"Sponsus" or "The Bridegroom" is a
medieval Latinand Occitandramatic treatment of Jesus' parable of the ten virgins. A liturgical play designed for Easter Vigil, it was composed probably in Gasconyor western Languedocin the mid-eleventh century. Its scriptural basis is found in the Gospel of Matthew(25:1–13), but it also draws on the " Song of Songs" and the Patristics, perhaps Jerome's "Adversus Jovinianum". In certain respects—the portrayal of the merchants, the spilling of the oil, the implicit questioning of accepted theodicy—it is original and dramatically powerful.
"Sponsus" is the Latin word for groom/husband and is a
cognateof the English "spouse". The feminine form is "sponsa" (bride/wife).
The play opens with an unnamed narrative voice explaining the
allegoryof the parable, the identity of the bridegroom with Jesus, and the Gospel. This unnamed voice has been identified with both Gabrieland the Church ("Ecclesia") personified. The next speaker of the play, who uses Occitan, is probably Gabriel, though this rubricis fragmentary and identifies only those whom he addresses: the "prudentes", prudent ones. The angel tells the five wise virgins—the five foolish ones have presumably fallen asleep after "Ecclesia"'s more general caution—to attend a groom, Jesus Christ, who came to save them from their sins. He gives them the ominous warning "Gaire no.i / dormet": "Don't fall asleep!", which is repeated several times.
After Gabriel's message, the foolish virgins (recognised from the rubric "fatue") enter and announce that they have spilled the oil for their lamps. The spilling of the oil was probably acted out for dramatic effect, though the bible knows nothing of it. The foolish then plead with the wise to share their oil, capping each
strophewith the lamenting refrain "Dolentas, chaitivas, trop i avem dormit": "We, wretched in our grief, have slept too long!" The wise virgins turn them away without pity, inviting them to buy oil from the merchants nearby. The foolish (who now seem wise) only blame themselves, but the merchants, who are presented sympathetically, tell them that they cannot help them and advise them to beseech their sisters in God's name. The merchants' eight lines, which are significant to the dramatic movement, are given in Occitan without any comparable Latin. The dramatist builds tension between the foolish, who are repentant, the wise, who are condescending, and the merchants, who are sympathetic to the foolish and trusting of the charity of the wise. The text's English translator, Peter Dronke, praises the dramatist's clever portrayal and insights into human nature.
The foolish do not follow the merchants' advice, having been twice rebuffed by their wise sisters. The drama ends when "modo veniat sponsus": "Now let the bridegroom arrive." "Christus" arrives as bridegroom and promptly dismisses the foolish virgins' pleas, sending them away. They are then taken by
demons to Hell: the earliest attested appearance of demons in western drama.Davidson, p. 310.] Christ's lines are sung to the same melody as "Ecclesia"'s and the drama closes where it has begun, with the foretold penalty for negligence being meted out by the agents of Hell. It is possible that the play was acted above the stairwell that led to the cryptand that a braziermay have sufficed as an inferno for the maidens to be led into by grotesquedemons. There is a possible "serio-comic" combination of gravity and levity in the final scenes of the play. [Dronke, pp. 7–9, who also uses "fearsome-comic", derived from Robert Weimann's "furchtbare Komik".] On the other hand, Davidson suggests that the demons must have been protrayed in grim seriousness as personifications of real human fears.
Language and style
"Sponsus" is one of the earliest fully dramatic accounts of the parable of the virgins. The pitiless treatment of the foolish virgins, who are portrayed sympathetically, was probably designed to question the official interpretation of the Scriptures. A later medieval German play on the same theme and style, the "
Ludus de decem virginibus" (the Eisenacher "Zehnjungfrauenspiele"), so disturbed the landgrave of Thuringia, Frederick I, and caused him to doubt God's mercy, that he took to his bed ill on 4 May 1321. [Dronke, p. xxi; Davidson, p. 302.]
The manuscript in which "Sponsus" is preserved is in the
Bibliothèque nationale de France, Latin 1139, the Saint-Martial codex, folios 53r–55v. It was copied in the late eleventh century in or around Limoges, since the Occitan appears to be the Limousin dialect, though originally it may have been another dialect. [Dronke suggests Provençal, which is at odds with its being from "southwestern France" (p. 9).] It was probably composed in the 1050s or 1060s.
Scholarship is divided over whether the Latin and Occitan parts of "Sponsus" were written at the same time (Peter Dronke) or whether the Occitan parts are later additions (D'Arco Silvio Avalle). The latter school of thought regards them as explanations ("
glossae" or "farcitures") of the Latin. Regardless, the vernacular Occitan portions were probably intended for the unlearned audience, who would not be familiar with Latin, as the clerical audience would. Dronke believes the dramatist to be more powerful in his native tongue, and it is in that language that Christ delivers the final lines of the play.
