January 24, 1705– September 16, 1782), was the stage nameof Carlo Maria Broschi, one of the most famous Italian soprano castratosingers of the 18th century.
Broschi was born in Andria (now in the Italian region of
Apulia) into a family of musicians. As recorded in the baptismal register of the church of S. Nicola in Andria, his father Salvatore was a composer and "maestro di cappella" of the city's cathedral, and his mother, Caterina Barrese, a citizen of Naples. The Duke of Andria, Fabrizio Carafa, a member of one of the most prestigious families of the Neapolitan nobility, honoured Maestro Broschi by taking a leading part in the baptism of his second son, who was christened Carlo Maria Michelangelo Nicola (in later life, Farinelli wrote: "Il Duca d'Andria mi tenne al fonte" - "the Duke of Andria held me at the font"). In 1706 Salvatore also took up the non-musical post of governor of the town of Maratea(on the western coast of what is now Basilicata), and in 1709 that of Terlizzi (some twenty miles south-east of Andria). Unlike many castrati, who came from poor families, Farinelli was "well-to-do", and was related to minor nobility on both sides of the family.
From 1707, the Broschi family lived in the coastal city of Barletta, a few miles from Andria, but at the end of 1711, they made the much longer move to the capital city of
Naples, where, in 1712 Carlo's elder brother Riccardo Broschi, was enrolled at the Conservatory of S. Maria di Loreto, specialising in composition. Carlo had already showed talent as a boy singer, and was now introduced to the most famous singing-teacher in Naples, Nicola Porpora. Already a successful opera composer, in 1715 Porpora was appointed _it. "maestro" at the Conservatory of S. Onofrio, where his pupils included such well-known castrati as Giuseppe Appiani, Felice Salimbeni, and Caffarelli, as well as such distinguished female singers as Regina Mingotti and Vittoria Tesi; Farinelli may well have studied with him privately.
Salvatore Broschi died unexpectedly on
4 November 1717, aged only 36, and it seems likely that the consequent loss of economic security for the whole family provoked the decision, presumably taken by Riccardo, for Carlo to be castrated. As was often the case, an excuse had to be found for this illegal operation, and in Carlo's case it was said to have been necessitated by a fall from a horse. Under Porpora's tuition, his singing progressed rapidly, and at the age of fifteen he made his debut a _it. "serenata" by his master entitled _it. "Angelica e Medoro". The text of this work was the first by the soon-to-be-famous Pietro Trapassi, known as "Metastasio", who became a lifelong friend of the singer - Farinelli remarked that the two of them had made their debuts on the same day, and each frequently referred to the other as his _it. "caro gemello" ("dear twin"). The derivation of Broschi's stage name is not certain, but it was possibly from two rich Neapolitan lawyers, the brothers Farina, who may have sponsored his studies.
Farinelli quickly became famous throughout Italy as _it. "il ragazzo" ("the boy"). In 1722, he first sang in Rome in Porpora's "Eumene" and "Flavio Anicio Olibrio", as well as taking the female lead in "Sofonisba" by Luc'Antonio Predieri - it was common practice for young castrati to appear _fr. "en travesti". All these appearances were greeted with huge public enthusiasm, and an almost legendary story arose that he had to perform an aria with trumpet obbligato, which evolved into a contest between singer and trumpeter. Farinelli surpassed the trumpet player so much in technique and ornamentation that he "was at last silenced only by the acclamations of the audience" (to quote the music historian
Charles Burney– this account cannot be verified one way or the other, since no surviving work which Farinelli is known to have performed contains an aria for soprano with trumpet obbligato).
Career in Europe
In 1724, Farinelli made his first appearance in
Vienna, at the invitation of Pio di Savoia, director of the Imperial Theatre. He spent the following season in Naples. In 1726, he also visited Parmaand Milan, where Johann Joachim Quantzheard him and commented: "Farinelli had a penetrating, full, rich, bright and well-modulated soprano voice, with a range at that time from the A below middle C to the D two octaves above middle C. ... His intonation was pure, his trill beautiful, his breath control extraordinary and his throat very agile, so that he performed the widest intervals quickly and with the greatest ease and certainty. Passagework and all kinds of melismas were of no difficulty to him. In the invention of free ornamentation in adagio he was very fertile."
Farinelli sang at Bologna in 1727, where he met the famous castrato
Antonio Bernacchi, twenty years his senior. In a duet in Orlandini's "Antigona", Farinelli showed off all the beauties of his voice and refinements of his style, executing a number of passages of great virtuosity, which were rewarded with tumultuous applause. Undaunted, Bernacchi repeated every trill, roulade, and cadenza of his young rival, but performing all of them even more exquisitely, and adding variations of his own. Farinelli, admitting defeat, entreated Bernacchi to give him instruction in _it. "grazie sopraffine" ("ultra-refined graces"); Bernacchi agreed.
