List of New Testament Latin manuscripts

Latin manuscripts of the New Testament are handwritten copies of translations from the Greek originals. Translations of the New Testament are called "versions". They are important in textual criticism, because sometimes versions provide evidence (called a "witness") to an earlier "reading" of the Greek than Greek manuscripts of the same age. Versions are often "independent" witnesses to readings, because some variations (accidental or deliberate) were reproduced only within one language, without "crossing back over" to the other. For an interesting example of a possible exception see Comma Johanneum.

Latin manuscripts are divided into Old Latin and Vulgate. Old Latin manuscripts (also called Vetus Latina or Itala) are so called not because they are written in Old Latin, but because they are old and written in Latin—frequently bad Latin. No Old Latin New Testament exists, and indeed such a work probably never existed: unlike the Vulgate, the Vetus Latina tradition reflects many distinct, similar, and not entirely independent, translations of individual portions of the New Testament, extending back to the time of the original Greek autographs. ["There is no such thing as a uniform version of the New Testament in Latin prior to Jerome's Vulgate." Elliott (1997:202).] In 382 AD Jerome began a revision of the existing Vetus Latina into contemporary Latin, corrected against manuscripts in the original Greek and Hebrew. Jerome's version is known as the Vulgate, because it was in the "vulgar" (or "popular") Latin of everyday speech. [Metzger, UBS4.]

Clarification

Identification

The list of Old Latin manuscripts below is based on citations in "Novum Testamentum Graece" (NA27) and "The Greek New Testament" (UBS4). Each manuscript is identified first by its siglum (the first column, s., in the table), as given by the critical apparatus of the editions mentioned. These sigla are related to content, so are not unique. For example, the letter "t" refers to Codex Bernensis in the gospels, but Liber Comicus elsewhere. So sigla need disambiguation. In the table below, this is done by providing a full name. Additionally, the standard unique serial number for each manuscript is provided. Taken together sigla, name and number provide unambiguous identification, and some further information regarding the content, history and relationship of manuscripts.

Sigla, names and numbers exist to serve different scholastic purposes. Sigla, in the context of reference to an "original" document, provide unique and concise identification of witnesses to the text of that original, suited to minimizing the space taken by citation in a critical apparatus. Names, on the other hand, normally refer to specific handwritten "volumes" (often including other text), either as originally bound or in their current form. Names are typically Latin, and can refer to the place of composition (Codex Sangallensis, "Book from St. Gall") or rediscovery (Stonyhurst Gospel), the current location (Liber Ardmachanus, "Book of Armagh"), a famous owner (Codex Bezae, "Theodore Beza's Book"), a volume's function (Liber Comicus, "The Lectionary"), or can even refer to physical characteristics of a volume (Codex Gigas, "The Huge Book" or Codex Aureus, "The Gold Book"). The Book of Mulling is also known as Liber Moliensis after the name of the scribe, as tradition has it.

The numerical system, the Beuron numbers, is designed to replace the system of sigla, in providing unambiguous identification of witnesses in academic usage. The most commonly cited manuscripts of the New Testament have been allocated numbers from a range, depending on the portions of the New Testament for which they are witnesses. If a manuscript is a witness for more than one portion, it is allocated the lowest applicable number. For example, Codex Bezae (d) is a witness for the Gospels (Gosp), the Book of Acts and the General epistles (Gen), but is allocated only the single number—5.
* Manuscripts 1-49 are witnesses to one or more Gospels.
* Manuscripts 50-74 are witnesses to Acts, General epistles or the Book of Revelation (Rev).
* Manuscripts 75-89 are witnesses to Pauline epistles (Paul).
* Manuscripts 91-96 are glosses in Spanish Bibles.

Other issues

NA27 and UBS4 interact with the Vulgate witness only at the level of critical editions, not at the level of manuscripts themselves. The manuscripts that provide evidence of Jerome's version are identified in the apparatus of "Biblia Sacra Vulgata" (the Stuttgart edition of the Vulgate).

In practice, citation of manuscript evidence implies any of several methodologies. The ideal, but most costly, method is physical inspection of the manuscript itself; alternatively, published photographs or facsimile editions may be inspected. This method involves paleographical analysis—interpretation of handwriting, incomplete letters and even reconstruction of lacunae. More typically, editions of manuscripts are consulted, which have done this paleographical work already. The lists below note the names of the editors of standard editions of the manuscripts listed. As a last resort, sometimes a critical edition, that cites readings of a manuscript in its apparatus, may be offered as authority for the text of the manuscript at these points.