Melody and poetry
The music of "Sponsus" has been praised by Rafaello Monteross for "redeem [ing] the anonymous poet's colourless paraphrase of the gospel text from its generic inexpressiveness." ["Shakespeare und die Tradition des Volkstheaters" (Berlin: 1967), quoted in Dronke, p. 9.] The melodic phrasing is varied, but only four different melodies are used for the entire play, though none of them is liturgical, and none form
motifs. The entire score is original and is recorded in Aquitainian neumes.
The strophic structure of the play is consistent throughout. The two principal metres are fifteen-syllable lines (for the Latin), with antecendents in classical
trochaicseptenarii, and ten-syllable lines (used for both Latin and Occitan), with predecessors in late antiqueand Merovingian hymns. The late antique hymn "Apparebit repentina dies magna domini" may have been an inspiration. [Dronke, p. 10.]
The combination of original music, unique theme, and implicit questioning of traditional theodicies have led to the suggestion that the play may stand at the very beginning of non-liturgical and vernacular drama in Europe. [Hiely, p. 267, remarks on this, while pointing out that the play is found in a large collection of liturgical works.]
*Davidson, Clifford. "On the Uses of Iconographic Study: The Example of the "Sponsus" From St. Martial of Limoges." "Comparative Drama", 13:4 (1979/1980:Winter), pp. 300–319.
*Dronke, Peter, ed. and trans. (1994). "Nine Medieval Latin Plays". Cambridge Medieval Classics I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0 521 39537 2.
*Hiley, David (1993). "Western Plainchant: A Handbook". Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0 198 16572 2.
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Look at other dictionaries:
Sponsus — (lat.), Bräutigam … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Sponsus — (lat.), Bräutigam; Sponsa, Braut … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Sponsus — Spọn|sus [ʃp…, sp…], der; , …si [lat. sponsus, ↑ Sponsalien]: (in Kirchenbüchern) lat. Bez. für: Bräutigam. * * * Spọn|sus [ʃp..., sp...], der; , ...si [lat. sponsus, ↑Sponsalien]: (in Kirchenbüchern) lat. Bez. für Bräutigam … Universal-Lexikon
Sponsus — Spon|sus [ʃp..., sp...] der; , Spọnsi <aus lat. sponsus> in Kirchenbüchern lat. Bez. für Bräutigam … Das große Fremdwörterbuch
Sponsus — Brudgom … Danske encyklopædi
SPONSA ut et SPONSUS — SPONSA, ut et SPONSUS inde dicti Verrio Flacco, apud Pomp. Festum, quod ςπονδὰς interpositis rebus divinis facerent: Ulpiano vero ac Florentino, a sponsiombus vel spondendo, quod Veter. stipulari et spondere Uxores solerent; quam sententiam ipse… … Hofmann J. Lexicon universale
NUPTIALE Epulum seu Laetitia epularis — apud Hebraeos, Deductionem sequebatur. Epulum enim a Sponso sive caelibe ante sive viduo, sive uxori etiamnum superstiti coniuncto, laete lauteque celebrandum erat, per dies a Deductione minimum septem, ubi Virgo erat Sponsa (exemplô vetustissimô … Hofmann J. Lexicon universale
DEDUCTIO Nuptialis — [Gap desc: Hebrew] seu Deductio in Domum aut Thalamum Hebraeis dicebantur Nuptiae, a Sponsalibus discriminatae, cum viz. post haec Nuptiae perfectae fiebant ac absolutae. Cuius discriminis vestigia apparent in lege illa militari Deut. c. 20. v. 7 … Hofmann J. Lexicon universale
époux — époux, ouse [ epu, uz ] n. • v. 1050 au sens 2; lat. sponsus, sponsa 1 ♦ Dr. ou littér. Personne unie à une autre par le mariage. Prendre pour époux, pour épouse. ⇒ femme, mari. Choisir pour épouse. Accepter de prendre qqn pour époux. Époux… … Encyclopédie Universelle
épousailles — [ epuzaj ] n. f. pl. • espousailles XIIe; lat. sponsalia « fiançailles », de sponsus « époux » ♦ Vx ou plaisant Célébration d un mariage. ⇒ mariage, noce. ● épousailles nom féminin pluriel (latin sponsalia, fiançailles, de sponsus, époux) Vieux… … Encyclopédie Universelle