Puss in Boots (fairy tale)
"Puss in Boots" (Italian: "Il Gatto con gli Stivali"; French: "Le Chat botté"; Spanish: "El Gato con Botas"; German: "Der gestiefelte Kater"; Russian: "Кот в сапогах" ("Kot v sapogakh"); Greek: "Ο παππουτσωμένος Γάτος" ("O papputsomenos gatos"); Finnish: "Saapasjalkakissa", Dutch: "De gelaarsde kat"; Slovene: "Obuti maček"; Bosnian: "Mačak u čizmama"; Turkish: "Çizmeli Kedi"; Romanian: "Motanul încălţat"; – all literally meaning "the cat with boots" or "the booted cat") is a
European fairy tale, best known in the version collected by Charles Perraultin 1697his "Contes de ma mère l'Oye" ( Mother GooseTales) as "The Master Cat". [Charles Perrault," [http://www.surlalunefairytales.com/pussboots/ The Master Cat] "] The tale of a cat helping an impoverished master attain wealth through its trickery is known in hundreds of variants. [ Jack Zipes, "The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm", p 390, ISBN 0-393-97636-X]
The oldest known written variant comes from
Giovanni Francesco Straparola, "Costantino Fortunato" in " The Facetious Nights of Straparola" [Giovanni Francesco Straparola, " [http://www.surlalunefairytales.com/facetiousnights/night11_fable1.html Costantino Fortunato] ", "The Facetious Nights of Straparola"] . Some folklorists have argued that the abundance of oral versions after this written one points to an oral source to the tale, and the cat acts as a magical helper common in folklore. [ Jack Zipes, "The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm", p 390, ISBN 0-393-97636-X] Others, however, believe that Straparola himself invented the story. [W. G. Waters, "The Mysterious Giovan Francesco Straparola", Jack Zipes, ed., "The Great Fairy Tale Tradition: From Straparola and Basile to the Brothers Grimm", p 877, ISBN 0-393-97636-X]
Another earlier version comes from
1634, by Giambattista Basileas "Cagliuso" [ [http://www.bibliotecaitaliana.it/ScrittoriItalia/catalogo/goToPage.xq?textID=mets.si034&pageNum=2 Giambattista Basile - LO CUNTO DE LI CUNTI OVERO LO TRATTENEMIENTO DE PECCERILLE] ] , also translated as "Pippo". [Giambattista Basile, " [http://www.surlalunefairytales.com/pussboots/stories/gagliuso.html Gagliuso] ", "The Pentamerone, or The Story of Stories."] Joseph Jacobscollected a variant, "The Earl of Cattenborough", in "European Folk and Fairy Tales". [Joseph Jacobs , " [http://www.surlalunefairytales.com/authors/jacobs/european/earlcat.html The Earl of Cattenborough] ", "European Folk and Fairy Tales"]
The division of property after a
miller's death leaves his youngest sonwith nothing but the granary cat. Disappointed, the son contemplates eating the animal, but the cat bargains with him, promising him riches in return for a bag and a pair of boots. Though dubious, the miller's son goes along with him and provides the items.
Puss-in-Boots takes the bag and catches a succession of items of game - rabbits, partridges, etc. - which he takes to the palace and presents to the king as presents from his master, the "
Marquis de Carabas". Eventually the cat learns that the king and his beautiful daughter will be travelling by the river road. Puss-in-Boots tells the miller's son (who is ignorant of all this) to go and bathe in the river at the time that the royal party is due to pass. The boy does so, and as he bathes the cat steals his clothes, and runs to the road calling for help for his master, the Marquis de Carabas, who is drowning. The boy is "rescued" from the river, and his lack of clothes is explained as the work of robbers. He is therefore wrapped in rich robes and driven off in the king's coach.
The cat speeds ahead of the king's party to the lands of a powerful
ogre. He threatens the people working in its fields that they will be chopped to bits if they don't say that the fields belong to the Marquis of Carabas. As the king's coach reaches the ogre's lands, the king asks after the ownership of the fields, and is told that they belong to the Marquis de Carabas. Puss-in-Boots goes ahead of the party, and confronts the ogre. He flatters the ogre on his magical shape-changing abilities and challenges him to turn into a mouse. The moment the ogre does so, Puss-in-Boots eats him, thus claiming the palace and lands in his master's name.
Upon reaching the ogre's palace, the royal party is welcomed by Puss-in-Boots in his master's name. The king marries the princess to the miller's son.
c.f. In Straparola's version, there is no ogre; the castle belongs to a nobleman who happened to die on a journey, and as consequence, the deceit is never revealed.
In Perrault's version, "Puss became a personage of great importance, and gave up hunting mice, except for amusement".
In Basile's and Jacobs's version, the miller's son had promised the cat to give him a funeral. The cat feigned death (in Basile's), or fell ill and looked dead (in Jacobs's). The miller's son went to throw the body in the trash. Angry, the cat rebuked him. In Basile's version, the cat, despite the pleas of the miller's son, left him; in Jacobs's, only after the miller's son summoned a doctor for her illness and pled with her did she agree to remain.
According to the
Aarne-Thompson classification systemof folktales, "Puss in Boots" is of the type 545B, "The Cat as Helper".
In many other variants of this type, such as "
Don Joseph Pear" or " How the Beggar Boy turned into Count Piro", the helper is a fox. In other variants, such as "Lord Peter", the cat is female, and marries the hero after having the enchantment removed. [Maria Tatar, p 234, "The Annotated Classic Fairy Tales", ISBN 0-393-05163-3]
Compared to the rich materials provided in "
Sleeping Beauty" or " Bluebeard", "Puss in Boots" is considerably more lighthearted in tone. Perrault was certainly known for his moralisttendencies, but if there is a lesson to be learned from "Puss in Boots" it seems to be that trickery and deceit pays off more rapidly (and handsomely) than do hard work and talent, or that clothes make the man.
