Colegio Cesar Chavez


Colegio Cesar Chavez
Jose Romero, co-founder of Colegio Cesar Chavez, with college sign.

Colegio Cesar Chavez (Spanish for "Cesar Chavez College") was a U.S. college-without-walls in Mount Angel, Oregon. The college was named after Mexican American civil rights activist César Chávez. Colegio was established in 1973 and closed its doors in 1983.[1] Colegio was the first accredited, independent four-year Chicano college in the United States. In 1975 it was granted candidacy status from the Northwest Association of Schools and Colleges. In 1977, Colegio granted degrees to twenty-two graduates, a number exceeding the combined number of Chicanos who graduated that same year from University of Oregon and Oregon State University.[2]

Contents

Evolution

César Chávez visiting the Mount Angel campus in 1974, a year after the college was established. [3] Jose Romero, Colegio's Director of Academics, is seen behind Chávez's left shoulder.

"Chavez personally sought an audience before federal officials of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) in Washington, D.C., to re-negotiate the terms of a loan for the Chicanos in the Pacific Northwest. The Chicano students had taken over the Mt. Angel campus administration building in the 1970s with a demand to make the liberal arts college a Chicano College rather than close the facility for lack of financial resources to maintain the institution. The property was owned by a local order of nuns. The nuns agreed to the demand provided the loan was re-negotiated and re-issued to another party, not their religious order. Chavez was successful in the refinancing arrangement with HUD. Mt. Angel College became a Chicano college and later changed its name to Colegio Cesar Chavez. It was headed by various Chicano academicians and students. They took the beginning steps toward accreditation." – "César Chávez (The Ilan Stavans Library of Latino Civilization)." Greenwood. 2010. Page 66. ISBN 0 313 364885. [4]

Colegio Cesar Chavez evolved from various other collegial institutions that had existed in Mount Angel, Oregon for nearly a century. In 1888, the Catholic Order of the Benedictine Sisters founded Mont. Angel Academy. The Academy was originally a female charter academy but later evolved into a normal school in 1897 to train women for careers in education. In 1947, Mt. Angel Normal School was renamed Mt. Angel Women's College and, with accreditation from the Northwest Accrediting Association, it granted a Bachelor of Science degree in elementary education. In 1957, Mt. Angel Women's College became coeducational and was renamed Mt. Angel College.

By 1966 Mt. Angel College was facing financial problems for which it received two federal loans which it used to expand the campus. Within the next seven year Mt. Angel College found itself burdened by a one million dollar debt and low student enrollment. In 1977, Ernesto Lopez became Dean of Students of Mt. Angel College and Sonny Montes became Director of Ethnic Affairs and minority recruiter. By 1972, Mt. Angel College had a student body of only 250, only 37 of whom were of Mexican American descent.

Citing the Mt. Angel College's financial instability and low enrollment, the Northwest Association of Schools and Colleges withdrew the college's accreditation. In light of such bleak signs, most students and staff left the college. Sonny Montes, Ernesto Lopez, and four others decided to attempt to salvage the college by redirecting its focus. On December 12, 1973, Mt. Angel College was renamed Colegio Cesar Chavez. In 1975, Colegio was granted accreditation candidacy from the same association that had withdrawn Mt. Angel College's accreditation. Colegio aimed to create a four-year college completely under the control of a staff chiefly of Mexican American, or Chicano, descent. Colegio was also structured on an experimental educational model known as a "college without walls" program.

Previous to settling on the name "Colegio Cesar Chavez", staff had considered three other names for the college: "Colegio Che Guevara", "Colegio Ho Chi Minh", and "Colegio Virgen de Guadalupe". César Chávez's name was chosen because he was one of the key figures in the Chicano movement, often organizing boycotts and protests for farm workers in California and eventually throughout the entire Pacific Northwest. The majority of Mexican Americans in the Pacific Northwest had migrated to the region during the World War II era in search of work as farm laborers.

