Archbishop of Caesarea

The Archbishop of Caesarea was one of the major suffragans of the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem during the Crusades.

The diocese was an ancient one, established upon one of the first Christian communities ever created that which was formed by St. Peter and St. Paul. Records of the community are dated as far back as the 2nd century. During the Roman period, it was the metropolis of the diocese of Palaestina Prima. Until the establishment of the Patriarch of Jerusalem, it was subject to the Patriarch of Antioch. Following the schism between Constantinople and Rome in 1054, the community was an Greek Orthodox diocese, with only a marginal Roman Catholic community. During the crusader period, the community became a Catholic community and remained as one until the Mamluks destroyed it.

The diocese suffered a troubled history following the collapse of the Eastern Roman Empire in the 7th century. The city was raided by the Persians in the early 7th century and following the conquest of the Holy Land by the Islamic armies in the 7th century, the diocese and city suffered tremendously and steadily declined in size and importance. Nonetheless, it remained overwhelmingly Christian, and in the absence of imperial oversight, its independence increased and the archbishop became the effective ruler of the area. By the 9th century there was a substantial colony of Frankish settlers established by Emperor Charlemagne to facilitate Latin pilgrimages. However, by the 10th century as periodic Islamic persecution continued and the aura of Byzantine Imperial authority made a resurgence, the diocese fell under the influence of the Patriarch of Constantinople for protection and supervision and increasingly fell under Byzantine authority. Therefore, in the aftermath of the schism in 1054, the diocese became subject to the Greek Orthodox rite.

When Caesarea was captured by the crusaders from the Muslims in 1101, the Frankish community vastly increased in size and a Latin archbishop was established. Under the crusaders, the diocese increased over time to ten suffragan bishops, including the bishop of Sebastea. During the remainder of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem often served first as archbishop of Caesarea, or of Tyre.

There was a legend that the Holy Grail had been discovered in Caesarea; the artifact was later taken to Paris.

Bishops of Caesarea

*Theoktistos (216-258)
*Agapius (???-306)
*Eusebius Pamphili (ca. 313-339/340)
*Acacius 340-366
*Theoktistos
*Gelasius of Cyzicus
*John the Khozibite
*Anastasius

Archbishops of Caesarea

*Baldwin (1101-1107)
*Ebremer (1107-1123?)
*Gaudentius (c. 1140)
*Baldwin II (?-1156?)
*Harvey (1157-1173)
*Heraclius (1173-1180)
*Monachus (1181-1194)
*Peter (c. 1207)
*Peter II (c. 1230)
*Lociaumes (1244-1266)

"unknown"
*Sigismund Albicus
*Celio Piccolomini (1656-1665?)
*Federico Baldeschi Colonna (1665-1675?)
*Savo Millini (1675-1683)
*Giacomo Cantelmi (1683-1690)
*Lorenzo Casoni (1690-1711?)
*Giorgio Spinola (1711-1721?)
*Prospero Marefoschi (1721-1732)
*"vacant"
*Ignazio Michele Crivelli (1739-1764?)
*Luigi Valenti Gonzaga (1764-1808?)

"unknown"

*Antonio Agliardi (titular, 1884-1896)
*Giuseppe Maria Graniello (1892-1893)
*"vacant"
*Pietro Gasparri (1898-1907)
*"vacant"
*Benedetto Aloisi Masella (1919-1920?)
*Luigi Cardinal Maglione (1920-1935)
*Luigi Cardinal Traglia (1936-1960)
*Dino Cardinal Staffa (1960-1967)
*"vacant"

External links

* [http://www.catholic-hierarchy.org/diocese/d3c26.html Caesarea in Palaestina (Titular See) from Catholic-Hierarchy.org]
* [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03134b.htm Caesarea Palaestinae] from the Catholic Encyclopedia


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