces Involved--Staging Logistics]
*** [http://ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/BBBO/BBBO-26.html Chapter 26: Activities at Saipan and Ulithi]
*** [http://ibiblio.org/hyperwar/USN/BBBO/BBBO-27.html Chapter 27: Logistics at Kerama Retto for the Okinawa Operation] *
*
** [http://www.history.navy.mil/branches/avchr7.htm "Naval Aviation Chronology 1950-1953" - March 8, 1950]
** [http://www.history.navy.mil/ac/exploration/deepfreeze/ctf.htm Deep Freeze I, Summary of Operations, 1955-56]
** [http://www.history.navy.mil/library/guides/rosters/com%20chief%20us%20naval%20forces%20europe.htm List of Commander-in-Chief of U.S. Naval Forces Europe]
*
** "The Third Battle: Innovation in the U.S. Navy's Silent Cold War Struggle with Soviet Submarines" (March 2000; 2003):
*** [http://www.navy.mil/navydata/cno/n87/history/cold-war-asw.html#Intro HTLM version]
*** [http://www.coldwar.org/text_files/newportpaper16.pdf PDF version]
** "The Unraveling and Revitalization of U.S. Navy Antisubmarine Warfare" by John R. Benedict (Spring 2005):
*** [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0JIW/is_2_58/ai_n14705062 HTML version]
*** [http://www.jhuapl.edu/areas/warfare/papers/art4-sp05.pdf PDF version]
* "New York Times":
** [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9805E4DF1531EF33A25750C1A9679C946395D6CF "WRIGHT IN NEW POST: General Assigned to Command the Philippines Department" online version] - January 13, 1922 (Friday) p. 12
** [http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9805E4DF1531EF33A25750C1A9679C946395D6CF&oref=slogin "WRIGHT IN NEW POST: General Assigned to Command the Philippines Department" pdf version] - January 13, 1922 (Friday) p. 12
*
** [http://www.nato.int/docu/comm/49-95/c490917a.htm Final Communiqué] - North Atlantic Council meeting - Washington, DC - September 17, 1949
** [http://www.nato.int/archives/1st5years/chapters/7.htm Chapter 7: The Military Structure] - NATO the first five years 1949-1954
** [http://www.nato.int/archives/1st5years/chapters/9.htm Chapter 9: The increase in strength - International Exercises] - NATO the first five years 1949-1954
** [http://www.nato.int/archives/1st5years/annexes/d4.htm Annex: Allied Command Atlantic 1st July, 1954] - NATO the first five years 1949-1954
** [http://www.nurc.nato.int/about/history.htm History] - NATO Undersea Research Centre
* "Time":
** [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,867702,00.html "Victory at Sea"] - Monday, September 30, 1957
** [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,891351,00.html "Emergency Call"] - Monday, September 30, 1957
** [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,863224,00.html?iid=chix-sphere "Antisubmarine Boss"] - Monday, April 7, 1958
** [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,863701,00.html "The Goblin Killers"] - Monday, September 1, 1958
** [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,825640,00.html "Visit & Search"] - Monday, March 9, 1959
** [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,810862,00.html?promoid=googlep "Strong Presumption"] - Monday, April 6, 1959


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