"The students were able to get Cesar Chavez's help in renegotiating the debt with HUD. The Chicano militants put together a staff and recruited students. Together, they were making ends meet and had gotten past the first steps toward full accreditation. As a volunteer, I helped them in obtaining a Dean's Grant for bilingual education. I also began an international education course of study with Mexico at the Colegio." - Jose Angel Gutierrez [5]

College without walls program

Colegio Cesar Chavez graduating class, 1977. Image recently published in the book "Sonny Montes and Mexican American Activism in Oregon," published by Oregon State University.

Colegio Cesar Chavez operated under the "El Colegio Sin Paredes" ("The College Without Walls") model. This model granted students the ability to actively engage with their community, to maintain control of their own education, and to combine their classroom studies with experience outside of the classroom.

The College Without Walls Program had been established by the Union for Experimenting Colleges and Universities. This format allowed for the inclusion of a wide range of age groups, encouraged the participation and collaboration of students, staff, and administrators in creating and implementing the curriculum. Alternative means of evaluation was also encouraged. In this program, instructors were redefined as facilitators in the learning process. Additionally, Colegio staff, administration, and students relations were structured in accordance to a framework that Colegio termed "La Familia," meaning "The Family". To that end, the "family" members were encouraged to participate in the decisions affecting the college. Such a framework inevitably required for students to be self-motivated and to initiate and pursue an independent course of education.

Colegio's core educational foundation consisted of work in four areas: Social Science (Anthropology, Economics, Political Science, Psychology, Sociology); the Humanities (Literature, History, Arts, Philosophy, Language); Natural Sciences and Mathematics; oral and written bilingual Communications. Each student was required to complete fifteen credit hours in each area, totaling 60 credit hours. Credit transfers from parallel areas was allowed. Students could also receive credit for prior learning.

Leadership

Colegio Cesar Chavez founders Jose Romero and Sonny Montes with student Jan Chavez on the lawn in front Colegio Cesar Chavez.

From its inception, the leadership of Colegio Cesar Chavez was in a constant state of flux. In its brief ten years, Colegio was served by four administrations. Each administration faced substantial institutional crises. In 1973, Ernesto Lopez, former Academic Dean and Acting President of Mt. Angel College, became Colegio's first President. Lopez retained this position for only one year. After the departure of Lopez, the position of administrative head was altered into a co-directorship. Sonny Montes was named Director of Administration. Jose Romero was named Director of Academics. The split into two co-directors was made in an attempt to relieve the overwhelming duties that Lopez had faced.

Sonny Montes did not possess an advanced degree, as had Lopez, and he had far less experience working in higher education than had Lopez. Montez' organizing abilities and many contacts within the Chicano Movement were compensations. It was during the joint Montes-Romero administration that Colegio Cesar Chavez received accreditation candidacy on June 18, 1975 from the Northwest Association of Schools and Colleges. Sonny Montes retired as Colegio administrator in October 1977, citing personal and economic concerns. He was extended an invitation to serve on Colegio's board, which he accepted.

Salvador Ramirez followed Sonny Montes, becoming Colegio's top administrator in 1977. Ramirez, who held a master's degree in history, had served Colegio as history teacher since mid-1976. His previous work experience included employment with University of Colorado at Boulder and Washington State University. During Ramirez' tenure, Colegio finalized its negotiations with HUD. Ramirez resigned from his position at Colegio in 1979.

Irma Flores Gonzales [1], previously a member of both Colegio's board and staff, became president of Colegio in 1979. Gonzales held a B.A. in education and a M.A. in psychology. It was during Gonzales' time as president that Colegio faced its greatest challenges: difficulty in developing and maintaining a financial base; preparing Colegio for accreditation by June 1981; and expanding college enrollment. During Gonzales' time as president, Colegio staff succumbed to infighting. By this point, many activitists within the Chicano Movement had become disillusioned with Colegio. Gonzales was Colegio's last president.

Facilities

Colegio Cesar Chavez function.