In 1728 Farinelli sang Torri's "Nicomede" at the Munich court and performed another concert before the Emperor in Vienna. In 1729, during the Carnival season in Venice, he sang in two works by Metastasio: as Arbace in Metastasio's "Catone in Utica" (music by
Leonardo Leo) and Mirteo in "Semiramide Riconosciuta" (music by Porpora). During this period he could really do no wrong - loaded with riches and honours, he was so famous and so formidable as a performer that one rival castrato, Gioacchino Conti ("Gizziello") is said to have fainted away from sheer despondency on hearing him sing. George Frideric Handelwas also keen to engage Farinelli for his company in London, and while in Venice in January 1730, tried unsuccessfully to meet him.
In 1731, Farinelli visited Vienna for a third time. There he was received by the
Holy Roman Emperor, Charles VI, on whose advice, according to the singer's first biographer, Giovenale Sacchi, he modified his style, singing more simply and emotionally. After further seasons in Italy, and another visit to Vienna, during which he sang in oratorios in the Imperial chapel, Farinelli came to Londonin 1734.
Farinelli in London
In London the previous year,
Senesino, a singer who had been a part of Handel's "Second Academy" which performed at the King's Theatre, Haymarket, quarrelled with Handel and established a rival company, "Opera of the Nobility", operating from a theatre in Lincoln's Inn Fields. This company had Porpora as composer and Senesino as principal singer, but had not been a success during its first season of 1733-34. Farinelli, Porpora's most famous pupil, joined the company and made it financially solvent.
He first appeared in "Artaserse", a _it.
pasticciowith music by his brother Riccardo and by Johann Adolph Hasse. He sang the memorable arias "Per questo dolce amplesso" (music by Hasse) and "Son qual nave" (music by Broschi), while Senesino sang "Pallido il sole" (music by "Hasse"). Of "Per questo dolce amplesso", Charles Burneyreports: "Senesino had the part of a furious tyrant, and Farinelli that of an unfortunate hero in chains; but in the course of the first air, the captive so softened the heart of the tyrant, that Senesino, forgetting his stage-character, ran to Farinelli and embraced him in his own." "Son qual nave", on the other hand, was composed by Riccardo Broschi as a special showpiece for his brother's virtuosic skills. Burney described it thus: "The first note he sung was taken with such delicacy, swelled by minute degrees to such an amazing volume, and afterwards diminished in the same manner to a mere point, that it was applauded for full five minutes. After this he set off with such brilliancy and rapidity of execution, that it was difficult for the violins of those days to keep pace with him."
Both the cognoscenti and the public adored him. The librettist Paolo Rolli, a close friend and supporter of Senesino, commented: "Farinelli has surprised me so much that I feel as though I had hitherto heard only a small part of the human voice, and now have heard it all. He has besides, the most amiable and polite manners ...". Some fans were more unrestrained: one titled lady was so carried away that, from a theatre box, she famously exclaimed: "One God, one Farinelli!" and was immortalised in a detail of Plate II of
William Hogarth's "The Rake's Progress" (she may also appear in Plate IV of his series "Marriage à la mode" of 1745).
Though Farinelli's success was enormous, neither the Nobility Opera nor Handel's company was able to sustain the public's interest, which waned rapidly. Though his official salary was £1500 for a season, gifts from admirers probably increased this to something more like £5000, an enormous sum at the time. Farinelli was by no means the only singer to receive such large amounts, which were unsustainable in the long term. As one contemporary observer remarked: "within these two years we have seen even Farinelli sing to an audience of five-and-thirty pounds". Nonetheless, he was still under contract in London in the summer of 1737 when he received a summons, via Sir Thomas Fitzgerald, Secretary of the Spanish Embassy there, to visit the Spanish court.
At the court of Spain
Apparently intending to make only a brief visit to the Continent, Farinelli called at Paris on his way to Madrid, singing at Versailles to King
Louis XVon 9 July. Louis XV gave him his portrait set in diamonds, and 500 Louis d'or. On 15 July he left for Spain, arriving about a month later. Elisabetta Farnese, the Queen, had come to believe that Farinelli's voice might be able to cure the severe depression of her husband, King Philip V (contemporary physicians, such as the Queen's doctor Giuseppi Cervi, believed in music therapy). On 25 August 1737, Farinelli was named Chamber Musician to the king, and _sp. "criado familiar" (this translates approximately as "honorary member of the Royal Family"). He never sang again in public.
Farinelli became a royal favourite and very influential at court. For the remaining nine years of Philip's life, Farinelli gave nightly private concerts to the royal couple. He also sang for other members of the royal family and organised private performances by them, and by professional musicians in the royal palaces. In 1738 he arranged for an entire Italian opera company to visit Madrid, beginning a fashion for "
opera seria" in the Spanish capital. The Coliseo of the royal palace of Buen Retiro was remodelled, and became Madrid's only opera house.