A final "caveat" is necessary, in that the division between the Old Latin and Jerome's version can sometimes be discerned within a specific volume. For example, Codex Sangermanensis (g1 ) is Old Latin in Matthew, but Vulgate in the rest of the Gospels. The text of John in Codex Veronensis is even part Old Latin and part Vulgate. Hence, some codices are cited as manuscript witnesses "both" to the Vetus Latina and to the Vulgate.

Old Latin

The table below employs the following conventions.
* Dates are estimated to the nearest 50 year increment.
* Content is given to the nearest book (sometimes chapter); verses and lacunae are not listed.
* Editions are those consulted by UBS4; in many cases, better editions are also available.
* Locations are given in anglicised form, unless linked to sources in other languages.

Editions

;by editor

For precision, publication data is given in the language of the title page of the edition. To make this information comprehensible to the English language reader, links are provided to English language article titles, where necessary and possible.

When a single editor is responsible for more than one edition, these are listed in alphabetical order of the sigla of the relevant manuscripts. In such cases, if the manuscript is not readily identifiable from the title, its name (siglum and number) are appended after the citation.

* Buchanan, Edgar S. "The Epistles and Apocalypse from the Codex Harleianus". Sacred Latin Texts 1. London, 1912.
* Buchanan, Edgar S. "The Four Gospels from the Codex Corbeiensis, together with fragments of the Catholic Epistles, of the Acts and of the Apocalypse from the Fleury Palimpsest". Old Latin Biblical Texts 5. Oxford, 1907. [Codex Floriacensis (h 55)]
* Bruyne, Donatien de. "Les Fragments de Freising— épitres de S. Paul et épttres catholiques". Collectanea Biblica Latina 5. Rome, 1921. fr icon
* Fischer, Bonifatius. "Ein neuer Zeuge zum westlichen Text der Apostelgeschichte". Pages 33–63 in JN Birdsall and RW Thomson (eds). "Biblical and Patristic Studies in Memory of Robert Pierce Casey". Freiburg im Breisgau: Verlag Herder, 1963. de icon
* Frede, HJ. "Alttateinische Paulus-Handschriften". Freiburg im Breisgau: Verlag Herder, 1964. de icon
* Gwynn, John. "Liber Ardmachanus: The Book of Armagh". Dublin, 1913.
* Jülicher, Adolf, Walter Matzkow and Kurt Aland (eds). "Itala: Das Neue Testament in altlateinischer Überliefung". 4 volumes [Matthew–John] . Berlin: Walter de Gruyter and Company, 1938–1972. de icon
* Matthaei, CF. Novum Testamentum, XII, "tomis distinctum Graece et Latine". Textum denuo recensuit, varias lectiones nunquam antea vulgatas ex centum codicibus MSS.... 12 volumes. Rigae, 1782-1788. la icon
* Matthaei, CF. Novum Testamentum, XIII. "Epistolarum Pauli Codex Graecus cum versione Latino veteri vulgo Antehieronymiana olim Buernerianus nunc Bibliothecae Electoralis Dresdeiisis ..." Lipsiae, 1791. la icon
* Morin, Germain. "Etudes, textes, découvertes". Contributions a la litterature et a l'histoire des douxe premiers siècles. Anécdota Maredsolana, 2e Série 1. Paris: Abbaye de Maredsous, 1913. fr icon [Codex Schlettstadtensis (r 57)]
* Morin, Germain. "Liber Comicus sive Lectionarius missae quo Toletana Ecclesia ante annos mille et ducentos utebatur". Anécdota Maredsolana 1. Marodsoli, 1893. fr icon
* Sanders, HA. 'The Text of Acts in Ms. 146 of the University of Michigan'. "Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society" 77 (1937): –.
* de:Schultze, Victor. "Codex Waldeccensis". München, 1904.
* Scrivener, FHA. "An Exact Transcript of the Codex Augiensis". Cambridge and London, 1859.
* Souter, Alexander. "Miscellanea Ehrle 1". Studi e Testi 137. Roma, 1924.
* Tischendorf, Constantin von. "Codex Claromontanus". Lipsiae, 1852.
* Tischendorf, Constantin von. "Codex Laudianus, sive Actus apostolorum Graeces et Latine". Monumenta sacra inedita, nova collectio 9. Lipsiae, 1870.
* Tischendorf, Constantin von. "Anecdota Sacra et Profana". Editio repetita, emendata, aucta. Lipsiae, 1861. [Codex Guelferbytanus (gue 79)]
* White, Henry Julian. "Portions of the Acts of the Apostles, of the Epistles of St. James, and of the First Epistle of St. Peter from the Bobbio Palimpsest". Old Latin Biblical Texts 4. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1897.
* Wordsworth, John; Henry Julian White and others. "Novum Testamentum Domini Nostri Iesu Christi Latine Secundum Editionem Sancti Hieronymi". 3 volumes. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1889–1954.