"The examples of muralism at Colegio Cesar Chavez comprise an uneven lot.... Subtlety has little place among many of the bold, simplified images. Golden and turquoise visions of the powerful snake god Quetzalcoatl adjoin primitive pictographs in which a buzzard and a skull, suggesting death, are carried on the backs of kneeling figures. An immense, expressionistic skull confronts a viewer, flames rising off the death’s head like tendrils curling toward the sky. Workers toil in a field dominated by the central presence of a grotesque scarecrow; a rattler and an eagle prepare for battle. The past, present and future come together potently in an 8-foot-high rendering of an archetypal Aztec figure, the three-headed omniscient god that sees what was, what is and what will be. The symbolism dates back to similar figurines discovered in a pre-Columbian tomb near Mexico City."[6]

Colegio Cesar Chavez's main campus building was the two-story administrative building called Huelga Hall. ("Huelga" [pronounced welga] is Spanish for "strike".) When it was a part of Mount Angel College, Huelga Hall was known as Marmion Hall and was used as the campus dormitory for women. Huelga Hall was the hub of campus activity and was where most classes were held. The walls of Huelga Hall were covered with large Mexican-themed murals, some in the style of Diego Rivera, others being transcriptions of ancient Aztec artwork. In the main reception room there was a mural of Argentine revolutionary Che Guevara near the fireplace. To the north of Huelga Hall stood two buildings that served as dormitories for Colegio students.

Colegio also owned two homes. Directly behind Huelga Hall was the Art Building. The Art Building was a two-story farm house in the Victorian style. It had been built in the mid-1900s by the Bernt family of Mt. Angel. When Mount Angel College took possession of the Bernt house, it was renamed Studio San Benito. Under Colegio's ownership, the house was referred to as the Art Building. The Art Building lay vacant and unused for most of Colegio's existence until when in 1980 it was occupied by the family of Arthur Omar Olivo. Mr. Olivo was the grounds keeper and facilities maintenance manager of Colegio César Chávez. After a falling out with Colegio president Irma Gonzales, [2] the Olivo family vacated the Art Building in 1982 shortly before Colegio's closure.[7] Beside the Art House stood another two-story house that was referred to as the Pottery Building. Both the Pottery Building and the Art Building were demolished in the mid-1980s.

On the other side of Main Street, across from Huelga Hall, Colegio maintained Guadalupe Hall, a building named in honor of Our Lady of Guadalupe.

Legacy

"We were establishing a Chicano college in a community that had been hostile to Cesar Chavez and what the name and the movement meant, a community that viewed Spanish-speakers more as farm workers and not as college students, a community that liked to drive by at night and shoot bullet holes in our signs. But we made it, and we gave the community – not just the one in the Willamette Valley but throughout the state – something to rally about. I recently made a trip to Mt. Angel and discovered that in a way it is still alive. The murals are still there and the campus is in good shape. The sisters have reopened it as a residence for farm workers. When I see that the buildings are being used and that there are farm workers living in the dorms, and that there are training programs going on and that there’s shelter there, I feel it wasn’t a lost cause." – Jose Romero, co-founder of Colegio Cesar Chavez[8]

This building on Main Street in Mount Angel once served as Colegio's main administrative building known as Huelga Hall.

After the closure of Colegio Cesar Chavez, the facilities and grounds were left unused and abandoned for several years. Eventually, a private benefactor purchased the former Colegio grounds and facilities and donated it back to its pre-Colegio owners, the Benedictine Sisters of Mt. Angel. Today, the former Colegio grounds and facilities are used as St. Joseph Shelter.[9] Shortly after reclaiming ownership of the former Colegio building, the Benedictine Sisters had all but one Colegio-era mural painted over. The one remaining mural is titled "College Without Walls" and was created by Daniel Desiga.[10][11] The mural depicts an arch entry overlooking a vast strawberry field. The arch has been interpreted as representing the college without walls program of Colegio, and the vast strawberry field in the background is likely a reference to the field workers and the fact that many Colegio teachers and students had either worked in the fields or were from families who had survived by means of field work. The mural is found on the wall near the entrance to the former Colegio building, just outside of the receptionist's office.