On the accession of Philip's son, Ferdinand VI, Farinelli's influence became even greater. Ferdinand was a keen musician, and his wife, Barbara of Portugal, nearly a musical fanatic (in 1728 she had appointed
Domenico Scarlatti, as her harpsichord teacher; the musicologist Ralph Kirkpatrickacknowledges Farinelli's correspondence as providing "most of the direct information about Scarlatti that has transmitted itself to our day"). The relationship between singer and monarchs was personally close: he and the queen sang duets together, and the king accompanied him on the harpsichord. Farinelli took charge of all spectacles and court entertainments. He was himself also officially received into the ranks of the nobility, being made a Knight of the Order of Calatravain 1750, an honour of which he was enormously proud. Although much courted by diplomats, Farinelli seems to have managed to keep out of politics.
Retirement and death
In 1759, Ferdinand was succeeded by his half-brother Charles III, who was no lover of music. Charles was the son of Elisabetta Farnese, who had never forgiven Farinelli for his decision to remain at court after Philip V's death, rather than following her into internal exile. It was clear that Farinelli would now have to leave Spain, though he was allowed a generous state pension. He retired to Bologna, where in 1732 he had acquired a property and citizenship. Though rich and still famous, much feted by local notables and visited by such notable figures as Burney,
Mozartand Casanova, he was lonely in his old age, having outlived many of his friends and former colleagues. One distinguished friend of his latter years was the music historian, Giovanni Battista (known as "Padre") Martini. He also continued his correspondence with Metastasio, court poet at Vienna, dying a few months after him. In his will, Farinelli asked that he be buried in the mantle of the order of Calatrava, and was interred in the cemetery of the Capuchin monastery of Santa Croce in Bologna. His estate included gifts from royalty, a large collection of paintings including works by Velázquez, Murillo and Jusepe de Ribera, as well as portraits of his royal patrons, and several of himself, one by his friend Jacopo Amigoni. He also had a collection of keyboard instruments in which he took great delight, especially a piano made at Florence in 1730 (called in the will _it. "cembalo a martellini"), and violins by Stradivariusand Amati.
His original place of burial was destroyed during the Napoleonic wars, and in 1810 Farinelli's great-niece Maria Carlotta Pisani had his remains transferred to the cemetery of La Certosa in Bologna. Farinelli's immediate heir, his nephew Matteo Pisani, sold Farinelli's house in 1798. (It later became the headquarters of a sugar factory, and was demolished in 1949, having been much damaged by bombardment during the second World War.) Maria Carlotta bequeathed many of Farinelli's letters to Bologna's University Library and was buried in the same grave as Farinelli in 1850.
Farinelli's other musical activities
Farinelli not only sang, but like most musicians of his time, was a competent harpsichordist. In old age, he learned to play the
viola d'amore. He occasionally composed, writing a cantata of farewell to London (entitled _it. "Ossequiosissimo ringraziamento", for which he also wrote the text), and a few songs and arias, including one dedicated to Ferdinand VI.
Farinelli Study Centre
Farinelli lived in Bologna from 1761 until his death. The Farinelli Study Centre ( _it. "Centro Studi Farinelli") was opened in Bologna in 1998. Major events and achievements include:
* The restoration of Farinelli's grave in the Certosa of Bologna (2000)
* An historical exhibition _it. "Farinelli a Bologna" (2001 and 2005)
* The inauguration of a City Park in the name of Farinelli, near the site where the singer lived in Bologna (2002)
* An international symposium _it. "Il Farinelli e gli evirati cantori" on the occasion of Farinelli's 300th anniversary of his birth (2005)
* An official publication _it. "Il fantasma del Farinelli" (2005)
* The disinterment of Farinelli at the Certosa of Bologna (2006)
Farinelli's remains were disinterred from the Certosa cemetery on
12 July 2006. The stacking of the bones had degraded the condition of Farinelli's remains, but these included his jawbone, several teeth, parts of his skull and almost all of the major bones. Florentine antiquarian Alberto Bruschi and Luigi Verdi, Secretary of the Farinelli Study Centre, co-ordinator and general manager of the project, promoted the exhumation. The next day Carlo Vitali of the Farinelli Study Centre stated that the major bones were "long and sturdy, which would correspond with Farinelli's official portraits, as well as the castrati's reputation for being unusually tall." Maria Giovanna Belcastro of the AnthropologyInstitute of Bologna University, Gino Fornaciari, paleoanthropologist of the University of Pisaand engineer David Howard of York Universityare charged with deriving such new data on Farinelli and his lifestyle, habits and possible diseases, as well as the physiology of a castrato, as can be retrieved from these remains. Their research methods will include X-rays, CAT scans and DNA sampling.