Jerome's version

See also

* List of New Testament papyri
* List of New Testament uncials
* List of New Testament minuscules
* List of New Testament lectionaries

Notes

Bibliography

* Fischer, Bonifatius. de icon 'Varianten zu Matthäus'. In "Vetus Latina: Aus der Geschichte der lateinischen Bibel" 13. Freiburg im Breisgau: Verlag Herder, 1988.
* Fischer, Bonifatius. de icon 'Varianten zu Markus'. In "Vetus Latina: Aus der Geschichte der lateinischen Bibel" 15. Freiburg im Breisgau: Verlag Herder, 1989.
* Fischer, Bonifatius. de icon 'Varianten zu Lukas'. In "Vetus Latina: Aus der Geschichte der lateinischen Bibel" 17. Freiburg im Breisgau: Verlag Herder, 1990.
* Fischer, Bonifatius. de icon 'Varianten zu Johannes'. In "Vetus Latina: Aus der Geschichte der lateinischen Bibel" 18. Freiburg im Breisgau: Verlag Herder, 1991.
* Gryson, Roger. de icon fr icon "Altlateinische Handschriften/Manuscrits Vieux Latins 1-275 Vetus Latina" 1/2A. Freiburg im Breisgau: Verlag Herder, 1999.
* Gryson, Roger. de icon fr icon "Altlateinische Handschriften/Manuscrits Vieux Latins 300-485 Vetus Latina" 1/2B. Freiburg im Breisgau: Verlag Herder, 2004.
* Sabatier, Pierre. la icon "Bibliorum Sacrorum Latinae Versiones antiquae seu Vetus Italica". Remis, 1743.

External links

;published in print

* Elliott, James Keith. en icon " [http://books.google.com.au/books?id=xNxvjJ5RhSsC&dq=%22a+bibliography+of+greek+new+testament+manuscripts%22&pg=PP1&ots=xfiHV_nXQ-&sig=3HaSG_nFVSAWEUo_PtSZE_O2tXY&hl=en&prev=http://www.google.com.au/search%3Fhl%3Den%26as_q%3D%26as_epq%3DA%2BBibliography%2Bof%2BGreek%2BNew%2BTestament%2BManuscripts%26as_oq%3D%26as_eq%3D%26num%3D10%26lr%3D%26as_filetype%3D%26as_sitesearch%3D%26as_qdr%3Dall%26as_rights%3D%26as_occt%3Dany%26cr%3D%26as_nlo%3D%26as_nhi%3D%26safe%3Dimages&sa=X&oi=print&ct=title&cad=one-book-with-thumbnail A Bibliography of Greek New Testament Manuscripts] ". 2nd edition. Society for the Study of the New Testament Monograph Series 109. Cambridge University Press, 2000. ISBN 0521770122
* Elliott, James Keith. en icon ' [http://books.google.com.au/books?id=V2VVpNZ0N9sC&pg=PA198&lpg=PA198&dq=+%22'Translations+of+the+New+Testament+into+Latin'%22&source=web&ots=eM8I7zebiQ&sig=0ymDHo-llMHWLuR0j4sv-cUNCg4&hl=en Translations of the New Testament into Latin] '. In Widmen Dieses and others (eds). "Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt" (ANRW) II.26.1: 198-245. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1997.
* Elliott, James Keith. en icon ' [http://www.jstor.org/pss/1560420 Old Latin Manuscripts in Printed Editions of the Greek New Testament] '. "Novum Testamentum" 26 (1984): 225–248.
* Lasala, Fernando de. it icon " [http://www.unigre.it/pubblicazioni/lasala/WEB/ Paleografia Latina] : Trascrizioni, commenti e tavole". 2nd revised and expanded edition. Rome: Pontifical Gregorian University Press, 2001.

;published on web
* [http://www.iohannes.com/vetuslatina/ Vetus Latina Iohannes] la iconen icon — edited by PH Burton, J. Balserak, Hugh AG Houghton and DC Parker, The Verbum Project.
* [http://www.vetus-latina.de/en/index.html Vetus-Latina.de] en icon — edited by Roger Gryson, Vetus Latina Institute, Beuron Archabbey.
* [http://www.vetus-latina.de Vetus-Latina.de] de icon — unter der Leitung von Roger Gryson, Vetus Latina Institute, Beuron Archabbey.
* [http://www.itsee.bham.ac.uk/vetuslatina VetusLatina.org] en icon — edited by Hugh AG Houghton, Institute for Textual Scholarship and Electronic Editing, University of Birmingham.


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