To some readers today, an ethically discordant note is struck by the cat threatening the peasants who work for the ogre, bullying them into saying that they work for the Marquis de Carabas. This is most certainly the case, as his 'boots' are that of a "cavalier soldat" (cavalier soldier) who in truth annexes the ogre's land. In a modern version, Puss in Boots instead doesn't learn until he meets the Peasants of the cruel ogre's tyranny, and strikes a deal with the peasants that if they call themselves the people of the Marquis de Carabas, then Puss will free them from the tyranny of the cruel ogre.
In some modern versions ogre is substituted by evil wizard, and the episode with peasants is omitted (king goes straight to the castle).
Puss in Boots (disambiguation)"
Gustave Doré's illustrated version (see above) is well known for capturing the gently satirical tone of the story.Who|date=December 2007
*In 1797 German writer
Ludwig Tieckpublished "Der gestiefelte Kater", a dramatic satire based on the Puss in Boots tale.
*The Russian composer
César Cui(of French ancestry) composed a short children's operaon this subject in 1913. "Puss in Boots" was first performed in Romein 1915, and has been something of a repertory item in Germanysince at least the 1970s.
Walt Disneycreated a black and white silent short of the same name.
Hayao Miyazakiparticipated in the 1969 Toei Animationproduction of "Nagagutsu wo Haita Neko" (Puss 'n Boots), providing key animation, designs, storyboards, image boards, and story ideas. It was directed by Kimio Yabuki, with a screenplay by Hisashi Inoue, a famous Japanese playwright, and animation supervision was carried out by longtime Miyazaki collaborator and mentor Yasuji Mori. Hayao Miyazakialso wrote and drew a comic version first serialized in "Chuunichi Shimbun Nichiyou Ban" "(Cyuunichi Newspaper Sunday Version)" to promote the film. Its main character, the cat Pero, was very popular and eventually became Toei's mascot.
*"The Master Cat" by
David Garnettis a novel first published in 1974which gives a more detailed account of the established story from Puss getting the boots to his eating the ogre. The second part of the book tells of Puss getting caught up in palace plots and intrigues of which he ultimately becomes the victim, by his own ungrateful master no less.
*In 1985 the family television series "
Faerie Tale Theatre" produced a live-action adaptation starring Ben Vereenas Puss and Gregory Hinesas the miller's son.
*In an episode of "
Monty Python's Flying Circus," a sketch set in the Police Department of the State of Venezuela is interrupted by an unexpected adaptation of Puss in Boots.
live action direct-to-videofilm adaptation was made in 1988, starring Christopher Walkenas Puss and Jason Conneryas the miller's son.
Enoki Filmsreleased a Japanese animated series called "Nagagutsu wo Haita Neko no Bouken" ( Adventures of Puss-in-Boots) in 1992.
Plaza Entertainmentreleased an animated direct-to-video film called "Puss in Boots" in 1999.
*Puss in Boots appears as a character in the films "
Shrek 2" and "Shrek The Third" (voiced by Antonio Banderas). The character is originally recruited as a professional ogre killer but later becomes a sidekick to the ogre, Shrek.
*A film called "" is scheduled to be released in 2010. [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0448694/ [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0448694/ iMDB profile] ]
*In the furry
comic book, "Xanadu", the main male hero, Tabbe Le Fauve, is a cat modeled on Puss in Boots with a strong influence of Errol Flynn's typical swashbuckler character.
webcomic"No Rest for the Wicked" features several characters adapted from this story, Perrault (Puss), The Marquis de Carabas, and his wife.
HBO's gave the story a Polynesian flavor.
Angela Carteroffers an alternative, updated version of the tale in her collection of short stories " The Bloody Chamber"
Meowthfrom the " Pokémon" anime series dresses up like Puss In Boots.
Gainax's 2000 anime " FLCL", the third episode is named Maru Raba (Marquis de Carabas) and deals with the young adult characters performing Puss in Boots at their school, and with one character and her interest in the idea of pretending to be something until you've become it.
The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, Volume II", he is one of Dr. Moreau's creations.
Neil Gaiman's novel " Neverwhere", the Marquis de Carabas appears as a character and is merged with Puss.
* The novel
Reserved for the Catby Mercedes Lackeyis a retelling of Puss In Boots, set in her Elemental Mastersseries.
*In the manga,
MÄRPuss 'n' Boots becomes a form of Babboin the final battle against the main antagonist, Phantom.
*Puss in Boots is the fourth episode of the episode game series "
American McGee's Grimm", which features the dark version of the cat missing an eye.
* [http://www.surlalunefairytales.com/pussboots/ Annotated "Puss in Boots" at surlalunefairytales.com] including the tale, variants from around the world, modern interpretations and illustrations
*The Disney version of [http://www.disneyshorts.org/years/1922/pussinboots.html Puss in Boots] at [http://www.disneyshorts.org The Encyclopedia of Disney Animated Shorts]
* Art marionettes [http://le.chat.botte.free.fr Marionettes Puss in boots] of [http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armand_Langlois Armand Langlois (Wikipedia)]
* [http://www.mediainformatics.biz/kidsbook/puss.html "Puss In Boots"] The fairy tale, lushly illustrated in [http://mediainformatics.biz/kidsbook The Colorful Story Book] of 1941.
* [http://www.mirroroftheworld.com.au/imagination/begins/puss_in_boots.php Walter Crane's "Puss in Boots"] - Turn the pages and hearing a reading from the 1873 edition
* [http://en.masaldinle.com/2008/01/09/puss-in-boots/ "Puss in Boots" AudioStory]
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