In his book Colegio Cesar Chavez, 1973-1983: A Chicano Struggle for Educational Self-Determination, to date the only full-length book about Colegio, author Carlos Maldonado writes that Colegio was often referred to as "the longest running death in history", and that study of Colegio Cesar Chavez will "help promoters of new ethnic institutions to raise questions of feasibility, anticipate problems, and provide direction in the establishment of new and more sophisticated institutions." [12] Maldonado claims that Colegio's staff was small and relatively inexperienced and therefore unprepared for the challenges of starting a new college. Eventually the staff succumbed to infighting. Maldonado also claims that it was difficult to foster an on-campus sense of community among staff and students because Colegio was a college-without-walls program. The author notes that Colegio was founded during a time of downturn in activism in the Chicano Movement. Colegio was founded during a period of growing political conservatism marked by less federal support for cultural programs. Colegio was founded in a small rural town whose population largely disliked Colegio's predecessor of Mount Angel College and therefore saw Colegio as an extension of Mount Angel College. The surrounding community was relatively prejudiced against Mexican Americans. Lastly, Colegio was named in honor of a man many local farm owners found controversial.[13]

College Without Walls mural by Daniel Desiga.

"One of the larger paintings at the colegio depicts a seemingly endless abundantly fertile field. As with so many of the murals, the sun is a significant component; here, it plays just beyond the horizon, with the overall warmth and seductiveness of the image suggesting the promise of an imminent sunrise rather than a sunset. The scene is viewed through a golden portal set on a patio in the foreground and may represent, as PSU’s (Tony) Cabello suggests, the opportunity that is possible for the immigrant to el norte. The painting abuts another portal – the main entrance to the colegio building – providing an ironic contrast to the short-lived promise of opportunity embodied in the colegio’s operation."[14]

On its website the Oregon Historical Society writes, "Structured as a 'college-without-walls,' more than 100 students took classes in Chicano Studies, early childhood development, and adult education. Significant financial and administrative problems caused Colegio to close in 1983. Its history represents the success of a grassroots movement." [15] In an interview with Oregon Public Broadcasting, Joseph Gallegos, an early faculty member of Colegio Cesar Chavez, claims that during the 1970s and 1980s "the Colegio was a critical symbol of our presence, the Latino presence here in the state, and also I think trying to bring attention to the problem the Colegio was trying to address, that Latinos were not getting through the four-year institutions." [16] Cesar Chavez's United Farmworkers union is not present in the state of Oregon. Instead, the main union for farm workers in the state of Oregon is Pineros y Campesinos Unidos del Noroeste. The meetings which led to the formation of PCUN were held at Colegio Cesar Chavez.[17] PCUN's founder, the late Cipriano Ferrel, attended Colegio Cesar Chavez.[18]

" It would be difficult to make the case that Colegio Cesar Chavez played a significant role in the history of U.S. higher education.... As a symbol, however, it was very important. For five years, the Colegio's struggle for survival was a recurring front-page news story in the Pacific Northwest, and its leaders became well known to the public.... While there was more to the Chicano movement in the Pacific Northwest in the mid-1970s than the struggle of the Colegio, no other component of that movement attracted as much public attention." -- May, Glenn Anthony. "Sonny Montes and Mexican American Activism in Oregon." Oregon State University Press. 2011. Page 164. ISBN 978-0-87071-6003. [19]

In an article titled "The USS Non-Violence: Truly honoring Cesar Chavez", Victor Paredes writes that Cesar Chavez cared deeply about education. Paredes concludes, "Thus the greatest honor he may have received during his lifetime was the opening of the Colegio Cesar Chavez in Oregon." [20]

Image gallery

Colegio advertisements

Chicano poetry reading

Four candids of a poetry reading by Chicano poet Alurista[21][22] at Colegio César Chávez, circa 1981. Note mural of Che Guevara on wall.