"Reincarnations" of Farinelli
A film, "Farinelli", directed by
Gérard Corbiau, was made about Farinelli's life in 1994. This takes considerable dramatic licence with history, emphasising the importance of Farinelli's brother and reducing Porpora's role, while Handel becomes an antagonist; the singer's time in Spain is ignored almost entirely. Farinelli's supposed sexual exploits are a major element of the film's plot. Though cinematically effective, their basis in reality has not been established.
The film is not the first dramatic work to take Farinelli's life as its source material. He appears as a character in the opera _fr. "La Part du Diable", composed by
Daniel Auberto a libretto by Eugène Scribe, and has the title-role in an opera by the English composer John Barnett, first performed at Drury Lanein 1839, where his part is, oddly, written for a tenor (this work is itself an adaptation of the anonymous _fr. "Farinelli, ou le Bouffe du Roi", premiered in Paris in 1835). More recent operas include Matteo d'Amico's _it. "Farinelli, la voce perduta" (1996) and _de. "Farinelli, oder die Macht des Gesanges" by Siegfried Matthus(1998).
* Heriot, A: "The castrati in Opera" (London, 1956), pp 95–110
* Cappelletto, S: _it. "La voce perduta" (Turin, 1995); the most recent biography of the singer
* Pérez Samper, M A: _es. "Isabel de Farnesio" (Barcelona, 2003), pp 387–397
* "Farinelli" (British Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies; vol 28, no 3 (Oxford, 2005); the most recent collection of articles about the singer
* Crow, C: "Orchestration… Or Castration" (History Today, September 2006; vol 56, no 9, pp 4–5)
* [http://www.comune.bologna.it/iperbole/farinelli Farinelli Study Centre]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/5171892.stm Castrato superstar disinterred] (Retrieved
8 May 2008)
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Look at other dictionaries:
Farinelli — Portrait de Farinelli par Giaquinto Corrado (1755) Nom de naissance Carlo Broschi … Wikipédia en Français
Farinelli — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Farinelli, retratado por Corrado Giaquinto, c. 1753. Farinelli, sobrenombre por el que era conocido Carlo Broschi (Apulia, 24 de enero de 1705 – Bolonia; 16 de septiembre de 1782), cantante castrato … Wikipedia Español
Farinelli — Farinelli, eigentlich Carlo Broschi (* 24. Januar 1705 in Andria; † 16. September 1782 in Bologna) war ein italienischer Kastratensänger. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben 2 Nachwelt 3 Literatur … Deutsch Wikipedia
Farinelli — Farinelli, Arturo * * * orig. Carlo Broschi (24 ene. 1705, Andria, Reino de Nápoles–15 jul. 1782, Bolonia). Cantante castrato italiano. Después de su castración, estudió con el compositor Nicola Porpora (n. 1686–m. 1768) y debutó en 1720.… … Enciclopedia Universal
Farinelli — Farinelli, 1) (eigentlich Carlo Broschi), geb. 1705 in Neapel; Castrat u. Sänger, machte Kunstreisen durch Italien, Deutschland. Frankreich, England (wo er mit 5000 Pfd. Sterl. an Porporas Theater engagirt war) u. Spanien, wo er den König Philipp … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Farinelli — Farinelli, Carlo, Sänger, s. Broschi … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Farinelli — Farinelli, Carlo, berühmter Sänger des vor. Jahrh., Castrat, geb. 1705 zu Neapel, kam nach London, 1737 nach Madrid, wurde Lieblingssänger Philipps V., dessen Schwermuth er durch Gesang heilte u. gewann die Gunst des Königs in solchem Grade, daß… … Herders Conversations-Lexikon
Farinelli — /far euh nel ee/; It. /fah rddee nel lee/, n. Carlo /kahr loh/; It. /kahrdd law/, (Carlo Broschi), 1705 82, Italian operatic male soprano. * * * orig. Carlo Broschi born Jan. 24, 1705, Andria, Kingdom of Naples died July 15, 1782, Bologna Italian … Universalium
Farinelli — I Farinẹlli, eigentlich Carlo Broschi [ brɔski], italienischer Sänger (Kastrat), * Andria 24. 1. 1705, ✝ Bologna 16. 9. 1782; studierte u. a. bei N. Porpora und wurde nach seinem ersten öffentlichen Auftreten in Neapel (1720) bald bekannt.… … Universal-Lexikon
Farinelli — Il Castrato Drame musical de Gérard Corbiau, avec Stefano Dionisi, Enrico Lo Verso, Elsa Zylberstein. Pays: France et Italie Date de sortie: 1994 Technique: couleurs Durée: 1 h 56 Résumé Castré à 10 ans, Farinelli a deux trésors … Dictionnaire mondial des Films