Community gatherings and various candids

Below are candids of community activities in Colegio, circa early 1980s. Aztec-themed murals can be seen on the walls.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Oregon Story: 1850-2000. Graphic Arts Center Publishing Company (August 5, 2000). Page 114. (ISBN 1-55868-543-X)
  2. ^ Nosotros: The Hispanic People of Oregon (ISBN 1-880377-01-2), p. 58
  3. ^ Board votes on new name: César Chávez School
  4. ^ Stavans, Ilan. "César Chávez (The Ilan Stavans Library of Latino Civilization)." Greenwood. 2010. Page 66. ISBN 0 313 364885.
  5. ^ Gutierrez, Jose Angel. "The Making of a Chicano Militant." The University of Wisconsin Press. 1998. Page 273. ISBN 0-299-15980-9
  6. ^ Levenson, Mark. "STILLED VOICES, PROUD CULTURE: HISPANIC ART THAT DRAWS ON A LEGACY OF ANCIENT CULTURES, MEXICAN MURALISM AND POLITICAL TURMOIL LIES UNSEEN AND UNAPPRECIATED IN THE FORMER COLEGIO CESAR CHAVEZ". The Oregonian ("Northwest" magazine insert). October 25, 1987.
  7. ^ OSU Libraries University Archives, 2006 Accessions Accessed October 9, 2006
  8. ^ José Romero as quoted in Nosotros: The Hispanic People of Oregon (ISBN 1-880377-01-2), page 59
  9. ^ Benedictine Sisters website
  10. ^ "College Without Walls" mural by Designa, on The Evergreen State College website
  11. ^ "Colegio Cesar Chavez" poster by Designa, on The Evergreen State College website
  12. ^ Colegio Cesar Chavez: A Chicano Struggle for Educational Self-Determination (ISBN 0-8153-3631-4)
  13. ^ Colegio Cesar Chavez: A Chicano Struggle for Educational Self-Determination (ISBN 0-8153-3631-4)
  14. ^ Levenson, Mark. "STILLED VOICES, PROUD CULTURE: HISPANIC ART THAT DRAWS ON A LEGACY OF ANCIENT CULTURES, MEXICAN MURALISM AND POLITICAL TURMOIL LIES UNSEEN AND UNAPPRECIATED IN THE FORMER COLEGIO CESAR CHAVEZ". The Oregonian ("Northwest" magazine insert). October 25, 1987.
  15. ^ Oregon Historical Society "Colegio César Chávez was established in 1973 on the site of the former Mt. Angel College and was the only degree-granting institution for Latinos in the nation. Structured as a "college-without-walls," more than 100 students took classes in Chicano studies, early childhood development, and adult education. Significant financial and administrative problems caused Colegio to close in 1983. Its history represents the success of a grassroots movement." Retrieved March 10, 2007
  16. ^ What is Cesar Chavez's Connection to Oregon? by Oregon Public Broadcasting, accessed August 6, 2009
  17. ^ Thelma Guerrero (September 29, 2006). "Short-lived college offers lessons". Statesman Journal.
  18. ^ Celebrating the life, work and vision of Cipriano Ferrel: "Cipriano worked with César Chávez and the United Farmworkers Union (UFW) in California, attended Colegio César Chávez in Mt. Angel, and was a co-founder of the Willamette Valley Immigration Project (WVIP) in 1977 and Pineros y Campesinos Unidos del Noroeste (PCUN) in 1985." Retrieved December 22, 2009.
  19. ^ May, Glenn Anthony. "Sonny Montes and Mexican American Activism in Oregon." Oregon State University Press. 2011. Page 164. ISBN 978-0-87071-6003.
  20. ^ The USS Non-Violence: Truly honoring Cesar Chavez Acessed October 10, 2011
  21. ^ Alurista biography
  22. ^ Wizard of Aztlán

External links


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